Schedule

Conference Schedule

Session Host Abstract Panel Date Start End Building Room
Welcome Drinks This is content March 29, 2015 17:00 19:00 N/A N/A
Registration This is content March 30, 2015 08:00 17:00 N/A N/A
Opening Plenary This is content March 30, 2015 09:00 10:30 N/A N/A
Helping the local state to help us all: co-producing a sustainability implementation plan in Manchester, UK Marc Hudson, Marc Hudson

Local authorities have suffered shrinkage of size and capacity in the past few years, under the austerity regime of the Coalition government.

Manchester City Council made a series of bold proposals about what it would do around climate change and environmental sustainability. However, it abolished the post of Head of Environmental Strategy in 2013, and has recently outsourced the creation of a “Green and Blue Infrastructure.”

This paper will look at a more specific instance of (attempted) co-production. An “environmental sustainability subgroup” of councillors met in 2013/4. Eighteen recommendations emerged from that group, and the council's Environmental Strategy Team (EST) was tasked with creating an implementation plan for these. The EST has produced two attempts (June and September 2014). Both were rejected by councillors as inadequate, lacking in “SMART” goals.

In response to this failure, a new grassroots group, the People's Environmental Scrutiny Team (PEST) (http://environmentalscrutiny.info) has produced a detailed implementation plan of its own for the 18 recommendations. This plan is being submitted to two of the council's six scrutiny committees in the hope of “kick-starting” the process.

This paper will briefly trace the pre-history of PEST (it emerges from other attempts at co-production), the practical and theoretical challenges that faced citizens' collectives, councillors and council officers in co-producing policies and implementation plans.

Using participant observation and interviews with key stakeholders, it will then turn to the question of “what counts as success” - how can we know if value is being added to the policy-making process, and how the danger of capture by small/noisy “vested interests” can be analysed.

 

D105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Law Building LAW3
New Leisure Class in Urban Regeneration Initiatives Piret Tõnurist, Veiko Lember, Rainer Kattel

Social innovation in urban regeneration has been based on strong citizen involvement and support and thus, is rarely directly challenged by politicians. In this process also cultural policies have been a driver for social cohesion. Nevertheless, this process has the face of the new urban leisure class - urban professionals, designers, intellectuals etc. - and they reform the agenda for citizen-led regeneration activities. While previous studies have shown that they are more attuned to tolerance, diversity and inclusiveness, the force of homophily seems to prevail in these initiatives leading to higher levels of segregation between different populations within the city. Thus, while the city governments try to reach their social, economic and political goals in austere times through citizen-led initiatives this may be the wrong forum for increasing social sustainability. Confronted with diverging goals, this may lead towards a conflict of interest between the citizen-led initiatives and government bodies (e.g. universality vs appropriateness in service delivery). While in the long-term government can become reflexive to the interest of the leisure class led initiatives, it may induce different strategies in the short-term: discrediting, emphasis on democratic representation and also of establishing more heterogeneous coalitions from both sides. Hence, this article analyses the new urban regeneration setting in terms of aligning diverse interests and actors. A case of the Urban Idea - a citizen-led collaboration framework with the city of Tallinn - is analysed and the interest and (re-)actions of different actors highlighted.

D105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Law Building LAW3
Bonding and Bridging Networks: The Impacts of Neighborhood Councils on the Local Governance Process in Los Angeles Darlesh Ka'mura Horn

Abstract

This paper examines the extent to which Neighborhood Councils (NCs), self-organized community networks, have individually and collectively influenced local governance processes through bonding and bridging of formal and informal networks.

Problem

NCs with diminished capacity to self-organize are at greater risk of being exposed to representative bias and parochial interest in the local governance process.  Representative bias, in this context, favors neighborhoods councils that have successfully self-organized and therefore are better situated to engage issues and outcomes of City government (Jun and Musso, 2013).

Purpose

This research seeks to identify the relationship between NC political influence and the degree of self organizations (via bonding and bridging networks) between and across NCs in Los Angeles.

Significance of Study

The Neighborhood Council System is the formal apparatus that allows direct citizen input into policy decisions made by L.A. City government officials (Fung, 2006).  It is critical to examine NCs with diminished capacity to self organize and mobilize their collective political strengths to influence local governance matters (Dierwechter and Coffey, 2010), (Houston and Ong, 2012), (Jun and Musso, 2013).  Exploring individual and collective NC formal participation patterns and there relationship with internal and external self-organized structures allows stakeholders to develop strategies to address deficiencies that hinder NCs from accomplishing their purpose of increasing citizen participation and making government more responsive to local needs.  This research provides a distinct contribution on the existing literature for urban governance and social network theory as it explores the actual impacts of bonding and bridging on specific case studies of local governance matters in L.A.

Literature Review and Review of Dissertations

Research supports the notion that citizen-organized groups representing their community interests play a critical role in mediating between citizens and their local government  (Welch, 1992; Berry , Thompson, and Porter, 1993; Meegan and Mitchell, 2001; Carthon, 2011; National League of Cities, 2013). These groups create a direct line of communication and feedback loop between citizens and local policy makers improving citizen satisfaction with urban service distribution (Kelly and Swindell, 2002) and government response to local issues (Jun and Musso, 2013).  Stakeholders involved in these networks share an increased opportunity in influencing local policy outcomes on issues that directly impact them most (Carthon, 2011). This paper examines the influence of NCs on L.A. City governance.

Theoretical Considerations

This paper relies on urban/neighborhood governance (Musso, et.al., 2006, Kettl, 2002 and Pierre, 1999) and network research (Koliba, Meek, and Zia 2011, Musso, et. al., 2006) as two primary lenses to assess patterns and impacts of bonding and bridging citizen networks.

Research Questions

(1) Are there specific NCs that have higher rates of formally participating in the city governance processes based on the submission of Community Impact Statements? (2) Are there demographic or neighborhood characteristics that are common or distinct across NC jurisdictions as compared with their participation rates? (3) Has the NC system influenced the city governance process and local policy outcomes based on the formal submission of Community Impact Statements in specific case studies?  (4) Is NC influence augmented by forming network alliances/coalitions across councils? (5) Are there noted internal/external infrastructure issues that strengthen NC influence?

Methodological Considerations

This research is based upon an experimental design that tests the individual and collective impact of NC on matters of City government.  Impact is tested individually by comparing the submission rates of Community Impact between NCs individually and collectively overall and specific case studies/issues. The research also addresses the influence of neighborhood council structure and demographics.

Relevance to Panel Focus

This research is relevant to the panel focus because it provides comparative research on the similarities and differences in internal infrastructure and external networks between and across NCs in L.A. and the consequences and conditions under which involved stakeholders have an influence on local policy outcomes.

Summary

Within a urban/metropolitan context, citizen groups, such as neighborhood councils, serve as a primary vehicle for stakeholders to develop informal and formal networks to collectively participate in and influence the local governance process.  These self-organized groups improve government’s responsiveness to local matters of concern by using their collective political strengths and resources through the bonding and bridging of network ties.  It is critical that Public Administration practitioners develop strategies based on research of this type to support citizen groups in addressing internal and external causes that hinder the success of these networks.

References

The focus of this study will draw from urban governance (Musso, et.al., 2006, Kettl, 2002 and Pierre, 1999), network theory research (Koliba, Meek, and Zia, 2011), research on citizen participation (Oliver, 2010, Musick and Wilson, 2008, Arstein, S., 1969) and information from the Los Angeles City Department of Neighborhood Empowerment (LA-DONE, 2013).

D105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Law Building LAW3
Public Sector Spin Outs in England: Policy Motivations, Context and Outcomes Kelly Joanna Hall

Within current debates regarding the ‘modernisation’ and ‘marketisation’ of public services, governments are looking to social enterprises to deliver more innovative, cost-efficient and responsive public services. In England, successive governments have actively encouraged public services to ‘spin out’ into new independent social enterprises. Policy agendas have supported this process, including in health and social care ‘Right to Request’ and ‘Right to Provide’, as well as the more inclusive ‘mutuals’ agenda giving rights to most public sector workers to take over the services they deliver. These have been radical and contested policy developments that have sought to transfer core public services out of public ownership. This paper presents ongoing research on public sector spin outs, focusing particularly on the health and social care sector.  It draws on a range of research projects that have sought to understand the motivations of NHS and other public sector staff to spin out, the context within which these enterprises spin out, as well as the outcomes of spinning out for staff, service users and other stakeholders. The paper therefore considers the potential of social enterprise spin outs for public management, and whether social enterprise policies are driven by ideas and ideologies rather than evidence.

D106 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF1
New citizen collectives and their implications for public management Joop Koppenjan, Robyn Keast, Ingmar van Meerkerk

This issue-paper written by the panel-conveners will introduce the topic  of the panel, delineating it and discussing its scientific and practical  relevance. It will present core concepts and ideas, thus providing context, direction and a common language to the panel discussions and the panelist papers. The paper will discuss the rise of citizen collectives (grass roots initiatives, community trusts, citizen initiatives) as new forms of civic engagement in policy fields such as  energy, spatial planning, care, community provisions and social services more generally. Under citizen-centric models, citizens take the lead in dealing with common, or localized problems and public issues and are directly engaged in developing and implementing solutions and services (Bang, 2009; Sørensen and  Triantafillou, 2009; Van Meerkerk et al., 2013). Although governments may be sympathetic towards these citizen collectives (see the Big Society discourse), they are generally not well equipped to facilitate and support these initiatives (Edelenbos, 2005; De Wilde et al., 2014). Furthermore, the implications of this growing reliance of citizen collectives as vehicles for policy development and service delivery on the community sector has yet to be fully explored (Barakett, Keast and Furneax, forthcoming).

The paper outlines the mission of the panel, making an international comparison to explore the different forms, consequences and conditions under which citizen collectives emerge and evolve, and, more specifically, on the role of and implications for public management. The questions panelists have been asked to address will be presented and elaborated. These question refer to

-          the forms these citizen collectives take and their operation and evolution

-          their performance, and the criteria to asses them (e.g. effectiveness, quality, robustness & reliability, values and democratic nature)  

-          the conditions that underlie their evolution and performance

-          the way governments relate to them

-          the implications of these collectives for public management.

 

The paper will also give an initial overview of relevant literature and present a number of preliminary answers to these questions, based on earlier research and last year panel on a related topic (Van Meerkerk et al., 2013; Nederhand et al 2013; Doberstein, 2013; Britton, 2013; Antonocci, 2013).

D105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Law Building LAW3
Community Governance + local capacity building = community empowerment. How resilient communities in post conflict countries achieve an inclusive and sustainable development. A comparison analysis of post-conflict Croatia, Serbia and Kosovo. Alessandra Ricciardelli, Francesco Manfredi

Considerable attention has been paid, recently, to the adoption of community governance-based approaches to help addressing developing and post-conflict countries’ need of achieving a minimum level development due to the lack of institutional authority or scarce Government’s capacity to adopt effective solutions to issues of economic and social development and protection of fundamental human rights of the community.

In this scenario, Universities have assumed an expanded role in local economic and social development especially in institutionally fragile countries and have helped to initiate a slow, but effective process of development within communities and territories, as empirical evidence in the three Balkan post-conflict countries analyse has demonstrated. In these contexts, there are instances of initiatives conducted by Universities aimed at strengthening democratic institutions and citizen empowerment as they have worked in parallel with local governments in the attempt to bring in better potential for success without threatening the existing power structure of the governments.

By leveraging insights from the literature on Stakeholder theory, Community Governance, Community Resilience, social capital, capacity/capability building, stakeholder theory and sustainable development, this paper emphasises a socially embedded and community-centric approach to development of territories as a strategy to transform post-conflict situations into contexts of community empowerment.

On these premises, this paper will provide information on the qualitative experiment conducted in the developing countries as Croatia, Serbia and Kosovo starting from the hypothesis that Universities have been the motivators and drivers for experimenting new approaches to traditional public management that steer processes towards local community empowerment and, hence, community development.

This paper highlights key considerations about experimenting with a new approach to policy making, the Community Governance approach (CG), that has focused on improving and developing partnership relations between decision-makers and communities to find collaborative solutions to problems, to improve the quality of life and to ensure sustainability of co-productive actions. In particular, it discusses the linking community processes to decision-making in order to ensure greater impact and consolidation of community-based interventions.

Central to the transformations developed at the aftermath of the Balkans’ War is the emergence of new approaches for the country’s capacity building which initiated with the establishment of network based relationships amongst actors engaged in the decision-making, programs, organizational forms and boundary-spanning roles that included academic, educational, entrepreneurial, venture capital, industrial and public spheres. Comparisons between the Croatian, Serbian and Kosovar experience will highlight the importance to the case of networked approaches, capacity building, socially driven innovation and local development and transformation led by Universities in resilient communities.

Within this new paradigm to public management, governments in the two developing/transition countries have benefited from the University activities and initiatives to attain societal legitimization that is one of the most important objective that Universities, together with the aim of transferring knowledge and increasing existing social capital stocks, have been able to pursue.

 

 

 

 

I101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART8
Neutral or biased?: Rethinking the role of "councils" in Japanese Ministerial decision-making Hiroko Kudo

"Shingikai" or "councils" has been one of the powerful instruments in Japanese public administration since Eighties, although the institution was designed with the National Public Administration Organizational law of 1948. Ministries can institute a panel of experts from academia, business, and social sector, or representatives of various interests to discuss fundamental policy matters or design of laws. Similar institutions are active in local governments as well.

There are few academic researches on this institution, although its impact is significant in terms of policy-making as well as enactment and/or amendment of laws and orders. The government has widely reviewed its role and function, thus its institutional settings in 2001, mainly because of long-lasting critics that these institutions are not neutral but politically biased.

Given the limited number of literatures and theoretical frameworks, the paper analyses three cases from a participant point of view. The first case is  "Ogasawara Islands Development Policy Council", which is required to amend and extend the Ogasawara Island Development Special Act; the second is the "Council for the Reform of Independent Administrative Institutions (Agencies)", which was instructed under the Prime Minister's Office for the public administration reform; and the third is the "Council on Financial System", under the Ministry of Finance. The councils are analysed through various angles: main missions of the councils; number of components and their terms; background of components and their competencies; meeting frequency, duration, and procedures; relationship between the secretariat in the Ministry and the council members; and their overall impact on policy-making and law-making.

F101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
Patent Systems & Expertise: A Comparative Analysis of Strategies Employed by Patent Courts in Europe, the US and Japan Mobilizing Scientific Expertise and Evidence Esther van Zimmeren

Patent law is generally regarded as a legal field, which requires not only specific legal but also technical expertise. Different patent regulators mobilize the required expertise in a variety of manners. legislators typically turn to a relatively small group of international patent experts consisting of industry representatives, scientists, legal scholars and legal practitioners. The executive agency, the patent office, hires examiners, which are highly educatedin the scientific field concerned and trained in patent law. Interestingly, courts competent in patent matters are increasingly specialized, but the required expertise is embedded in different ways within court systems with variation across jurisdictions.

The paper focuses on a single policy sector, patent policy, and makes a comparative analysis across three jurisdictions, Europe, the US and Japan. Patent law is largely an uncultivated area in terms of public management research. The gap in the literature is remarkable, as the patent system offers a highly dynamic environment (i.e. worldwide patent reforms) that triggers interesting research questions from a public management perspective. Moreover, courts specialized in patent law are not only inportant drivers for patent policy, but they are also accustomed to working with different sources of evidence and are, thus, an interesting actor to examine as to their strategies for dealing with scientific expertise and evidence.

The research question concentrates on how judges in Europe, the US and Japan mobilize scientific expertise and evidence within the framework of patent law. The aim is to develop a typology identifying different strategies that are used to embed expertise within judicial decision-making in the patent context. The paper employs a conceptual framework based on the literature regarding epistemic communities (Haas, 1992). The systematic analysis of specialized patent courts in Europe, the US and Japan is based on fieldwork and semi-structured interviews with local judges, academics and government officials.

F101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
Planning, Accountability and Local Governance: the implementation of the Plan of Goals in a Brazilian City Elaine Cristina de Oliveira Menezes, Paula Chies Schommer, Arlindo Carvalho Rocha, Valerio Alecio Turnes, Maria Rodrigues Alves The Plan of Goals (PG) is an instrument for deployment in some cities that make up the Latin American Network for Fair, Democratic and Sustainable Cities and Territories (RLCTJDS), composed of 60 citizen initiatives in 10 countries. This instrument, when approved by local authorities and institutionalized, provides that elected officials define and undertake to perform, during their mandate, a set of priorities translated into goals, deadlines and indicators, which are monitored by the population. The PG potentially takes effect in local governance by contributing to participatory planning, to transparency and accountability and the relationship between the long-term and short term planning, which is usually managerial in nature and based on electoral promises. This paper analyzes the implementation of the PG on the Brazilian city of Florianópolis, seeking to understand: i) the reasons that led to its adoption; ii) if and how it complements or overlaps consolidated planning instruments such as sectoral plans (master plans, health, education etc.) and tools for planning and budget execution in Brazil; iii) the effects in terms of transparency, accountability and local governance; iv) the learning generated in this city that could be disseminated to other members of RLCTJDS. The research was conducted between 2012 and 2014, involving participant observation, document analysis and interviews with executive and legislative representatives, public policy councils and civil society. The results indicate that the Plan of Goals is a political commitment from the mayor to the society, related to the government plan and campaign promises, to the municipal budget and the multiannual plan act. Among the limitations and risks of the PG were: the construction and monitoring processes, that it was more informative than participatory; its weakness in coordination with other instruments of planning and governance; the imbalance between feasibility and facing challenges for democracy and sustainability in the city. I101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART8
Citizen's Charter in Local Government: An Experiment in Bangladesh Ahmed Shafiqul Huque, Kamrul Ahsan

Public management emphasizes values such as accessibility, accountability and transparency that have accentuated the transition from the traditional approach to management in the public sector. In order to achieve these objectives, citizens require relevant information and access to public services. In developing countries, arrangements for making citizens aware of these principles and allowing voice to express their preferences, interests, needs and feedback have remained neglected. Citizen’s charter has the potential to contribute towards the empowerment of the public through dissemination of information on their rights, quality of services and provisions for participation in the process. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature by addressing this issue.

 

The paper aims to explore a new experiment in delivering public services with the introduction of citizen’s charter in Bangladesh. This initiative is expected to empower the citizens to lead towards effective, equitable and accountable delivery of public services. Two concomitant benefits could be improvements in the performance of officials and development of trust in local government institutions among the citizens. This will be accomplished by examining the background, potentials and progress of this new initiative to assess the level of awareness and empowerment of stakeholders. The impact on both public service providers and recipients will be considered to formulate observations on the progress and outcome of the experiment with the introduction of citizen’s charter in Bangladesh.

 

The study is based on review of the relevant literature, public documents, media reports, and discussions with stakeholders. The findings will reveal insight on the use of citizens' charter as a tool for better service provision and management at the lowest level of government, as well as the challenges encountered in the process of its implementation. The paper intends to propose strategies for effective implementation of citizen's charter at the local level in developing countries.

I101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART8
Do social enterprises provide improved outcomes in comparison with private for profit and public providers in health and social care systems? Francesca Calo, Cam Donaldson, Simone Baglioni, Simon Teasdale

Since the late 1990s the concept of 'social enterprise' has achieved policy recognition in many countries as one means to reform the welfare system amid apparently growing societal needs and financial constraints (Teasdale, 2012). These policy measures are driven by ideology rather than any “rational” evaluation of the evidence (Nicholls, 2012).

One sector in which the role of social enterprises has been growing is health. But even here evidence is limited and mixed. Roy et al., 2014 find in their systematic review that social enterprises (particularly those involved in work integration) may have a positive impact on health and wellbeing of service users. The paper did not compare the outcomes of social enterprises with public or private providers, and necessarily omitted antecedents of social enterprise such as co-operatives and nonprofits. An earlier systematic review (Heins et al., 2010) found no clear evidence that this (wider) third sector was better placed to deliver public services than public providers, or that health services in the UK would be better served through a market system. But to some extent it would seem that this research was heavily influenced by defining and including Nonprofit Hospitals in the US and Foundation trusts in UK as non profit and third sector organisations.

It is thus timely to return to the literature to ascertain whether the wider third sector provides improved outcomes and impacts in comparison with private for-profit and public providers in health and social care systems, and to begin to unpack differences between social enterprises and other third sector providers. This paper involves a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative studies, identified from 11 health and social science databases. The aim is to begin to provide a more fine-grained assessment as to whether and in what ways social enterprises might contribute to improved health outcomes within a mixed economy of welfare.

D106 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF1
Food aid and nonprofit models: insights from Germany and Italy tatiana tallarico, Benedetta De Pieri, Simone Baglioni

Food security is a relevant issue affecting the whole society, reason why it should be a priority on the public agenda of every country of the world. Nonetheless, in many countries, Social Enterprises operate and stand in for public actors to prevent and reduce food poverty through manifold interventions, such as recovering surplus food for the needy.

If their role in contributing to social equity could not be denied, several concerns have been raised about the effective impact of social enterprises in this sector, due to the lack of proper assessments and evidence about their social and practical impact.

The paper discusses a sample of nonprofit organizations recovering food surplus with social aims in 2 European regions part of the “World Regions Forum”: Lombardy (Italy) and Baden- Württemberg (Germany). By comparing contexts and organizations, we aim to identify best practices related to food surplus recovery, in terms of both internal processes within a single organization and in relation to the policy framework at a regional and national level. Therefore, our research questions are: which model of managing surplus food by nonprofit organizations is favorable with regard to social impact? Which policy framework incentivizes more surplus food recovery?

The paper draws on a mix of secondary and primary data including interviews with nonprofit organizations and key informants in the two regions carried out in 2014.

D106 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF1
The experimental nature of co-production and its implications for co-productive policy initiatives Dawid Szescilo, Martin Bartenberger

Experimentalism and co-production have emerged as leading strategies to tackle various challenges in public management. However, the intersections between both concepts have not been considered yet. In this paper we aim to address this gap in the theoretical debate.  We argue that every co-productive innovation in public service planning and delivery might be perceived as a generative experiment. This type of experimentation can be defined as a process of generating and iteratively refining a policy based on continuous feedback. It is a process involving a wide range of stakeholders actively engaged in the conception, implementation, and refinement of the experiment. Stakeholders also play a crucial role in evaluating the success of the experiment. Generative experiments, in contrast to other forms of experimentation (particularly randomized controlled trials), do not aim at testing a priori defined policy solutions, but create large room for innovations emerging in the course of the experiment. Consequently, this implies a high level of uncertainty about the final result of the experiment.

These features of generative experimentation shed new light on co-production. In particular, discovering its experimental nature puts more attention on the following issues: (i) methods of enhancing creativity and innovation; (ii) techniques of refining the policy concept via active engagement of external stakeholders; (iii) political risks associated with the uncontrollable and unpredictable character of co-productive experiments; and (iv) strategies for measuring the success of co-productive experiments. Our paper develops a comprehensive catalogue of factors that should be taken into account in planning co-productive experiments.

We finally argue that analyzing co-production from an experimental perspective might be particularly fruitful for policy-makers. It may raise their awareness about the limited capacity to steer co-productive policy making, the reliance on the quality of engagement of stakeholders, the inevitable risk of uncertainty and the need for strategies to mitigate this.

L101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST1
Bringing in the volunteers: expert citizens and inclusive substitution Laidi Surva Modern governments are increasingly eager to capture citizen initiatives and voluntary action.  Both substitution and supplementary gains are the motives for the government to pursue these goals, however, in both cases citizens are seen as an assets. In this paper we compare two new models in which the government has started using volunteerism: as ‘expert citizens’ ((semi-)professional volunteers in police, rescue services; but also reforming e.g. care services) and as ‘inclusive substitution’ (e.g. unemployed encouraged to volunteer to maintain employability; public schools requiring community service prior graduation). While the first tries to capture the intrinsic interests of the volunteers, thus, segmenting the action into popular areas such as public safety, education, human services, culture, arts etc.; the other, uses volunteerism as a substitute service which arguably counters the core foundation of volunteerism, i.e. free choice.  On the other hand, when volunteers are involved in providing services that are instrumental for the government – firefighting and police – volunteers might at some point feel it is compulsory to continue volunteering even though the motivation has gone. To exemplify these dynamics and tensions brought on by the government to the principal dimensions of volunteerism further and their effect on traditional public service delivery and the legitimacy of government, we will trace the activities of the Ministry of Interior Affairs volunteer program in Estonia and the network of partners that has emerged. Additionally we will look at several cases from different spectrums – expert citizens and inclusive substitution – to exemplify the research puzzle of state capture of volunteerism further including the voluntary rescue service and volunteer program for the unemployed in Estonia. L101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST1
An Experimental Study on the External Control Model of Red Tape Wesley Kaufmann, Barry Bozeman

Red tape has become a key research area for public administration scholars (Bozeman and Feeney 2011). A large number of studies have measured red tape (Bozeman 1993; Feeney 2012) and linked red tape to other phenomena such as work alienation (DeHart-Davis and Pandey 2005), leadership styles (Brewer et al. 2012), and public service motivation (Moynihan and Pandey 2007). Despite these advances in our understanding of red tape, little attention has been paid to identifying red tape drivers.

In general, scholars argue that government rules and regulations are the main source of organizational red tape (Bozeman and Feeney 2011; Brewer et al. 2012; Torenvlied and Akkerman 2012). Most notably, Bozeman (1993; 2000) puts forward an external control model of red tape, which assumes that external rules are more likely to result in organizational red tape than internal rules for three reasons. First, misapplication of rules is more likely if the number of stakeholders developing rules increases. Second, more distant or highly specialized rule-makers will find it harder to communicate with the organization, which is referred to as communication entropy. Third, rule ownership decreases if the rule-maker is more distant. As a result, externally imposed rules “are much more likely to be misunderstood, resented, and ultimately undermined” (Brewer et al. 2012, 291).

In this study, we use an experimental approach to analyze how external rules drive red tape perceptions. Experimental research is relatively rare in public administration research, but becoming increasingly popular (Scott and Pandey 2000; Brewer and Brewer 2011; Margetts 2011; Kaufmann and Feeney 2014). Unlike cross-sectional survey research, experimental designs are particularly well-suited for studying cause and effect relationships. We use vignettes to test the effect of external rules on red tape perceptions. Drawing on Bozeman’s (1993) model of external control, the vignettes differ on two dimensions: rule origin (internal / external) and rule feedback (no feedback / feedback). This approach allows us to show whether external rule sources result in higher red tape perceptions as opposed to internal rule sources.

 

References

Bozeman, B. (1993) ‘A Theory of Government “Red Tape”’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 3(3): 273-304.

 

Bozeman, B. 2000. Bureaucracy and Red Tape. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

 

Bozeman, B. (2012) ‘Multidimensional Red Tape: A Theory Coda’, International Public Management Journal, 15(3): 245-265.

 

Bozeman, B. and Feeney, M. K. (2011) ‘Rules and Red Tape: A Prism for Public

Administration Theory and Research’, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

 

Brewer, G.A. and G.A. Brewer Jr. (2011) ‘Parsing Public/Private Differences in Work Motivation and Performance: An Experimental Study’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(Suppl. 3): i347–62.

 

Brewer, G. A., R. M Walker,. B. Bozeman, C. N. Avellaneda and G. A. Brewer Jr. 2012. “External Control and Red Tape: The Mediating Effects of Client and Organizational Feedback.” International Public Management Journal 15(3): 288-314.

 

DeHart-Davis, L. and Pandey, S. K. (2005) ‘Red Tape and Public Employees: Does Perceived Rule Dysfunction Alienate Managers?’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(1): 133-148.

 

Feeney, M. K. (2012) ‘Organizational Red Tape: A Measurement Experiment’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(3): 427-444.

 

Kaufmann, W. and Feeney, M. K. (2014) ‘Beyond the Rules: The Effect of Outcome Favourability on Red Tape Perceptions’, Public Administration, 92(1): 178-191

 

Margetts, H.Z. (2011) ‘Experiments for Public Management Research’, Public Management Review, 13(2): 189-208.

 

Moynihan, D. P. and Pandey, S. K. (2007) ‘The Role of Organizations in Fostering Public Service Motivation’, Public Administration Review, 67(1): 40-53.

 

 

Scott, P. G. and Pandey, S. K. (2000) ‘The Influence of Red Tape on Bureaucratic Behavior: An Experimental Simulation’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 19(4): 615-633.

 

Torenvlied, R. and Akkerman, A. (2012) ‘Effects of Managers’ Work Motivation and Networking Activity on their Reported Levels of External Red Tape’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(3): 445–471.

 

 

 

K101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF2
Technological innovation projects: The role of management and network governance in e-government interoperability Mila Gascó, Vicenta Sierra

E-government interoperability is the ability of disparate and diverse organizations to interact towards mutually beneficial and agreed common goals, involving the sharing of information and knowledge between the organizations, through the business processes they support, by means of the exchange of data between their respective ICT systems (European Comission, 2010). Most interoperability efforts meet serious challenges and concerns. Recent works have tried to uncover the determinants of e-government interoperability success and have assessed the influence of variables such as technology development, data quality, context, organizational performance and institutional frameworks. However, many of these studies have isolated the effect of these dimensions forgetting that e-government interoperability is a multidimensional phenomenon (Pardo et al, 2012; Yang & Maxwell, 2011; Fountain, 2001). Also, they have focused on information systems and technology, underestimating the role of management and network governance.

The present proposal aims to add to theory and evidence on the determinants of e-government interoperability from a comprehensive perspective and building on the contribution of management and governance theories. In particular, the paper focuses on internal organizational factors (among other, leadership, change management, and organizational culture) and factors related to the governance of the network (among other, perception of benefits, power, and clarity of roles and responsibilities).

Methodologically, the paper builds on the results of 37 in-depth interviews, one focus group and a survey that has been sent to 815 public managers in Catalonia (Spain) who are in charge of e-government strategies in their respective city councils.

References:

European Commission. 2010. European Interoperability Framework for European Public Services (EIF). Brussels: European Commission.

Fountain, J. (2001). Building the Virtual State. Information Technology and Institutional Change. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Pardo, T., Nam, T. & Burke, B. (2012). E-Government Interoperability: Interaction of Policy, Management, and Technology Dimensions. Social Science Computer Review, 30(1): 7-23.

Yang, T. M. & Maxwell, T. (2011). Information Sharing in Public Organizations: A Literature Review of Interpersonal, Intra-Organizational and Inter-organizational Suscess Factors. Government Information Quarterly, 28(2): 164-175.

G107 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST2
Governance, institutions and co-production: Understanding contextual differences between England and France Caitlin McMullin

The concept of co-production has increasingly gained attention by public management scholars who aim to investigate new models of public service delivery whereby service users collaborate with professionals and actively commit time and/or resources to the delivery of the service. Several studies suggest hypotheses about when co-production is most likely to take place, including the institutional conditions that may enable or constrain organisations (public sector or third sector) to co-produce with citizens. This paper evaluates these conditions from a comparative perspective, focusing on England and France.

Little empirical work has been conducted on how national context and institutions impact the way in which organisations are prevented from or enabled to co-produce services with citizens. Furthermore, many comparative studies incorrectly assume a coherence of conceptual understandings across borders. This presumption is particularly evident when investigating the differences between the literature on the third sector and co-production in English and the literature in French on the social and solidarity economy, where the term ‘co-production’ is little used.

Given the similarities and differences between the political and institutional contexts between England and France, these two countries make interesting cases for comparison in order to better analyse the impact of institutions and organisational culture on co-production. Drawing on an analysis of literature on institutional typologies as well as initial empirical research, I compare the institutions, governance and administrative traditions in each country in order to better understand the environment in which co-production may take place.

The paper therefore takes a neo-institutional perspective in order to address the following research questions:

1. How do different political and governance factors provide favourable or detrimental conditions for third sector organisations to co-produce services with users?

2. How are these different in England and France?
L101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST1
Collaborative Advantage as a Source of Public Value: The Contributions of Visual Strategy Mapping John M. Bryson, Colin Eden, Fran Ackermann

Many scholars have argued that a new approach to public management is emerging (e.g., Stoker, 2006; Denhardt and Denhardt, 2011; Moore, 2013). The new approach emphasizes the importance of public value and public values; appreciates that government has a special role as a guarantor of public values; believes in the importance of public management broadly conceived, and of service to and for the public; and emphasizes citizenship and democratic and collaborative governance (Bryson, Crosby and Bloomberg, 2014, 445).

Collaboration generally and cross-sector collaboration specifically have emerged as hallmarks of the new approach (e.g., O’Leary and Bingham, 2009; Agranoff, 2012). However, any form of collaboration is usually difficult (Huxham and Vangen, 2005).  We explore the issues involved in supporting cross-sector collaboration as participating parties seek to develop and commit to a joint set of goals that not coincidentally create public value.  In particular, the paper illustrates a facilitated visual strategy mapping process for clarifying the goals of each participating organization, developing collaborative goals that also advance each party’s individual goals, and identifying extra-collaboration public goals that that go above and beyond those in the direct self-interest of the involved parties. Visual strategy mapping is a facilitated, often computer-assisted, approach that relies on pragmatic reasoning, dialogue and deliberation, negotiation, visual representation, and group process facilitation (Ackermann and Eden, 2011; Bryson, Ackermann and Eden, 2014). We illustrate the process with a significant Western European case involving a for-profit utility and a not-for-profit quasi-public regulator seeking to establish a successful collaboration.

This paper explores some of the concepts that help advance understanding of the nature of purposes in collaborations where some aspect of the common good is expected to be advanced. In particular, the notion of goals, meta-goals, extra-collaboration goals, negative-goals, not-our-goals, my-goals, goals system, and mission statements are discussed, as are performance measurement and management. The visual strategy mapping method illustrated and exploited in this case study deliberately seeks to acknowledge this systemic nature of public-private policy development and implementation that can lead to the creation of public value.

The paper makes a contribution to the literatures on collaboration, public value, boundary objects, negotiation, group process facilitation, and group decision support systems. An agenda for research and practice is offered.

Ackermann, F. and Eden, C. 2011. Making Strategy: Mapping Out Strategic Success.  London: Sage.

Agranoff, R. 2012. Collaborating to Manage. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Bozeman, B. 2007. Public Values and Public Interest.  Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Bryson, J. M., Ackermann, F., and Eden, C. 2014. Visual Strategy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Bryson, J. M., Crosby, B.C., and Bloomberg, L. 2014. Public value governance: Moving beyond traditional public administration and New Public Management. Public Administration Review, 74(4): 445 – 456.

Denhardt, Janet V., and Robert B. Denhardt.  2011. The New Public Service: Serving, Not Steering, Third Edition. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Huxham, C. and Vangen, S. 2005. Managing to Collaborate.  London: Routledge.

Moore, Mark H.  2013.  Recognizing Public Value.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

O’Leary, R., and Blomgren Bingham, L., eds. 2009. The Collaborative Public Manager. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Stoker, Gerry.  2006.  Public Value Management:  A New Narrative for Networked Governance?  American Review of Public Administration 36(1): 41–57.

 

K101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF2
TEACHERS’ ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPALS’ GOAL SETTING APPROACH AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON TEACHER TURNOVER Edmund C. Stazyk, Michael S. Hayes

Few topics in the field of organization theory and behavior have received as much attention as that of employee motivation. In fact, dozens of motivation theories exist across different research traditions. Even public administration—a field frequently criticized for having few “homegrown” theories (e.g., Bozeman and Feeney 2011; Pandey and Moynihan 2008)—has its own extensively studied theory of motivation: public service motivation (Perry and Wise 1990).

Interestingly, one of the most heavily researched theories of motivation—goal setting theory—has received little attention in public management scholarship, with only a handful of studies addressing the topic. Yet, more than 1,000 studies on goal setting theory have been conducted in fields other than public management (Locke and Latham 2013). The vast majority of these studies support the basic tenets of goal setting theory, and suggest it “demonstrates more scientific validity to date than any other theory or approach to work motivation….[and] probably holds more promise as an applied motivational tool for managers than does any other approach” (Pinder 1984, 169). Furthermore, public organizations commonly implement systems and approaches, such as Management by Objectives, that draw on the fundamental logic and core principles of goal setting theory. That a motivational tool so frequently implemented in public organizations has received so little scholarly attention is problematic. We simply do not know whether and how goal setting works in the public sector.

Therefore, responding to recent calls in public management scholarship (Taylor 2013; Wright 2001, 2004), we begin addressing the dearth of research on goal setting theory in public organizations by examining whether the goal setting approach of primary and secondary school principals affects actual teacher turnover. More specifically, we examine whether goal setting drives teachers’ decisions to stay in their current schools (stayers), move to another school (movers), or leave full-time employment in the teaching profession (leavers).

To examine proposed relationships, we rely on public school teacher data from the restricted-use versions of the 2007–2008 School and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the 2008–2009 Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS)—both collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. SASS is a nationally representative random sample of approximately 43,000 elementary and secondary public school teachers. TFS randomly samples approximately 5,300 SASS respondents one year later to determine whether and where respondents are still teaching, thereby allowing us to capture actual teacher turnover.

Initial results (based on linear probability models) indicate teachers are more likely to remain in the same school if the principal sets clear goals. Interestingly, there appears to be no variation in the effect of setting clear goals on teacher turnover, implying all teachers respond similarly to clear goals and the response is quite strong. Together, results suggest goal setting is important in public organizations.

Our research serves several important theoretical and practical purposes. Theoretically, we offer new insights into public sector research on employee motivation and turnover. Practically, our results underscore the importance of goal setting in public school systems and of managing employee perceptions.

K101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF2
Investigating Antecedents and Modifiers of Program Goal Ambiguity Chan Su Jung

The assertions about the influences of goal ambiguity in public management and public policy (program) are that goal ambiguity is negatively related to employee job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and performance (e.g., Heinrich 1999; Matland 1995; O'Toole 1986; Rainey 1993; Ripley and Franklin 1982; Wilson 1989). These assertions assume that reducing goal ambiguity can benefit job attitudes and performance. Thus, it can be important research topics to examine what the important predictors of goal ambiguity are and in what situations these relationships are modified in government agencies and programs.

However, very little systematic and empirical research in public programs has been conducted on these topics because common goal ambiguity measures for disparate government programs have been very rare. However, the availability of Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) for a number of federal programs (approximately 800 programs for this research) provided the research opportunity.

Against this backdrop, this paper focuses on target ambiguity developed by Jung (2012) from the PART data, which is measured as the proportion of a program’s stated goals that do not have specified performance targets. As antecedents of target ambiguity, diverse program and organizational characteristics are included. Furthermore, this research considers two institutional characteristics of agencies—fixed term for mangers and independent status—to be moderators.

The preliminary OLS regressions show that the antecedents of target ambiguity include management capacity, planning capacity, program type (e.g., direct federal, R&D, credit, and regulatory), program size, the most recent assessment year, and agency’s structural complexity. Moreover, the two institutional characteristics (i.e., fixed term for managers and independent status) moderate the relationships between some antecedents (e.g., management capacity and program size) and target ambiguity. Then, the author discusses theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings, and directions for future research.

K101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF2
Bureaucratic Behavior in the Political View and Accountability Nexus Sangyub Ryu, Yongjin Chang

Public bureaucrats are politically neutral by law. However, it does not necessarily mean that each public bureaucrat is apolitical. Moreover, the Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993 permits most Federal employees to actively participate in political activities such as attending political fundraising functions, joining political party, or holding office in political parties. In fact, Rothman and Lichter (1983) found some evidence suggesting that federal bureaucrats are more likely to vote Democrats and to be a little more liberal than the general citizens although their political ideology may depend on some other factors such as agencies, positions, or jobs (Watson 1997). Bureaucrats’ political ideology and behavior means a lot in a sense that they can control elected officials who directly control them (Hunter and Ranking, 1988; O’Brien, 1992; Zax, 1988).  Even if public bureaucrats hold and should a politically neutral position in office, bureaucrats may experience an inner-conflict between bureaucrats as public officers and as citizens.

The issue becomes more serious when bureaucrats’ personal views on politics or policies contrast with elected officials’ political ideology, and the incongruence of political ideology between elected officials and bureaucrats leads to the Friedrich and Finer debate on bureaucrats’ accountability. Friedrich (1940) argues that public bureaucrats should manage public problems based on their professional knowledge as well as their interpretation of public sentiment. Meanwhile, Finer (1941) takes the opposite position by emphasizing that public bureaucrats need to fully follow directions of elected officials. That is, the Friedrich style bureaucrats are more accountable to the public while the Finer-style bureaucrats are more accountable to the elected officials.

If bureaucrats’ professional knowledge and interpretation of public sentiment which may be influenced by their own political ideology is congruent with the direction of elected officials, it may not cause much problem. However, the issue becomes more complex when they do not match. In this sense, this study aims at theoretically explaining bureaucratic behaviors based on the congruence of ideology between bureaucrats and elected officials and to whom bureaucrats are accountable. The preliminary literature review including Hirchman (1970) leads our conclusion to four possible bureaucratic behaviors shown in Figure 1: ideal, exit, voice, and loyalty.

As a theory-building paper, this study expects to contribute to better understanding of bureaucratic behavior in the bureaucrats’ political view and their accountability Nexus. Future research would be benefited from this research by extending the current theoretical discussion to the empirical analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accountability

 

 

The Public

 

Political Appointee

 

 

 

Political View

 

 

Congruence

 

 

Ideal

 

 

 

 

Loyalty

 

 

Incongruence

 

 

Exit

 

 

 

Voice

 

 

Figure 1. Bureaucratic Behaviors in the Political View and Accountability Nexus

 

K101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF2
Is expertise and evidence in public policy authoritative basis for legitimate decision making in Southern Africa? Chrispen Chiome

This study examined how evidence, expertise and public policy interact in Southern Africa to determine the overall socioeconomic environment shaping decision making. In Southern Africa, policy makers are required to make decisions on complex issues in areas that involve significant public risks. Two thirds of Southern African countries are low-income and low development countries. More than half of the population is under the age of 18. This is a comparative study informed through analysing documents and interviewing six purposively sampled researchers. The study found out that governments face increasing pressure to legislate across a wider spectrum of areas. Expert knowledge and advice in fields as diverse as science, engineering, the law and economics is required to assist policy makers and provide them with an authoritative basis for legitimate decision making. However, while policy makers are becoming more reliant on the advice of experts and the institution of expertise, they face dilemma in that experts frequently disagree; they face complex problems that are typically characterised by uncertainty as a result of incomplete knowledge; experts are often called upon to provide policy advice in conditions of uncertainty where scientific consensus has not been reached. Expert claims have never been subjected to greater levels of questioning and criticism even though an educated public with independent access to vast amounts of information has become capable of questioning and challenging expertise. The study concludes that in Southern Africa, expert knowledge and advice is required to provide policy makers with an authoritative basis for legitimate decision making. It recommends a more systematic approach in using expertise and evidence which might enhance policy makers’ ability to become consumers of technical expertise.

F101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
Theoretical and practical issues for the governance of the future European public accounting standards. Giovanna Dabbicco

Accruals accounting is of fundamental importance to governments to ensure transparency and provide a basis for sound financial management and policy development. Furthermore the sovereign debt crisis and macroeconomic imbalances in EU MS have demonstrated a  need  to reinforce financial management of public sector entities and the flow of information coming from the public accounting systems in the Member States.  

 

High quality standards based on the accrual basis to provide accurate, complete and reliable reporting of all the assets, liabilities, revenue and expenditure are needed to restore confidence in the underlying public accounts among the stakeholders, national parliaments, audit institutions, citizens, banks, rating agencies.

The debate has focused on how more transparency and improved government accounting can be achieved. Notably, which are the best suitable standards to  describe sufficiently precisely the accounting practices to be followed, taking into account the need of  harmonisation and comparability expressed by the EU institutions to improve the quality of public accounts?.

 

In March 2013 the European Commission (Eurostat) presented a project to prepare the implementation of a harmonised European public accounting standards on an accruals basis for potentially all levels of government, namely European Public Sector Accounting Standards or “EPSAS”. At the centre of this project has been the question of the suitability of IPSAS standards for EU Member States.

 

In this context, some public sector accounting specialists have raised doubts on the pertinence and legitimacy of statisticians to intervene in this field. However the reliability of fiscal statistics depends on the quality of information from public accounting,

 

This paper will analyses the features and the challenges that such developments have to address  related to governance and oversight issues in the EU. In particular, it would discuss the coherence of the Commission’s viewpoint with NPM approaches and the use of its institutional influence. The views expressed by Member States’ government accounting experts and other stakeholders on such governance of the future EPSAS will be also addressed.

The research method would examine the literature on the legitimate theoretical conditions to justify such a development and to ensure relevance of EPSAS. Studies and  empirical material  available would then be examined to identify the main  issues raised by the ongoing debate. A key question will be related to the process to reach agreement between the government accounting authorities of the Member States, and then the subsequent governance arrangements. Finally the issue of the timetable of the work  also be discussed.

 

The discussion would raise awareness about  the ongoing debate on the governance issues  for the accounting reform in an EU context ,  particularly in relation to the  features  and the desired outcome of the future standard setting process in the views of the European Commission and its Member States..

G101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART6
A twenty-five year old challenge and perspective: the study of the policy change in Advocacy Coalition Framework Ana Niedhardt Capella, Alessandra Guimarães Soares, Renan Prado Alves

The study of the policy process involves a mix of complex elements: actors, preferences, interests, perceptions, strategies, institutional design, specificities of the policy area, the amount of projects that constitute a policy, long periods of time to better understand the governmental action, among others (SABATIER, 1999). According to Thomas Dye (2008) these analytical models help the researcher to make an abstraction of the real world in an attempt to simplify the representation of political life, in order to provide better understanding of public policies. In the past decades, some efforts were make to build comprehensive frameworks, which could provide better explanations of public policy process (JOHN, 2013). This article aims to analyze one of these models: the "Advocacy Coalition Framework” (ACF). The ACF was presented in its original version in 1988 and since then it has been improved by its authors based on the results of empirical applications of the model to several case studies worldwide (SABATIER and SMITH, 1993). Our papers seeks to understand how ACF can be used as helpful device in explaining policy change, specifically by mapping the extensions and revisions of the framework.

 

DYE, Thomas. Understanding Public Policy. 12th Ed. Upper Saddle River/NJ, Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2008.

JOHN, Peter. "New directions in public policy: theories of policy change and variation reconsidered". Paper presented at International Conference on Public Policy. Grenoble, 26-28 june, 2013.

SABATIER, Paul A. 1999. The advocacy coalition framework: An assessment. In Theories of the policy process, ed. P. A. Sabatier, 117–68. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

______________. “The Need for Better Theories”. In Sabatier (ed.). Theories of the Policy Process. Oxford, Westview Press, 1999.

SABATIER, Paul A. & JENKINS-SMITH, Hank C., (ed.). Policy Change and Learning. Advocacy Coalition Approach. Boulder, San Francisco, Oxford: Westview Press. 1993.

J105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
Fostering innovation in public organizations: analyzing the role of team-level leadership Stephan Dorsman, Lars Tummers, Marcel Thaens

Since innovation is crucial for the success of public organizations (Bekkers et al., 2011), developing an organizational context which encourages innovation is important. Paradoxically, however, developing and implementing innovations can be complicated given specific characteristics of public organizations. For instance, due to organizational structures that are relatively bureaucratic (Boyne, 2002), public organizations tend to avoid risk-taking which may hinder the development of new ideas and, therefore, counters innovation. This paper focuses on the level of work teams, as they can be considered both the origin and the implementers of innovative changes (West et al., 2007).

The purpose of this paper is to explore how team-level leadership may foster innovation in public organizations, through developing a climate for innovation. Leadership at the team-level in the organization can provide resources for bottom-up new developments (Van Wart, 2003), and may stimulate creativity and new work processes among employees (West et al., 2007).

The theoretical contribution of this paper is to understand how team-level leadership interacts with high or low levels of innovation in public sector organizations. Whereas the relation between team-level leadership and innovation is a much-studied topic in the private context (e.g. Alexander & Van Knippenberg, 2014; Hülsheger et al., 2009), limited attention is paid in the public context (e.g. Dawson et al., 2008). This paper takes therefore into account specific public organizational characteristics (red tape, risk aversion, bureaucratic structures).

Next to this, this paper contributes to the literature as it follows a multi-method approach. As shown by Groeneveld et al. (2014), only 5% of public administration studies published in top journals use a multi-method approach. This paper conducts interviews with team-leaders across different departments within a large Dutch public sector organization which is subject to high levels of control and change simultaneously as a consequence of severe cutbacks. As a follow-up of this qualitative interview study, this paper conducts a survey among both team-leaders and employees within this same organization.

B102 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART1
Outward looking, well informed? Manager’s external network and their responsiveness to socio-economic challenges Sanne Grotenbreg, Erik-Hans Klijn

In debates on the future of public administration it is often argued that governmental organizations and their managers should be more responsive to society. Government is no longer supposed to be ‘in charge’ but has to act as facilitator, responsively facilitating initiatives from citizens and the private sector (Pierre & Peters 2000; O’Leary & Bingham 2009). The literature on (interactive) governance, networks and coproduction emphasises the importance of government-society interactions (Rhodes 1997; Ansell & Gash 2008; Considine et al 2009; Osborne 2009). In this paper we take a closer look at these advocated government-society interactions. We examine the external network relations of public managers and link these to their responsiveness to socio-economic challenges.

It is a common wisdom that ‘public management networks matter’. Yet very little is known about the specific relations public managers maintain and how these relations affect their performance (Akkerman & Torenvlied 2011). We build on the literature on network activity of firms and public agencies which states that organizations that maintain frequent relations with other organizations perform better, e.g. in terms of innovation (O’Toole & Meier 2004; Huxham & Vangen 2005; Smith-Doerr & Powell 2005). Agencies headed by managers who establish frequent contact with relevant stakeholders in their environment, do better than less ‘outward looking’ agencies, is being argued in this literature. In our paper we apply these insights to government organisations and look into the external relations of managers at the municipality of Rotterdam.

We hypothesize that public managers who have frequently contact with a diverse group of external actors are better informed and more aware of the socio-economic challenges of society. They have access to vital information that is not available within their internal organizational network. To test our hypotheses we use data that we collected surveying the managers of the municipality of Rotterdam. Even though the survey contain some highly personal questions we managed to reach a response rate of 50 percent among the highest management levels.

In our paper, after addressing theoretical considerations, we first explore some descriptive questions. We examine how rank, position and e.g. work history of public managers influences their network activity. What are the differences in ‘outgoingness’ between different departments and hierarchical positions? Do managers who before worked in the private sector maintain more contact with the private sector? Do top managers have the most external relations, or are they mainly concerned with the internal organization and are managers of lower ranks better in keeping contact with society? Subsequently, we examine the consequences of these differences in extroverted behaviour. We test the hypotheses that managers who maintain more contact with more external actors are more responsive to socio-economic challenges. We asked the managers to name the five most pressing challenges in Rotterdam. We asked the same question to prominent ‘community leaders’, working for Rotterdam’ organizations and firms. We measure the responsiveness of the managers by comparing their answer to that of the community leaders.

We aim to contribute to the literature on leadership, formal and informal networks and the innovation capacity of public sector organizations. By using a combination of statistical analysis and social network analysis we intend to contribute to the needed methodological diversification of the public administration field. Our work is part of the research project ‘Learning form Innovation in Public Sector Environments’ (LIPSE). The aim of our work package is to map, analyse and compare the innovation capacity of public sector environments. The external network activity of public managers that we examine in this paper is an element of the innovation capacity that we study in the overarching work package. The study consists of a comparison of four cities. In this paper we presents the first results from one of the cities, Rotterdam. Besides that, we aim to contribute to the establishment of the framework for comparison of the four cities with this paper.

B102 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART1
The influence of leadership on creativity of employees: A systematic review of survey and experimental studies Lars Tummers, Peter Kruyen

Creativity is an intellectual thought process of generating ideas that are new and potentially useful (Simon, 1985; Shalley et al., 2004). As Amabile et al. (1196:1154) noted: “All innovation begins with creative ideas. Successful implementation of new programs, new product introductions, or new services depends on a person or a team having a good idea-and developing that idea beyond its initial state.” For organizations in the public, nonprofit and the private sector, it is therefore important to foster creativity of their employees, although creativity and innovation is not without its costs (Janssen et al., 2004). For private organizations, creative employees can help organizations stay competitive, such as by proposing new market areas to explore and new business partnerships (Woodman et al., 1993; Nystrom, 1990). Also for public and nonprofit organizations, creative employees can be beneficial. They can envision new ways to work together with citizens, how to deal with media pressures and how to give citizens ‘more bang for their buck’ in a dwindling economy (Voorberg et al., 2014; Neuhoff & Searle, 2008). Hence, organizations can benefit from employees who are creative and employ this in their work (Shalley & Perry-Smith, 2001).

When creativity is deemed important, it becomes interesting to analyze how organizations are able to stimulate the creativity of their employees. Although the ‘solitary artist’ is an important stereotype among some scholars and practitioners (Howe, 1982; MacKinnon, 1965), organizational environments are able to positively influence the creativity of their employees (Amabile et al., 1996; Martins & Tenblanche, 2003). More specifically, various studies argue that leadership is particularly influential in stimulating the creativity of their employees (Shin & Zhou, 2010; Tierney et al., 1999; De Jong & Den Hartog, 2007; Oldham & Cunnings, 1996). For instance, Shin and Zhou (2003) found a positive  and significant relationship between transformational leadership (providing employees with intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and individual consideration) and various creativity measures. Furthermore, Zhang and Bartol (2010) found that when leaders empower their employees, this led to more intrinsic motivation and creative process management. In turn, these variables were positively related to creativity.

To date, there have been a number of valuable literature review on leadership and creativity (Mumford et al., 2002; Reiter-Palmon & Illies, 2004; Shalley & Gilson, 2004). For instance, based on their literature review Reiter-Palmon & llies (2004)  argue, among else, that leaders can stimulate creativity of employees and teams by providing them with extra information and encouraging the sharing of information. Furthermore, Shalley and Gilson (2004) argue that leadership should be supportive instead of controlling. This will stimulate intrinsic motivation and creativity of employees.

In this article, we aim to contribute to the body of knowledge on the influence of leadership on creativity of employees by systematically reviewing quantitative studies which focus on this topic. In this way, we contribute to the literature in two main ways.  First, to date no systematic overview article which takes into account both survey and experimental studies has been conducted. The strengths of survey designs is that they are is located in real organizational environments and often employ a large sample. This increases the generalizability and makes it possible to examine whether or not significant relationships exist between concepts. On the other hand, conclusions from surveys are also limited in terms of being able to verify and validate the cause and effect relationships proposed (Avolio et al., 2009).  When testing for causal effects, few of the methods in the social sciences can live up to the rigor and level of control of an experimental design. Furthermore, Brown & Lord (2000) argue that experimental settings allow researchers to control the levels of their independent variables and therefore create unique combinations, such as highly extraverted leaders with proactive followers (Grant et al., 2011).  By taking into account both survey and experimental studies, we can for instance analyze whether results found in surveys can be replicated using experimental designs while avoiding confounding effects.

Second, we explicitly chose for a systematic review method. To our knowledge, systematic reviews on  the impact of leadership on creativity has not yet been conducted. Systematic reviews differ from traditional literature reviews as they are replicable and transparent. They comprise several explicit steps, such as: identifying all likely relevant publications in a standardized way; extracting data from eligible studies; and, synthesizing the results. During the systematic review, we adhere as much as possible to the widely used ‘Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses’ (The PRISMA Statement, referred to as PRISMA from here on), which ensures transparent and complete reporting (Liberati et al. 2009).

This brings us to the outline of this article. In the section ‘Method’, we will describe the methodology used to conduct the review. The section ‘Results’ will present the results of our review. We conclude our analysis in the section ‘Conclusion and future research’, with a conclusion and a future research agenda on studying the impact of leadership on employee creativity.

B102 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
A never-ending process of Europeanization: exploring the impact of new Europe-wide institutions on fiscal and financial bureaucracy in Latvia Aleksandrs Cepilovs Financial and fiscal bureaucracy – especially the ministries of finance, financial supervisory authorities and central banks – has grown in the recent decades to become in many countries the focal points of economic governance. The fact that these institutions and their subordinate agencies are in charge of government revenue gathering and spending, as well as regulation and supervision of financial sector means that they exert significant influence upon both performance of the public as well as the private sector through a wide range of levers.At the same time, particularly as a result of the recent financial and fiscal crises, and with the establishment of the new pan-European institutions in the domain of financial and fiscal governance1, these ministries of finance, central banks and financial supervisory authorities are undergoing substantial change under external pressure. One of the examples of such change in case of Latvia is the creation of a Fiscal policy department within the Ministry of Finance as a result of a fiscal crisis, and also under pressure of both International Monetary Fund and the European Commission, as the coordinators of the financial support programme. These peculiar institutional changes, in turn, affect policy choices and policy implementation processes.This study thus, relying on different strains of institutionalsms (sociological, historical and discursive) as a theoretical basis, will attempt to explain certain policy choices and institutional changes in fiscal and financial bureaucracy in Latvia in the recent years. The institutional transformation is on-going, consequently, this paper will not provide a comprehensive picture of the full range of changes. However, it can still provide a snapshot of changes at a particular point in time providing grounds for some preliminary conclusions.The study will take a form of a case study, relying on a broad range of data sources, such as legal acts, archival materials, media articles and semi-structured interviews as the main source of primary data. J105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
The breakdown of governance network. The case of regional councils in Norway. Barbara Zyzak

Despite the growth of institutional research within organizational studies, the understanding of the phenomenon ‘deinstitutionalization’ of governance networks is not widespread yet. In the literature on economic governance, the theory of organizational and market failure is developed. While in the public governance, we can see the lack of conditions that render collaboration unsuccessful. In this article the main objective is to investigate what characterize governance network that break down. The set of factors is identified to highlight the failure of inter-municipal cooperation in Norway. Empirically, we compare networks that ‘fail’ with networks that have long and continuous cooperation. The analysis of case study refers to interviews with mayors and administrative staff, in addition to secondary sources (i.a. cooperation agreements, meeting minutes, reports, mass-media and virtual outputs). Key words: deinstitutionalization, municipalities, regional councils, governance networks

J105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
Interactive education in public administration: The role of teaching ‘objects’ John Alford

This paper argues that case discussion is only one form of interactive teaching, and that the case study is only one form (albeit an important one) of ‘teaching objects’. A teaching object is anything which is set up to constitute or prompt the subject matter of an interactive teaching session. There is a wide range of possible objects in addition to cases, such as: a set of mini-case cameos; an extract from a book; an official document; a newspaper clipping; some video footage; an experience such as a role play or exercise; and so on. What makes them objects is that they have been chosen and unveiled, and are discussed with students, with particular teaching purposes, concepts and processes in mind. The paper explains their usefulness in both stimulating engagement by students and helping them turn that engagement into learning.

 

B109 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART3
Gradual and transformative institutional change: stakeholders and advocacy coalitions endeavour Diego Mota Vieira

The main objective of this work was to characterize the behavior of stakeholders engaged in the process of transformative and gradual institutional change, in order to influence a specific public policy according to their interests and their hierarchical belief system. Applying the advocacy coalition framework and some stakeholder analysis models, and also using an approach focused on the role of Discourse, a case study on the hydroelectric plant of Belo Monte in Brazil was conducted. This event supported the assumptions of the theoretical models used and represented an opportunity to check a joint application of these frameworks, exposing their contributions and weaknesses in dealing with the phenomenon studied. In-depth interviews were conducted, and oficial documents were collected, as for example, shorthand for public hearings in Congress. The longitudinal study allowed the identification of three advocacy coalitions in which stakeholders of Belo Monte rallied. Moreover, it was possible to verify the use of discourse as an instrument to coalition’s coordination. Further, the case study analysis made clear the strategies to promote transformative and gradual institutional change.

J105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
Institutional Change through Institutionalization: An Analytical Model Luciana Miranda Gomes, Paulo Calmon

Institutional Change through Institutionalization: An Analytical Model. The aim of this paper is to propose an original analytical model to investigate different processes of institutional change through the institutionalization conducted in different ways by institutional actors. This analytical model is based on the proposal presented by Mahoney and Thelen (2010), and includes the contribution of Lawrence and Suddaby (2006) specifically furthering the argument about the type of dominant change-agent in creating, maintaining or disrupting institutions. The discussions presented indicate approaches to gradual institutional change that value relationships between actors and the fields in which they work, highlighting in particular the role of formal rational structures and the role of the behaviour of these actors. Therefore, the purpose is to discuss a different point of view as opposed to traditional institutional studies of organisations. The objective to design an optimized analytical model adding the contribution of Lawrence and Suddaby (2006) to Mahoney and Thelen (2010) model was reliable approximation of how reality is presented in this dynamic and thus to respond as occurring processes and mechanisms of institutional change (MAHONEY; Thelen, 2010) institutionalization - creation, maintenance or dismemberment (Lawrence, Suddaby, 2006) - for example, a given sector, area, agency or public enterprise? The answers to these questions will contribute to the Theories of Institutional Change and will clarify, in particular, the role played by actors through processes and mechanisms used by them in the creation, maintenance and breakdown of institutions. Consequently, we propose that this insertion as a response to the limitations that the model of Mahoney & Thelen (2010) which was discussed in the paper. The sections are considered in the following order: a discussion about institutional change and the types of institutionalization; the role of institutional actors in this process; the analytical model and a brief initial research agenda.

J105 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
Leadership, innovation and networks: The relationship between innovation perceptions and networking behavior Joris van der Voet, Tamyko Ysa, Mila Gascó, Adrià Albareda

In response to increasing environmental demands and simultaneously decreasing financial resources, innovation has become increasingly important for public organizations. In both the public and private sector literature on innovation, leadership is generally seen as an important antecedent of innovation (Borins, 2002). Heroic portrayals of leadership in processes of innovation, which highlight the ways in which individuals bring about innovation, have been subject to increasing critique (Meier, 2011). Instead, innovation in the public sector is portrayed as a process of open innovation, which involves collaboration among managers, politicians, entrepreneurs and citizens (e.g. Chesbrough, 2003; Hartley, 2005; Hartley, Sorensen & Torfing, 2013). The role of leadership in such processes consists of networking behaviors in order to connect public organizations with the people, ideas, knowledge, capacities and capabilities in the organizational environment.

This study is intended to contribute to our understanding of networking leadership and innovation in the public sector. The literature on public sector innovation stresses the importance of both administrative and political leadership (Bekkers et al., 2013; Hartley, 2005; Borins, 2002). Using data collected in Barcelona, Spain, we analyze perceptions of both public managers and politicians concerning innovation. These perceptions range from seeing innovation as an intra-organizational process versus seeing innovation as an open phenomenon involving a wide range of stakeholders. We then analyze to what extent these perceptions are related to the networking behaviors of public managers and politicians by using social network analysis. The combination of perceptual data and data concerning their network ties allows us examine to what extent innovation perceptions can explain networking behavior. This project is funded by the FP7 project “Learning from Innovation in Public Sector Environments” (LIPSE).

 

 

References:

Bekkers, V., Tummers, L., & Voorberg, W. (2013). From public innovation to social innovation in the public sector: A literature review of relevant drivers and barriers. Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Borins, S. (2002). Leadership and innovation in the public sector. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 23(8), 467-476.

Chesbrough, H. W. (2003). Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Harvard Business Press.

Hartley, J. (2005). Innovation in governance and public services: Past and present. Public money and management25(1), 27-34.

Hartley, J., Sørensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2013). Collaborative innovation: A viable alternative to market competition and organizational entrepreneurship. Public Administration Review73(6), 821-830.

Meijer, A. J. (2011). Networked Coproduction of Public Services in Virtual Communities: From a Government‐Centric to a Community Approach to Public Service Support. Public Administration Review71(4), 598-607.

B102 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART1
Supporting collaboration in healthcare. The case of public health services in schools in Québec Viola Burau, Carole Clavier

Healthcare services are characterised by a high degree of specialisation and therefore often require collaboration. Collaboration becomes a crucial condition for the quality of healthcare services and this raises questions about the capacity of governments to support collaboration: To what extent is this possible, and what are the specific strategies for doing this? An emerging body of cross-country studies suggests that the structures and policies of health systems can offer powerful levers for supporting collaboration. Yet, the literature says little about the specific strategies governments can use.

 

Therefore, the aim of the paper is to test the capacity of governments to support collaboration in healthcare services by identifying the specific strategies through which this can occur. This is done based on a critical case study of public health services in schools in Québec. Here, the structures of the health system are highly integrated and policies have a strong focus on collaboration, which predict a high capacity for support. This is tested in relation to public health services in schools, which pose particularly ‘wicked problems’ of collaboration. The paper addresses the following question: What specific strategies does the government use to support collaboration in public health services in schools? Answering this question makes for a two-fold contribution: first, the paper specifies government capacity to support collaboration in healthcare services by identifying specific strategies; and second, the paper analyses how strategies perform under hard conditions of ‘wicked problems’ of collaboration.

 

Theoretically, the paper draws on the literature on governance, where the strategies for supporting collaboration emerge from the interplay hierarchy and networks. Collaboration in health services has many characteristics of network coordination, but coordination tends to be embedded in hierarchy and is often mandated rather than voluntary. The analysis follows the approach developed by Bouckaert and colleagues, who identify specific instruments of what they call ‘vertical coordination’. The instruments can draw on either hierarchy or networks or a combination of the two, underlining the hybrid nature of supporting collaboration. More specifically, we distinguish between two overall strategies of support: those directed at the structures of collaboration in public health services in schools and those directed at the management of collaboration in public health services in schools.

 

Empirically, the paper presents the findings of the case study, which included two parts. Firstly, we conducted a scoping study of the provincial/regional structures/policies of the public health system specifically as related to schools. The study drew on primary sources in form of policy documents and reports as well as secondary sources in form of academic studies in the field. Secondly, we conducted 11 semi-structured interviews with experts at provincial and regional levels, as well as with experts at three selected local health authorities.

E101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART9
Praxis and Pedagogy: Where Teaching Case Studies Work in Public Administration Andrew Graham

The first decade of the new century saw a major shift in state and third sector relations in the UK – described  by Kendall as ‘hyperactive mainstreaming’ it included much close links between the state and major sector agencies and unprecedented levels of public investment in third sector organisations. Since 2010, in a changed political and economic context, this closer engagement has been largely reversed. Support for the sector has been cutback and replaced by an expectation that that third sector organisations will operate as alternative to public support rather than a partner in it – referred to by the Prime Minister as the creation of a Big Society. However, the Big Society has not proved successful either in political or policy terms, and has more recently been largely abandoned by the UK government. And, although state support for the sector has been cut back, there has been policy support for new forms of investment in organisations and for their increased involvement in the market-based delivery of public services. This has had contradictory implications for third sector organisations who, on the one hand have been expected to reject past partnership relations with the state, and yet on the other hand have been encouraged to become more active players in the marketization of public services.  Since 2000, however, third sector policy in the UK has been devolved to the separate administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland; and here state and third relations have not always followed the English model being promoted at Westminster.

B109 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART3
POLICY SIMULATIONS IN REAL TIME Kent Weaver Policy simulations can be useful tools to engage students and help them build a deeper understanding of the policymaking and policy implementation processes.  This paper reports on experiences in using classroom simulations that unfold simultaneously with real events that they are simulating: for example, budget negotiations in the United States, government coalition negotiations in Germany and Sweden, debates over bringing down a minority government in Canada, and debates in the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party on relaxing that country's one-child policy.  These policy simulations in real time are particularly useful for increasing students awareness of the uncertainty and complexity that inevitably surround policy and political negotiations--factors that may be hard to mimic in simulations that involve hypothetical negotiations or real negotiations where the outcome is already known.. B109 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART3
Using Technology Enhancements and Facilitation to Bring Cases "To Life" Jodi Sandfort

In the last twenty years, advances in both the science of teaching and learning and information technology create opportunities to create and share e-cases.  This new generation of teaching cases presents a narrative account through video, documents, and audio that can more directly bring practice quandaries into the classroom for discussion and application of course ideas.   Yet, use of the materials reveals that while these cases provide more complete and rich content, their effective use also hinges upon instructional engagement techniques (Council, 2000; Cozolino & Sprokay, 2006). This paper presents lessons learned from the Hubert project (www.hubertproject.org), a global collection of multimedia teaching materials provided open access for public affairs educators, reflecting on both the development of interactive materials and the effective use of them in the classroom.

B109 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART3
ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING MUTATIONS IN THE PURSUIT OF AUSTERITY POLICIES: THE CASE OF ITALIAN HEALTH CARE Eugenio Anessi-Pessina, Elena Cantu'

Governments have traditionally been reluctant to relinquish standard setting powers for their own budgeting and accounting systems to higher levels of government or external bodies. This is consistent with public-sector budgeting and accounting being a governance tool rather than simply a measurement and management system. Excessive decentralisation, however, will necessarily hinder comparability. In addition, it is also likely to hinder reliability, as individual governments produce low-quality and / or self-serving standards.Using documents and interviews from the Italian health-care sector, this paper shows how individual regions within the Italian National Health Service made an averagely poor use of the standard setting autonomy granted to them by national legislation. At the same time, it shows how the current recentralisation of standard setting is largely shaped by the central government’s need to control public finances and meet the country’s reporting requirements towards the EU, with little or no regard for the financial reports’ ability to faithfully represent individual health-care organisations’ financial position and performance. In particular, it shows the central government’s tendency to design accrual accounting standards and interpret accrual-based statements according to the traditional cash-accounting mindset, as well as to mandate specific accounting treatments in order to steer the behaviour of individual health-care organisations towards specific policy goals.

G101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART6
The good, the bad and the ugly: Innovation, Transformation and Modernization of Public Organizations through E-Government Esther Ruiz Ben, Tino Schuppan

In this paper we discuss on the basis of an empirical example how basic conceptual models used in the discourse of E-Government are related to the implementation of E-Government tools. Concretely we refer to innovation as a positively connoted concept focused on currently happening new events or artifacts, transformation as associated to changes uncertainly challenging organizations in the their near future and modernization as a wider transition from agrarian traditional societies towards industrial societies based on bureaucratic norms and values such as meritocracy, egalitarianism or progress and growth.

E-Government implementation has been mostly linked to the transformation of public organizations and to innovation in delivering public services to the citizens. However, the relation between E-Government implementation and the term Modernization remains ambiguous, since E-Government implementation questions the sense of bureaucratic rules and norms on which Modernization bases. Replacing wider modernization goals, New Public Management discourses recombined liberal ideologies and management norms instituting 'lean state' transformational principles and privatization of public services. In this post-bureaucratic arena E-Government represents the "good" innovation that will lose rigid bureaucratic barriers to efficiently deliver services to citizens and to effectively transform public organizations allowing more flexibility and discretion for public servants.

Taking the implementation of the Electronic Records System (ERS) (an electronic tool for the document management of unemployed persons) in a public organization in Germany as empirical example, we analyze the implementation of this E-Government tool from the perspective of innovation, transformation and modernization. Does the implementation of the ERS reduce "bureaucratic rules"? How does the implementation of the ERS influence the transformation of the organization? In which form does the implementation of the ERS contribute to innovate the E-Government tool itself? In which extent should we refer to modernization, transformation and innovation in relation to the implementation of the ERS? Basing on the answer to these empirical questions we argue that the three concepts are not opposed to each other, but are necessary to understand the impact of E-Government implementation in public organizations.

G107 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST2
Intermediaries for better public service delivery: Does ICT matter? Benedikt Paulowitsch, Stephan Löbel, Tino Schuppan

This article shows an analysis of the influence of IT based E-Government implementation on the creation forms of delivering public services intermediaries.  These particular forms of intermediacy are mandated by citizens in order to reduce their bureaucratic burdens and exist since a long time in some fields of public administration such as in vehicle registration.

Despite the fact that intermediaries can have a strong impact on better public service delivery they are not well explored by public management scholars. Only minor hints can be found in the public management literature. Research on private business models has shown that ICT can lead to disintermediation or re-intermediation of relations between intermediaries and public administration. Therefore we concretely explore whether intermediary or single functions of intermediaries emerged or disappeared in the public sphere after the implementation of e-Government tools.

Going beyond the narrow functional focus of economic theories often found in the business literature, we adopt a wider socio-economic analytical view framing intermediaries as boundary spanners and ICT as boundary objects. This allows us a more precise analysis of the concrete impact of E-Government implementation on the varieties of intermediaries' creation forms.

Our methodological approach bases on a case study about E-Government implementation in licensing procedures for potentially polluting plants. These procedures are characterized by a high complexity and a de-facto necessity for plant operators to fall back on specialized intermediary service providers. We have analyzed internal documents and conducted interviews with CEOs from intermediary companies and high ranked civil servants.

The preliminary results of our analysis show that there is no risk of a disintermediation by E-Government because of the high complexity of the processes, which makes intermediaries indispensable for their clients. Quite the opposite, intermediaries criticize the lack of IT solutions for more efficient process chains. Intermediaries reduce the complexity for their clients and emerge therefore as spanners between private companies and the public administration. By this, they already adapt processes of the public administration without being officially assigned to accelerate the process chain. For the public administration there are potentials to integrate intermediaries consciously in inner-administrative processes. An open question is, how the relationship between intermediaries and the public administration looks like and what implications for controlling but also legitimacy and rule-of-law arise out of that. For such questions, first hypotheses will be derived.

G107 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST2
Comparative analysis of Medical Health Centers Vera Koltai, Viktória Bodnár, Peter Kadar Csoboth, Gyorgy Drotos

Track: Micro 
New researcher Doctoral Student*: Yes or No (*lead authors only):
New researcher within 3 years of PhD*: Yes or No
Title: Comparative analysis of Medical Health Centers
Author information: Vera Koltai: senior consultant IFUA Horváth&Partners, health management expert; Viktória Bodnár, Ph.D: managing partner IFUA Horváth&Partners, associate professor Corvinus University of Budapest; Peter Kadar Csoboth: senior consultant IFUA Horváth&Partners, higher education expert; György Drótos, Ph.D: associate professor Corvinus University of Budapest
Objectives: governance of academic health centers – comparative analysis
Data and Methods
(n/a for conceptual papers): comparative analysis of academic health centers in several countries (UK, US, Sweden, Norway, Austria, Hungary) with a detailed description of the Hungarian case study
Results (n/a for conceptual papers): Academic health centers are among the most complex health and education organizations, where the increasing cost pressure has highly influenced the structural settings and the leadership models used as well. The article describes how and why governance models of academic health centers have changed over the time. The research aims to provide a detailed picture on how and why the governance model of these organizations has changed across the board, regardless of the national context. Following the international analysis, more detailed empirical research is done to evaluate the recent changes in Hungary.
Conclusions: Contribution to Public Management: The article aims to highlight how and why New Public Management methods influence the governance models of academic health centers. AHCs are complex organizations with tripartite functions (education, medical services, researches), where the institutional settings and governance models could highly influence their efficiency. The international examples and in particular, the Hungarian case study of the four Hungarian Medical Centers, also illustrate how difficult it is to separate these functions.

Progress to date: here please indicate where you are in the progress of this proposed research (This will help us to determine the likelihood that the paper will come to fruition for the conference. Work at all stages are welcome): ?
Data has been collected and empirical analysis started ?  Yes
Draft of paper or argument outlined ? Concept stage ? Full paper ready, in revisions ? Draft of paper and the argument is outlined; researches were completed.

 

Description:

Academic medical centers have significant role in educating future healthcare professionals while simultaneously providing medical services for patients in the meantime. In addition, these institutes are also pioneers in the field of medical and pharmaceutical R+D+I. However, the tripartite mission of AMCs described above also pose a considerable challenge to the managerial perspective.

In a recent article we were able to show through comparative analysis how the management of medical centers differs across various countries (eg. US, UK, Sweden, Norway, Austria, Hungary) with diverse social, financial and political settings . Our main focus is on the governance models, and in specific, how the different institutional settings are developed to better control the tripartite functions. The models vary significantly: academic health centers can be private or public organizations; they may also be university-based or separate organizations. The article highlights how governance model differs from university to university, and how these models evolved over the time. The article aims to highlight how and why the governance models of academic health centers have changed to make their operation more transparent and cost efficient. The international examples, and in particular the Hungarian case study of four Hungarian Medical Centers, illustrate the challenges raised by evolving financial pressure and also analyses how the medical centers have responded in turn.

E101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART9
Designing a quality management framework for effective public service healthcare Gillian Wright, Margaret Hyde, Anthony Hines

Designing a quality management framework for effective public service healthcare

Track: E101 - Special Interest Group in Healthcare Management (SIG-HCM)

Track: Micro
New researcher Doctoral Student*: No
New researcher within 3 years of PhD*: Yes (Dr Margaret Hyde)

Title: Designing a quality management framework for effective public service healthcare

Author information:

Dr Margaret Hyde

m.hyde@mmu.ac.uk

*Prof Gillian Wright

g.wright@mmu.ac.uk

Prof Anthony Hines

a hines@mmu.ac.uk

*Corresponding author

 

Manchester Metropolitan University

Faculty of Business and Law

Oxford Road

Manchester

UK

 

 

Objectives:
The aim of the research is to develop a construct of service quality in health care.

The objectives are to:

Identify and evaluate existing service quality approaches in health care

Understand the meaning of service quality to health care users and managers

In recent years, the quality of non-clinical elements of UK public healthcare health care has been robustly challenged. This paper is underpinned by the shift towards greater emphasis on understanding the functional elements of health services in an effort to improve public experience and outcomes.

Data and Methods

Our three phases of qualitative research are summarised in table 1. The first comprised critical incident interviews with service users, which highlighted both successes and failings in their care. This was followed by interviews with healthcare staff to identify gaps in user/provider perceptions. In phase three, we held focus groups with specific sectors of the public and groups active in specific services.

Table 1: Research phases

PHASE

METHOD

TYPE OF KNOWLEDGE

1

Critical incident interviews with patients, carers and family members

Identifying themes around negative and positive in experiences

2

Staff interviews

Management perceptions of quality priorities

3

Focus groups of public and patient groups

Priorities placed by service users and agencies on elements of service quality

 

We undertook a thematic analysis based on open coding and a further analysis taking existing dimensions identified in previous research.

 

Results
Overall, we identify: trust; access; a caring approach; knowing the patient; communications; attitude and professionalism as the key elements of effective service quality. Of these, seven are comprised primarily of human interactions. The elements that comprised negative experience tended towards communications and attitude. The paper presents the sub-sections of these elements and their relative importance to the public and service providers. The findings suggest that although extant frameworks for service delivery have some relevance, they are too simplistic, and do not fully addresses the needs of this complex and high contact sector.

 

Conclusions: Contribution to Public Management
Our principal contribution to theory concerns the dimensionality of service quality in public healthcare. The results confirm the importance of the relational dimensions of service delivery. While there is an abundance of literature discussing the evaluation of service quality, much of this focuses on the SERVQUAL model and, although there is increasing debate about its relevance across sectors, no alternative has been offered. This paper argues that the model lacks substance as a tool to evaluate service quality in the complex environment of public health care. The results point the way for the development of a diagnostic approach to service delivery quality in public healthcare.

Progress to date: here please indicate where you are in the progress of this proposed research (This will help us to determine the likelihood that the paper will come to fruition for the conference. Work at all stages are welcome)

The data collection and analysis is complete.

 

Data has been collected and empirical analysis started?

Yes

Draft of paper or argument outlined? Concept stage? Full paper ready, in revisions?

First draft prepared.

Other (please specify)

Recent years have seen considerable debate over the quality of non-clinical elements of public health care in the UK. The Keogh Report, 2013 highlighted major flaws in the delivery of health care. Public health care is a major component of UK society, though the notion of quality of service provision within the sector remains elusive. Although medical science continues to see huge developments there is little evidence to suggest similar advances in the ‘caring’ elements of the sector.

A review of current practices adopted within the National Health Service (NHS) suggests little coherence of approach in the assessment of the effectiveness of services, particularly at a micro or local level.

Without exception public policy has emphasised the importance of patient involvement and patients being a part of the service provision. The most recent of these policy, Equity and Excellence – Liberating the NHS (2010), states that the NHS “scores relatively poorly on being responsive to the patients it serves. Too often, patients are expected to fit around services, rather than services around patients” (Department of Health, 2010, pg. 8). It goes on “current outcome measures, patient experience surveys and national clinic audits are not used widely enough” (Department of Health, 2010, pg. 14). The policy claims to aspire to address this through greater validity, data collection and use of measurement tools. However, there are no details on how this will be enacted other than through clinical outcomes, it asserts that that ideas will be sought about how to achieve responsiveness which endorses the relevance and timeliness of this study.

 

E101 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART9
Compassion, Emotional Labor, and Public Service in the United States Sharon Mastracci This paper focuses on the experience of emergency responders in the United States who are working in extreme conditions that demand extensive emotional labour, not unlike nurses in the National Health Service in the UK. Based on a continuing programme of research, this paper presents evidence of emotional labour and compassionate care among first responders and reveals the organizational measures needed, such as self-care plans, recruiting for self awareness, and performance evaluations that capture more than just a standard set of knowledge, skills, and abilities. If emotional labor is to be managed effectively and if service continuity is to be maintained, revising such organizational practices is crucial. I then highlight these organizational measures and their relevance for nursing in the NHS as they are discussed in the Francis Report. B111 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART2
Integrating Theory and Practice in Case Teaching Poul Erik Mouritzen

How to integrate theory with practice by the mean of cases? Some thoughts on the differences between young students and experienced midcareer leaders.  In the presentation I will reflect on two experiences I have had with the two groups. The one with young students is the course I described in last years papers for the MPSA conferences, the other is an ongoing course for school principals. I both courses I have made intensive use of cases, however, using quite different methods.

B109 March 30, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART3
Experimenting with Decentralization and Citizen Empowerment in a Bureaucratic State: The Crisis of Industrial Restructuring in Botswana Charles Conteh Although long hailed as a model of the developmental state in Africa, Botswana’s apparatus of a centralized bureaucracy that once championed the country’s economic prosperity is proving unsuitable for the emerging challenges of the twenty-first century. Like most developing countries, Botswana is struggling to navigate the twin challenges of natural resource depletion on the one hand and increasing volatility in the global economy on the other. The main objective of the proposed paper is to examine Botswana’s experiments with decentralization and citizen empowerment as the country confronts the reality of resource depletion in its diamond-dependent economy.

The case study provides an empirical grounding to advance the argument for horizontal collaborative governance between the public, private, and community sectors, in which the private sector can be seen less as an object of economic development and more as an agent of adaptation to global and local changes. Moreover, the paper makes the proposition that public policy governance mechanisms need to emphasize building strategic alliances among a wide range of public and non-governmental actors in implementing development policies in highly politicized environments.

The proposed paper will advance these arguments by integrating the distinct but parallel literature on strategic management, organization theory, and the new public governance. The central concern shared by these three research traditions is about how government organizations interact with their external environments in the implementation of public policies.  This integrated framework will provide a rich conceptual toolkit for addressing the central objective of this research, namely, critically assessing experiments of decentralization and citizen empowerment in states seeking to strike a balance between technocratic policy design and democratic inclusion.

I101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART8
Do policymakers learn from past policy evidence and experiences? The implementation of the European liberalization policy process in the Belgian rail and electricity sectors Stephane Moyson

When confronted with new information, knowledge or expertise regarding a policy, do policy makers and managers tend to change their policy beliefs and decisions according to this information? This is the central question of this paper relying on the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), a well-known theory of the policy process and the role of learning therein. This paper is original because it examines the evolution policymakers’ beliefs (policy learning) according to the first steps of a policy implementation process. Hence, in this study, evidence and expertise are based on the first observable effects of a policy rather than on experiences in other institutional settings or theoretical expert reports.

In the ACF, policy learning is defined as “relatively enduring alterations of thought or behavioral intentions that result from experience and which are concerned with attainment or revision of the precepts of belief system of individual or collectivities” (Sabatier, 1993, p. 42). Policymakers’ belief system is composed of three strata of beliefs distinguished according to their scope and their presumed resistance to change: the deep core beliefs, the policy core beliefs, and the secondary beliefs.

First, several ACF studies suggest that policy makers, in general, do not tend to change their policy beliefs over time (e.g., Moyson, 2014). Following Lachapelle and Montpetit (submitted for publication)’s experimental study, I suspect that this resistance to change will be lower among policy makers who are convinced to have observed positive or negative effects of the policy during the first steps of the implementation process (hypothesis 1).

Second, because ACF studies focus on policy processes that last a decade or more, it was often suggested that policymakers’ individual interests play a small role in policy learning and change (Sabatier, 1993) (this is not to speak about power relations among coalitions at the collective level). Given the limited ability of individual human beings to strategize, individual interests are constructs that are presumed to play a role in short- to mid-term policy processes, but not in long-term processes. Hence, individual policy beliefs rather than interests were often assumed to be the main explanatory factor of policy learning and change (Lertzman, Rayner and Wilson, 1996). However, following suggestions from past qualitative research (e.g., Hoberg, 1996; Nohrstedt, 2005), I hypothesize that policymakers’ individual interests could have a significant influence on belief change over time (hypothesis 2). This could contribute to explain policymakers’ resistance to policy evidence and expertise.

Third, the ACF assumes that the belief system of policymakers is coherent. It is mainly presumed that policymakers’ secondary beliefs regarding specific decisions are the result of policy core beliefs and, conversely, that an accumulation of changes at the level of secondary beliefs tend to change policy core beliefs over time. This assumption relies on a certain consistency among the beliefs held by human beings {Fishbein, 2010 #864}, especially by policy elites about the policies which they are expert of {Sabatier, 1993 #174}. However, this assumption was never tested explicitly. To explain that evidence and expertise have sometimes a deceptive effect on policy change, I suspect that the coherence of policymakers’ belief system could have been overestimated: I hypothesize that a significant proportion of policymakers tend to maintain their policy core beliefs despite increasing contradictions with secondary beliefs which change, over time, as a result new policy evidence and experiences (hypothesis 3).

This article is based on the data from an original survey conducted among 413 policymakers about the implementation of the European liberalization policy process in two Belgian network industries: the rail sector and the electricity sector. To measure policy learning, the policy beliefs that they held at the beginning of the policy process are compared with the beliefs that they were holding during the implementation process. The effect of policy evidence (hypothesis 1) and policymakers’ interests (hypothesis 2) on belief change, as well as the coherence in the evolution of secondary beliefs and policy core beliefs (hypothesis 3) are analyzed thanks to ordinary least square regressions.

The lessons about the effect of policy evidence and experiences on future policy attitudes and decisions are not only theoretical. The results, which show support for hypothesis 1 and 2 but not for hypothesis 3, send a hopeful message to policy practitioners as past policy evidence and experiences can significantly alter policymakers’ future attitudes and decisions. Nevertheless, past studies probably underestimated the influence of policymakers’ individual interests on their relation (and resistance) to policy expertise.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior. The reasoned action approach. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Hoberg, G. (1996). Putting ideas in their place: a response to "learning and change in the British Columbia forest policy sector". Canadian Journal of Political Science, 26(1), 135-144.

Lachapelle, E., & Montpetit, E. (submitted for publication). Can experts learn from scientists? Environmental Politics, XX, XXX-XXX.Lertzman, K., Rayner, J., & Wilson, J. (1996). On the place of ideas: A reply to George Hoberg. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 29, 145-148.

Moyson, S. (2014). The individual in policy change: Policy learning in the liberalization of network industries in Belgium. PhD thesis. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Université catholique de Louvain.

Nohrstedt, D. (2005). External shocks and policy change: Three Mile Island and Swedish nuclear energy policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 12, 1041-1059.

Sabatier, P. (1993). Policy change over a decade or more. In P. A. Sabatier & H. C. Jenkins-Smith (Eds.), Policy change and learning. An advocacy coalition approach (pp. 13-39). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

F101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF3
Shaping the future – Re-invention or Revolution: Local government leadership and management in New Zealand/Aotearoa. Andy Asquith, Andrew Cardow Some 30 years after the public managementrevolution which took place in New Zealand, the country is still viewed as theglobal laboratory for public management reform. This paper examines thepolitical and managerial roles at the apex of the nine biggest localauthorities (with the exclusion of those within the Auckland region) in NewZealand - the Metro Sector. In addition, it sheds light on anoft overlooked issue within the study of local government -issues affecting themanagement of second tier cities. The authorities in the Metro Sector groupingwithin Local Government New Zealand are: Christchurch; Dunedin; Hamilton; HuttCity; Kapiti Coast; Porirua; Tauranga; Upper Hutt and Wellington. Within eachof the nine authorities, access was sought to the CEO, Mayor and Deputy Mayor.In total, some 20 out of 27 individuals to whom access was sought, wereinterviewed.  What emerges is a mixed picture oflocal governance within New Zealand's second tier cities. What emerged from theresearch is that whilst local government in New Zealand enjoys strongmanagerial leadership, there also exists a democratic deficit with uncertaintyrelating to the leadership roles of elected representatives and a broaderunderlying issue of growing civic dis-engagement. C103 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART10
Changing Leadership in Local Government: Preparing a Futures Paper for City Development. John Martin

As a result of dramatic economic, demographic and technological change regional cities across Australia are facing transformational change. Many are at the cusp of continuing growth and development versus stagnation and decline. Central governments (State and Federal) develop broad-brush policies to encourage regional economic development however this approach does not always address the specific needs of cities. Local leaders are challenged to engage their communities in a dialogue about what they as a community can do to address the long-term challenges they face.

Developed in the final year of the city council’s four year term the Futures Paper for City Development provides the basis for extensive discussions in the lead up to the November 2014 council elections. It is an example of New Public Governance (Osborne 2010) in local government demonstrating the nature of changing leadership in Australian Local Government.

In this paper we outline the rationale for and map the leadership process followed by one regional city council working across its community to assess its current position identifying aspirations for a prosperous and resilient city including specific strategies individuals, organisations and the community can adopt to create the future to which they aspire.

 

Reference

Osborne, S. (ed) The New Public Governance: Emerging Perspectives on the Theory and Practice of Public Governance, Routlege, London.

C103 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART10
Community and democratic leadership: balancing the tension in local government Roberta Ryan

Contemporary understandings of community leadership are ill-defined at best; diffuse and contradictory at worst. How leadership is understood in the public sector context can be equally diffuse, with a vast array of leadership typologies having been developed. A review of the academic literature highlights two dominant understandings of community leadership – one where community leaders derive legitimacy and attain power through grass roots activism typically devoid of institutional arrangements; the other where legitimacy and power are attained through representation of sectional interests and strong institutional architecture.

Contemporary local government leaders are in a unique position as they have come to be viewed by communities as just another agent of the public sector, yet strive to maintain their activist community leader roots that saw them elected in the first place. This paper explores linkages between understandings of community and public sector leadership in the local government context. It discusses the tensions and challenges associated with community leaders being elected to local government office, and how the legitimacy and authority of community leaders distorts as they inherit power. It argues new capacities need developing to support community leaders make the transition from traditional activist roles that rely on grass roots, unorganised sources of legitimacy and power, to democratically elected roles that rely on representation and organisation as sources of legitimacy and power.

C103 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART10
Learning the Ropes of Government: Reflections from ‘Old Hands’ and ‘New Players’ Damon Alexander, Jenny M. Lewis, Mark Considine F101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF3
Do policy officials believe in evidence-informed policy? Brian Head

Modern governments all claim to take evidence seriously. Rigorous evidence is seen as especially valuable. However, evidence is always enmeshed in arguments about how to frame and resolve problems, and evidence is mobilized in the battles and debates on policy ideas. These debates occur within government agencies, and between organizational players in the business, government, community and research sectors.

A research project in Australia is undertaking a systematic study of public policy bureaucrats and academic social researchers: see http://www.issr.uq.edu.au/EBP-home . It investigates the perspectives and experiences of different players in the research utilization process, noting their roles as both producers and consumers of expert knowledge. The project examines both academics and government officials, and their interactions.

The perspectives of social researchers who aim to influence policy and practice beyond the academy have been increasingly well documented. Somewhat less is known about the expectations and practices of government policy workers. Despite the large literature on ‘evidence-based policy’, the attitudes and preferences of public officials remain largely unmapped. There is also little understanding of the processes and forums operating within public agencies for identifying and digesting expert information derived from a variety of internal and external sources. The capacity of organizations to utilize external expertise and to engage in collaborative practices is quite variable.

This paper reports on the attitudes of policy officials in Australia, drawing on a survey (N = 2084) and in-depth interviews with senior officials (N = 125). The paper documents the attitudes of public servants towards internal and external forms of expertise; and their wider views about the public policy process, including the various cognitive, political and contextual factors that contribute to the use of expert evidence in the policy process.

It is concluded that public policy officials do not believe that ‘evidence-based’ policymaking is possible. However, they are broadly committed to promoting an ‘evidence-informed’ policy process, while exhibiting a range of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ versions of ‘evidence-informed’ policy. They also have a range of suggestions about how this can be further facilitated.

F101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF3
Swimming or Drowning: middle management experiences in the public service Deborah Ann Blackman, Fiona Buick, Denise Faifua, Michael Forsyth, Michael O’Donnell

This paper joins the discussion concerning the contribution that education and training makes to preparing current and future public officials. The paper uses qualitative data gained from semi-structured interviews with managers and management development providers in both the Australian and the Canadian Public Services. The role and content of management education and development in preparing middle managers for both their current roles and as the upcoming senior cadre discussed; in particular the importance of preparation for their roles as managers of people.

Evidence will be given of the critical point when an employee goes from having no, or at most two, direct reports, to being responsible for a team. At this stage many participants identify a lack of preparation for their new role, as well as a lack of support once they commence. This situation has accentuated during the current austerity programmes, as spans of control become wider affecting managers’ capacity to do their jobs (Wallin et al., 2014). The paper demonstrates both: the continuing practice of appointing managers based on task expertise, rather than management capacity, and the importance of managerial capability (Helfat and Peteraf, 2014). Shock linked to commencing a more senior role, especially when there is a perceived lack of preparation and/or support, can lead to poor individual and organizational performance, at best, or separation from the organisation at worst (Havaei et al., 2013). Suggestions for future manager development are proffered to prevent managers from ‘drowning’.

Havaei, F. et al. (2013). The effects of perceived organisational support and span of control on the organisational commitment of novice leaders. Journal of Nursing Management, online first: DOI: 10.1111/jonm.12131.

Helfat, C. and Peteraf, M. (2014). Managerial cognitive capabilities and their microfoundations. Strategic Management Journal, on line first: DOI: 10.1002/smj.

Wallin, L. et al. (2014). Span of control and the significance for public sector managers’ job demands: A multilevel study. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 35(3) 455–48.

B109 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART3
Individual career strategies in mobility between public and private sectors: A comparative study Marton Gellen, Hiroko Kudo B109 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART3
Supreme Audit Institutions’ role in fighting corruption - A comparative study between the Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Spanish and Ugandian SAIs Kristin Reichborn-Kjennerud

The legitimacy of politicians and the public administration is imperative in democratic societies. If citizens do not trust the way their taxes are administered. If they suspect that politicians and civil servants work in an inefficient and wasteful manner or simply steal their money they lose faith in the system. If this happens other, alternative systems might produce themselves, based on family-ties and other types of networks.

The specific task we are looking into in this paper is the fight against corruption. The reason why we chose this specific task is because it can be considered a special case of wasteful behavior. If civil servants steal the taxpayers’ money it is the utmost example of wastefulness. When the money that goes into the system is stolen, no public services come out in the other end.

In peoples’ minds Supreme Audit Institutions are institutions that are guarantors against corruption. One of the SAIs most important tasks is to provide assurance that the systems in a country work in a just and professional way and that people that abuse the system are held to account. SAIs exists in all almost countries in the world and they are the most important institutional guardian of control and accountability in a country. Parliament relies on them for assurances about the accuracy and regularity of government accounts. It is therefore interesting to scrutinize how they work to prevent and detect corruption.

In institutional theory organizations’ need for legitimacy is central. They face external pressures and want to preserve their legitimacy to survive. In this perspective a SAI would be like any other organization that acts to safeguard its own survival, considering risks threatening its own existence. But according to their structural-instrumental set-up and goals SAIs will safeguard accountability irrespective of external pressures.

The purpose of this paper is to explore how SAIs, as a guardian of the tax-payers money, understand their role in relation to detection and prevention of corruption, and analyze the rationale behind their understanding. We do this by interviewing weak and strong SAIs that work both in contexts where corruption is institutionalized and in contexts where it is not. Norway and Denmark are examples of strong SAIs working in a context without institutionalized corruption. The Swedish SAI exemplifies a SAI that, until recently, was weak, in a context without institutionalized corruption. The SAI from Uganda and the Tribunal de Cuentas in Spain exemplify strong SAIs in contexts where corruption is institutionalized (to different degrees).

 

G101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART6
The presence of public interest in public sector accounting standard setting Giuseppe Grossi, Renata Stenka

We explore how the notion of public interest is operationalised in the standard setting process of International Private Sector Accounting Standard Board (IPSASB). Following the functionalist approach to financial reporting a fundamental objective of international accounting standards, both for private and public sector, is based on a premise of serving ‘public interest’. What/who constitutes ‘public interest’ however remains a highly complex and controversial issue as evidenced by a substantial  body of research devoted to the matter in context of the private sector financial reporting - public becomes users and users are subsequently narrowed down to current and potential investors who only constitute a small proportion of ‘public’.

In our study we use Bourdieu’s notion of semi-homogenous fields – setting international accounting standards for public sector is located in overlapping social fields. The process is located mainly in the transnational accounting regulatory arena which is then influenced by the external factors.

These autonomous and heteronomous pressures contextualise dynamic and ever changing power relations within the public sector accounting regulatory field There seem to be an ongoing competition and contestation over the ‘right’ and ‘appropriate’ interpretation of what constitutes the ‘public interest’ and how this interest is best served. This is related to the legitimation/institutionalisation of the views/procedures/solutions that ‘best’ provide for fulfilling the prevailing characteristic that the quality of the accounting standards is judged upon. In our analysis we adopt Suchman’s broad approach to legitimation processes – looking at the cognitive and behavioural dynamics that are drawn upon in establishing social legitimacy/acceptance. We link the procedures of legitimacy management used by IPSASB to the specific type of legitimacy – pragmatic, moral or cognitive.

This is a theoretical paper grounded on the analysis of empirical data based on interviews with the board members of IPSASB. The main contribution of the study is to further our understanding  of perceptions of the main decision makers from the ‘inner regulatory circle’ with regards to what constitutes the ‘public interest’ and what measures are put in place (i.e. formal procedures, structures) to assure, in their view,  that public sector accounting standards are developed in ‘public interest’.

 

G101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART6
Political leadership in changing local governance - The open arena experiences of local political leaders Jaana Leinonen, Antti Syväjärvi, Ville Kivivirta

In recent years, the interest in local political leadership has increased. Also the paradigm of political leadership is changing toward collaborative leadership, underpinning the practices that intend to enhance the community leadership  role of political leaders. Instead of the traditional hierarchical principles, more visionary and interactional local political leadership is required and the need for political leadership is perceived to be more prominent. The national reforms in public service and local government structures, the increase in complexity, uncertainty and the fragmented nature of governance (networks, partnerships, citizen participation, increased demands and rapid changes) require the more facilitative style of leadership which enhance the interaction between local governance actors, unifies the various views, stabilizes the local governance relations and understands its dynamics. (e.g. Guérin & Kerrouche 2008; Svara 2009; Bochel & Bochel 2010.) Despite these requirements of political leadership, typical political leader can yet be described more as an elected official with the formal position than as an active and proactive community leader (e.g. Bergström et. al. 2008).

Political leadership is an area of leadership and governance studies that has not gained much attention. Especially qualitative studies related to the experiences of the political leaders are rare and separated. We argue it is essential to study political leaders' adaptations the these 'new callings' of local political leadership and how the transition to the new era of political leadership has been experienced. For more comprehensive and depth understanding about political leadership, we stress studying it in term os experiences (e.g. March 2010; Syväjärvi & Kesti 2012). In this paper, political leadership is studied as experienced by local political leaders. Our purpose is to illustrate the dimensions of the local political leadership in the era of local governance, in the complex arena of interactions and multiple actors, by answering following questions: 1) How the political leadership is constructed in the experiences of the political leaders and what are the arenas and situations these experiences are especially attached to, 2) what are the strategies and means of the political leaders to act within these arenas, and 3) what are the prerequisites for collaborative and complementary political leadership. The research is qualitative and the empirical data comprises 15 interviews of local political leaders. The interviews are analyzed with inductive content analysis.

According to the preliminary results, political leaders do not always have the possibilities, capability or knowledge for reconciliation of changing circumstances and stakeholder demands and expectations. In order to consolidate the views and expectations of the various local governance actors, it is important to understand their 'world of experiences'. For example, to build a shared understanding about the organizational objectives between the political leaders and local government managers, the collective awareness of the experiences (knowledge, beliefs, intuition, sense, learning etc.) should be constructed.

References:

Bergström, T., Magnusson, H. & Ramberg, U. (2008). Through a glass darkly: Leadership complexity in Swedish local government. Local Government Studies, 36(6), 723-737.

Bochel, H. & Bgfnochel, C. (2010). Local political leadership and the modernisation of local government. Local Government Studies, 36(6), 723-737.

Guérin, E. & Kerrouche, E. (2008). From amateurs to professionals: The changing face of local elected representatives in Europe. Local Government Studies, 34(2), 179-201.

March, J.G. (2010). The Ambiguities of Experience. Cornwell University Press.

Svara, J. (2009). Advancing facilitative leadership in practice. In Svara, J. (ed.), The Facilitative Leader in City Hall. Re-examining the Scope and Contributions. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group.

Syväjärvi, A. & Kesti, M. (2012). Positive human tacit signa approach and competence system intelligence in organization. In Di Fabio, A. (ed), Emotional Intelligence - New Perspectives and Applications. In Tech.

 

C103 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART10
Inside virtual communities: performance of citizen collectiveness by means of collective intelligence using system dynamics approach Birute Mikulskiene

With achievements of network and communication technologies, virtual communities become visible players in social life with diverse purposes. Some virtual communities are more focused onto the local needs of the members’ every day activities (Chan et al, 2010), others are more oriented to strategic goals of public service development (Meijer, 2012) and yet another’s are oriented to the professional needs of practitioners (Yuh-Jen Chen et al, 2012, Demiris, 2006). Anyway, all communities represent clearly expressed element of collectiveness and create collective knowledge that could become an input for public management as citizens’ will, if only public management can find a proper interaction point with virtual communities that can create practical civic engagement without unnatural intervention into citizens’ everyday life.

However, the multidimensional nature of virtual communities and unpredictable mechanisms of governance inside the virtual community, make this possible type of civil engagement difficult to be recognised by public management. Thus, understanding how virtual communities create actual knowledge, how collectiveness transforms into appreciable performance and how to assess collectiveness is necessary. The goal of this paper is to develop a model of collectiveness inside a virtual community and explain the mechanisms of emergency of collectiveness based on knowledge management cycles and using the collective intelligence (CI) paradigm.

Research setting. System dynamics is used to explain the behaviour of virtual community as a complex system over time (Sterman, 2001). The system dynamics modelling is based on empirical data collected from monitoring virtual communities. 28 virtual communities in Lithuania were monitored for 6 months. The monitoring was conducted in between January and June, 2014. Selected virtual communities have an orientation towards citizenship and wellbeing of the society.

Findings. The monitoring of 28 virtual communities allow tracking the data corresponded to collective intelligence success factors such as number of active and passive members, diversity of community members, topics surviving time, characteristics of interactions, use of technological solutions and so on. The majority of Lithuanian virtual communities demonstrate objectives that are very close to the objectives of organisations that are represented by undertakers. Those virtual communities seek better cooperation with stakeholders and try to create a wider network of supporters. Those virtual communities expand their activities within time and their objectives become more socially oriented. Other communities are initially created as social movements with very ambitious goals. Goals are stated as willingness to seek wellbeing solutions inside the community for a better public governance and then implement them into practice. Those empirical data were incorporated into the conceptual framework of a system dynamic model which is built on indicators from social exchange theory (Blau, 1964), knowledge management theory (Nonaka et al, 1995) and collective intelligence theory (Malone et al, 2009).

The model is built of three elements: collective knowledge, community members and social maturity. Collective knowledge is a product of a virtual community that stimulates community members to support their individual interest to remain in the community, to make efforts to contribute to collective knowledge and to be satisfied with collective action as an output of the virtual community. The element of community members is very sensitive to virtual community’s success since the critical mass and critical composition of members is needed to create and enrich CI and collective knowledge. The third element represents relationships with the external world outside the community. It could work as a performance measurement output, since it can realise utilisation of knowledge in a wider environment and not just locally between members of the virtual community. We call it social maturity and give the meaning of different activities: reaction to social issues, proposals for government, stipulation of NGO activities and any other orientation towards external events outside their own community.

Conclusions.. The social interaction theory, knowledge management and CI paradigms help to reconstruct the structure of the development of a virtual community. CI in the system dynamic model has the expression of managerial rules and the way collective knowledge is accumulated and stored for further utilisation. The relationship with external issues and reinforcing mechanisms of how to use collective knowledge wider than just for local needs of the virtual community has been introduced into the virtual community’s system dynamics model.

D105 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW3
Engaging Contradictions: Enacting Participation and Exclusion through Community-based Policymaking in Southern California Victoria Lowerson Bredow

This paper presents findings from my dissertation, a multi-year ethnographic study of a local planning and policymaking initiative in Southern California. I show how a collaborative of nonprofit representatives with the expertise, support, and intention to engage residents in local planning and policymaking continue to enact exclusion. This research is timely, as a richer understanding of exclusivity can help citizens and public managers find new ways to practice community engagement more inclusively.

The extant literature discusses exclusion in terms of failures within public participation practices and policies to incorporate a diverse group of participants and their knowledge (Saito 2009). It also conceptualizes citizen involvement in policymaking by placing the amount of time put in by citizens in a linear relationship with the amount of influence they have on decisions (Kraft & Furlong 2013).

Recent research in inclusive management has expanded traditional notions of engagement beyond incorporating marginalized groups and citizen input by distinguishing between participation and inclusion where participation is focused on increasing input of citizens into the content of plans and policies (Quick & Feldman 2011). In comparison, inclusion is process-oriented and defined as “making connections among people, across issues, and over time” as well as building “the capacity of the community to implement the decisions and tackle related issues” (Quick & Feldman 2011, p. 274).

In this paper I draw on the inclusive management literature to expand understandings of exclusion to be less about preventing opportunities for input and more about hindering connections between people and knowledge and inhibiting their commitment and capacity. My analysis shows that how these organizational representatives do their work makes it difficult for them to be inclusionary; specifically, I distinguish features of exclusion in how they accomplish their work. I also identify the logic of rationality, a well-known feature of organizational contexts, as a defining logic that promotes exclusion. This research provides a grounded understanding of how everyday practices interact with the opportunities to create connections between residents and projects and to cultivate their knowledge, commitment and capacity.

Citations upon request

A101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART2
Silencing Business Interest in Public Policy Making: Poultry Processing and Alabama Immigration Politics Eli Jamison

While still seeking economic recovery from the 2008 recession, Alabama implemented what is widely acknowledged as the harshest, state-initiated immigration reform law in the United States in 2011. Alabama politicians framed this legislation as a “jobs bill” and relied on the policy of “attrition through enforcement,” also known as “self-deportation,” as its prime enforcement mechanism. This key provision of the law fundamentally changed the management of enforcement by intentionally shifting the burden of enforcement from the public sector to a broad cross-section of individuals and private and third sector organizations. This cross-section created a network of unwitting, and sometime unwilling, volunteers from all sectors of the Alabama populace to include businesses, churches, and other residents with legal status. This law was largely enjoined in the courts by October 2013, and this particular approach to immigration policy making has since been largely discredited and several U.S. states have adopted different, more welcoming, immigration approaches. However, the federal U.S. government has proven unable or unwilling to take action on this issue leaving discursive room for those who still advocate for harsher immigration measures like those promoted by Alabama and other U.S. states.

Part of what makes this case interesting is that Alabama implemented this law despite protestations from some of Alabama’s most influential political agents: business and agricultural lobbies. In particular, the voice of Alabama’s poultry processing industry was publicly silent (or silenced) during and after this political debate despite evidence that this law would create economic harm via its impact on critical immigrant labor supplies. One of the immediate repercussions of this law was its impact on Alabama’s agribusinesses, many of whom lost significant income in 2011 when an estimated 70,000-80,000 individuals, mostly Latino, left the state in the weeks after implementation. Those who left were of mixed legal status, and the agribusinesses like poultry processing held job fairs in order to try to quickly backfill the positions previously held by legally documented employees who fled the state for a variety of personal reasons stemming from the targeting racial profiling mandated in this statute to be enforced by employers, among others.

By using this Alabama case, this work examines the repercussions when a set of state political actors effectively silence input from key, economic stakeholders with regard to decisions directly impacting their operation. To understand the mechanisms of this silence/silencing, this paper deploys Clegg’s Circuits of Power model to examine how Alabama’s particular, multiscalar, networked economic and political system silenced the potential for political voice by its poultry processing industry. Using data collected from interviews, local and national news outlets, and other regional sources, this paper provides a highly contextual analysis of this situation in order to identify specific locations, or “obligatory passage points,” where negotiations among Alabama’s economic and political “power brokers” (some of whom include third sector actors advocating for immigrant rights) did and did not occur in order to analyze real and imagined influence within these political networks between governmental, private and third sector actors. This paper intends to raise questions regarding the assumptions of a "mutually beneficial" interdependence between state governments, state politics, and capitalistic economic actors within this particular Alabama context.

A101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART2
Assessing the impact of coproduction models in Greek local government: between cultural limitations and governance innovation SIFIS PLIMAKIS

Local government performance in Greece is characterized from ineffectiveness, limited quality and lack of innovation, among the lowest rates in European Union[1]. Furthermore social capital variables such as trust, corruption and citizen participation in collective action institutions, also scored very low and limited further the performance of Greek local government. Social capital limitations in combination with the appearance of a centralized in local government regulation and the absent of a culture of inter – sectoral collaboration, affect negative the efficiency and diffusion of collaborative governance –coproduction models, such as public – private partnerships, social enterprises and local development partnerships[2].

Various central government initiatives for the promotion of alternative coproduction models in Greece have been failed, mainly due to the selected and enforced policy’s top – down approach, its limited responsiveness regarding local stakeholders’ needs and the appearance of market entry barriers[3]. Additionally citizens and private enterprises doesn’t appear to support central government’s recent initiatives for stakeholders engagement in municipal planning and governance, which also appear to have a limited effect regarding public participation levels and trust. At the same time, continuing productivity problems in Greek local government performance lead to the introduction of deregulation legislation in several municipal services sectors as waste management, energy production and public transportation, which also failed to create a market for municipal services.

Despite these structural and organizational limitations for alternative coproduction models development in Greek local government, various good practices appearing in selected municipalities. Successful initiatives characterized from innovation, inter – sectoral collaboration and increased stakeholders’ participation, factors lead to the provision of services characterized from an improved quality and a limited cost of provision. Furthermore selected best practices are characterized from the promotion of local community and citizens on partnerships management and decision making and the development of a new culture of trusted base collaboration between municipal authority, citizens and private sector.

Based on qualitative and quantitative empirical data, research analyzes the prospects and the comparative efficiency of alternative coproduction models in the distinctive environment Greek local government, by focusing on case studies from various sectors of municipal services provision such as waste management, environmental protection, local transportation, public assets development, renewable energy production and social services provision. Case studies performed under alternative coproduction regimes as public – private partnerships, local partnerships and social economy enterprises

Research assess the conditions under which alternative coproduction models could lead to services efficiency improvements and contribute to the emergence of a new model of local governance in Greece. Local governance innovation beyond the strict public – private sector dichotomy in Greece and the ineffective central enforcement of local government deregulation strategies. Additionally research focuses on the evaluation of alternative governance models selection and organization, institutional relations and decision making processes. Moreover collaborative governance models analyzed regarding the identification of initiative success factors in terms of trust creation, collaboration settings and incentives and stakeholders engagement strategies.

Empirical research is based on the results of an on-going empirical assessment of 62 Greek municipalities which have experienced with the introduction and development of alternative institutional models for municipal services provision from 2004 till now. Furthermore and as part of the empirical research 8 good practices from Greek local government, are also comparative presented and analyzed. Qualitative research include 82 interviews with stakeholders and the completion of 212 semi structured questionnaires..

 

 

 


[1] OECD, 2011, government at glance: Greece

OECD, 2012, review of the central administration

Council of Europe, 2011, local government in critical times

Council of Europe, 2011, structure and operation of regional and local democracy

EETAA, 2011, local government in Greece and European Union

European central bank, 2008, public sector efficiency in European Union member states

[2] University of Michigan, 2013, world values surveys

OECD – Lymperaki A – Paraskevopoulos C, 2002, Social capital measurement in Greece

Feggagina E, 2012, social capital in Europe: a comparative regional analysis

[3] European Commission, 2012, The Second Economic Adjustment Programme for Greece First Review - December

Privatizing Europe project results, 2013

 

A101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART2
Implementing an innovation: the role of midlevel bureaucracy in contemporary complex policies Gabriela Spanghero Lotta, Vanessa Elias Oliveira

Reviewing the literature on public policy, it is noticed that there is little progress in in analyzes about public bureaucracies that occupy intermediary role in government structures, midlevel bureaucracy . This bureaucracy assumes a remarkable role in the intermediation between formulators and implementers, or between politicians and bureaucrats.

This article seeks to advance this gap by analyzing the performance of mid-level bureaucracy in the implementation of a new policy in the context of formation of a new bureaucratic body and the challenges of two distinct stages of this process, namely: the initial stage of the proceedings implementation and, in a next step, in maintaining the running program, with its more "incremental" demands.

The case analyzed here is the midlevel bureaucracy involved in Bolsa Família program. The BF is the main social program in Brazil and is based on income transfers to poor families, monitoring conditionalities linked to health and education. It is a policy with intersectoral and federative features  in a  wide scale in Brazil. For its implementation, are involved midlevel bureaucrats of different government agencies. Bolsa Família is a good example of how the major contemporary Brazilian public policies have been formulated and structured

This article presents the results of an analysis of the profile and performance of this bureaucracy, who faced different challenges in the implementation of a new public policy process: at first, the challenge of creating new rules, institutional structures and patterns of intra and inter-relationship . After this initial step, the challenge of keeping the policy in operation, with more incremental actions, and generate new possibilities for action / innovation on the other - seeking even political space for new "steps".

In this paper we present the results of qualitative research, which involved mainly interviews with midlevel bureaucracy of the Bolsa Família will be presented. One of the important findings in the research is that for policies with more complex features (intersectoral and federal) midlevel bureaucracy bureaucrats has assumed a role of articulation and mobilizing networks, where new skills are now required for the exercise of the function .

 

 

L101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Aston Webb AST1
A Review of Performance Audit Literature Marie-Soleil Tremblay This literature review seeks to provide the reader with a richer and more complex understanding of performance auditing: What is performance auditing? How do auditors practice their craft? What is the impact of performance auditing? Overall, results suggest that there exist significant differences in how researchers define and approach the concept of performance auditing. From political perspectives to more technical definitions, performance auditing appears as a socially constructed and unstable object of knowledge. Most surprising is perhaps, how little academics know about performance auditing. Research on this topic remains fragmented and is far from constituting a robust and coherent body of knowledge. Implications are discussed. G101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART6
Co-production of public services: a systematic review Vivian Xuan Tu

The study conducts a systematic review of co-production by examining 74 cases worldwide. It aims to develop a co-production framework. It makes a contribution of extending current theory by identifying key variables of co-production. The rationale of adopting this method is that a systematic approach takes an objective view to synthesize research evidence relevant to a specific topic. Specifically, a scoping review is conducted by collecting both published and unpublished work in synthesizing evidence. Given such methodological considerations, a strategy of narrative synthesis is adopted. Approach to this strategy is the inclusive extraction of qualitative findings. To proceed with the review process, the study starts with the review questions:  what are the key variables of co-production and what are its impacts on service outcomes? It then presents the procedure of review: inclusion criteria, data source, strategy of extracting evidence, quality assessment and data synthesis. Findings from data analysis suggest that 1). Co-production occurs mostly in service areas of medical care, education and environment; 2). Co-production occurs in a network through established partnerships with coproducers; 3). Co-production brings positive impacts on service outcomes that benefit a wide range of people. The evidence points toward capacity building of government, communities and individual citizens. The study concludes with a discussion of the implication of co-production for future research.

A101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART2
Framing effects in managing networks: Cognitive perspectives on effective self-organization Michèle Morner, Manuel Misgeld

Effective governance in the knowledge society is crucial for tackling persistent, pervasive, multi-faceted, dynamic and interrelated challenges such as in climate change, poverty reduction, unemployment and changing demographics (European Commission 2010; Copeland, James 2014). From this perspective, the failure of the Lisbon Agenda can be explained not only by the economic crisis, but also by the lack of inter-organizational, cross-sectoral and polycentric collaboration as well as horizontal and vertical co-ordination (Bouckaert, Peters, Verhoest 2010; Christensen et al. 2013). To rectify this dysfunction, conventional regulatory policy implementation can be used to enforce compliance, while monetary incentives may serve to create goal congruence. However, because they fail to acknowledge the underlying complexity of the problems and interrelatedness of actors, these governance mechanisms fall short when it comes to building problem-solving capabilities, establishing a mutual understanding or reaching compromises (Weber, Khademian 2008; Koppenjan and Klijn 2004:113, De Angelis 2013; Head & Alford 2013; Kinder 2012). This can be ascribed to the inability of conventional and monetary governance patterns to overcome cognitive barriers of the stakeholders involved.

Using behavioral sciences, cognitive perspectives on governance and research on public sector reform (e.g. Grandori 1997; Osborne 2010, Klijn, Koppenjan 2012), this paper conceptually explores how horizontal, self-organizing governance patterns can effectively overcome cognitive barriers in networks. But further to this, it elaborates on the antecedents of self-organizing: Effective horizontal governance patterns depend on how actors frame and are able to make sense of complex issues, develop a shared understanding of problems, form preferences, and to mutually adjust their behavior accordingly. Only then can dispersed local and tacit knowledge as well as the attitudes, needs and interests of the citizens be recognized and mobilized for creating public value (Bonnet, Wirtz 2011; Brandsen, Honingh 2013; Calvert, Warren 2014).

Furthermore, we show that the cognitive antecedents and effects of self-organizing mutually interact: Mental maps and frames influence how a problem is perceived. This also affects which coping and coordination strategies or learning logics are preferred (Termeer et al. 2013). It is due to this path-dependency of intertwined individual, organizational or collective framing that governance mechanisms can be mixed and implemented effectively. Finally, we refer to meta-governance and highlight how government can stipulate co-operation, getting empowered actors fill the scope for autonomous action while at the same time influencing and framing the context and conditions of self-organization in networks.

 

References

Bonnet, C. & Wirtz, P. (2006). Investor Type, Cognitive Governance and Performance in Young Entrepreneurial Ventures: A Conceptual Framework. Advances in Behavioral Finance & Economics: The Journal of the Academy of Behavioral Finance 1 (1), 42-62.

Bouckaert, G., Peters, G.B. & Verhoest, K. (2010). The Coordination of Public Sector Organizations. Shifting Patterns of Public Management. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Brandsen, T. & Honingh, M. (2013) Professionals and Shifts in Governance. International Journal of Public Administration, 36 (12), 876-88.

Calvert, A. & Warren, M. E. (2014). Deliberative Democracy and Framing Effects: Why Frames are a Problem and How Deliberative Mini-Publics Might Overcome Them. In: Grönlund, K., Bächtiger, A. & Sätäli, M. (eds.): Deliberative Mini-Publics, Involving Citizens in the Democratic Process. ECPR Press: Colchester.

Christensen, T., Fimreite, A. L., & Lægreid, P. (2013). Joined‐Up Government for Welfare Administration Reform in Norway. Public Organization Review, forthcoming, 1‐18.

Copeland, P. & James, S. (2014). Policy windows, ambiguity and Commission entrepreneurship: explaining the relaunch of the European Union's economic reform agenda. Journal of European Public Policy, 21 (1), 1-19.

De Angelis, C.T. (2013). A Knowledge Management and Organizational Intelligence Model for Public Administration. International Journal of Public Administration, 36 (11), 807-819.

European Commission (2010). EUROPE 2020. A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. COM(2010) 2020.

Grandori, A. (1997). Governance structures, coordination mechanisms and cognitive model. Journal of Management and Governance 1 (1), 29–47.

Head, B. W. & Alford, J. (2013). Wicked Problems: Implications for Public Policy and Management. Administration & Society, forthcoming, DOI: 10.1177/0095399713481601, 1‐29.

Kinder, T. (2012). Learning, Innovating and Performance in Post- New Public Management of Locally Delivered Public Services, Public Management Review, 14 (3), 403-428.

Koppenjan, J., Klijn, E. H. 2004: Managing Uncertainties in Networks - A network approach to problem solving and decision making. Routledge: New York.

Klijn, E.-H & Koppenjan, J. (2012). Governance network theory: past, present and future. Policy & Politics, 40(4): 687–606.

Osborne, S. (2010). Introduction. The (New) Public Governance: a suitable case for treatment? In: The New Public Governance? Emerging perspectives on the theory and practice of public governance. Abingdon:Routledge.

Termeer, C. J. A. M., Dewulf, A. Breeman, G. & Stiller, S. J. (2013). Governance Capabilities for Dealing Wisely With Wicked Problems. Administration & Society, forthcoming, DOI: 10.1177/0095399712469195, 1‐31.

Weber, E. & Khademian, A. (2008). Wicked Problems, Knowledge Challenges, and Collaborative Capacity Builders in Network Settings. Public Administration Review, 68 (2), 334–349.

J104 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART7
Policy learning in co-creation processes: An international comparison William Voorberg

William Voorberg (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Victor Bekkers (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Lars Tummers (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Piret Tonurist (Tallinna Technikaulikool), Krista Timeus (Hertie School of Governance), Sophie Flemig (University of Edinburgh)

To be presented at IRSPM conference 2015 Panel D105: Self-Organizing Citizens in the 21th Century: New Citizen Collectives and their Implications for Public Management

Abstract

In order to deal with contemporary societal challenges such as austerity, ageing and a decline of legitimacy of public institutions, governments are turning to citizens to participate in public service delivery. As a result citizens can bring in their specific resources in the initiation, design and implementation of public services (e.g. Bason, 2010; Lee, Chen, & Chou, 2013; Sørensen & Torfing, 2011). In these ambitions, a very thorough and innovative way of citizen involvement is being displayed. We label this kind of involvement as co-creation in social innovation processes (Voorberg, Bekkers, & Tummers, 2014). This movement requires from public organizations and public officials that they adapt (“learning that” and “learning how”) to co-creation. However, previous research to policy learning have shown that it’s far from self-evident that public officials learn to cope with these kind of innovative movements and therefore initiate the required policy change (McBeth, Shanahan, Arnell, & Hathaway, 2007; Munro, 1993). This is because learning might be based on various sources, such as ‘evidence-based’ information (Sanderson, 2002) institutional incentives and symbols (Zito & Schout, 2009) and/or based on discourses and symbols (Hajer, 1995). As a result, policy learning is conceptualized in very different ways, in different schools of thought within policy sciences (Bennett & Howlett, 1992; Dunlop & Radaelli, 2013). Therefore, much uncertainty emerges about ‘what is being learned’, ‘by whom’ and ‘to what effect’ (Bennett & Howlett, 1992). Furthermore, in the field of co-creation, an additional complication might be, that learning might be obstructed because public officials feel threatened in their professionalism, or cannot accept citizens as reliable resource partner (Baars, 2011; Hyde & Davies, 2004; Mitlin, 2008). In the field of public co-creation/co-production, so far, almost no attention is paid to both whether and how learning takes place in co-creation processes. However, since co-creation processes change traditional relationships between citizens and public officials/public organizations, we expect that it’s conditional that a process of transformative learning (i.e. public officials adapt their roles to the co-creation process) takes place in order to establish fertile arrangements between governments and citizens (Bekkers, Tummers, & Voorberg, 2013). Given the lack of attention being paid to this aspect in the literature on co-creation and co-production, we aim to improve our understanding whether and how processes of transformative learning take place within processes of co-creation and how we can explain this. Our central research question is therefore: To what extent do public officials display (transformational) learning, by changing their roles in co-creation processes with citizens and how can this be explained?

Since most studies to public co-creation/co-production is conducted as a single case-study, we conduct, we are methodologically innovative by conducting an international comparative case-study. We selected five examples of co-creation within the welfare domain (Estonia, Germany, the Netherlands, Slovakia, UK). The cases are situated in various policy contexts and state traditions. In doing so, we will not only analyze whether transformative learning has occurred, but also to what extent such context characteristics influence this transformational learning processes of public officials..

Key words: transformative learning; public co-creation; role adaption

References

Baars, T. (2011). Experiential science; towards an integration of implicit and reflected practitioner-expert knowledge in the scientific development of organic farming. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics, 24(6), 601-628. doi:10.1007/s10806-010-9281-3

Bason, C. (2010). Leading public sector innovation. Bristol: Policy Press.

Bekkers, V., Tummers, L., & Voorberg, W. (2013). From public innovation to social innovation in the public sector: A literature review of relevant drivers and barriers. Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam,

Bennett, A., & Checkel, J. T. (2012). Process tracing: From philosophical roots to best practices. Simons Papers in Security and Development, 21, 30.

Bennett, C. J., & Howlett, M. (1992). The lessons of learning: Reconciling theories of policy learning and policy change. Policy Sciences, 25(3), 275-294.

Dunlop, C. A., & Radaelli, C. M. (2013). Systematising policy learning: From monolith to dimensions. Political Studies, 61(3), 599-619.

Hajer, M. A. (1995). The politics of environmental discourse: Ecological modernization and the policy processClarendon Press Oxford.

Hyde, P., & Davies, H. T. O. (2004). Service design, culture and performance: Collusion and co-production in health care. Human Relations, 57(11), 1407-1426.

Lee, P., Chen, C., & Chou, C. (2013). Decreasing tax collectors’ perceived social loafing through collaborative behaviors of taxpayers. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, doi:10.1093/jopart/mut015

McBeth, M. K., Shanahan, E. A., Arnell, R. J., & Hathaway, P. L. (2007). The intersection of narrative policy analysis and policy change theory. Policy Studies Journal, 35(1), 87-108.

Mitlin, D. (2008). With and beyond the state - co-production as a route to political influence, power and transformation for grassroots organizations. Environment and Urbanization, 20(2), 339-360.

Munro, J. F. (1993). California water politics: Explaining policy change in a cognitively polarized subsystem.Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach, , 105-127.

Sanderson, I. (2002). Evaluation, policy learning and evidence‐based policy making. Public Administration, 80(1), 1-22.

Sørensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2011). Enhancing collaborative innovation in the public sector. Administration & Society, 43(8), 842-868.

Voorberg, W., Bekkers, V., & Tummers, L. G. (2014). A systematic review of co-creation and co-production: Embarking on the social innovation journey. Public Management Review, Forthcoming,

Zito, A. R., & Schout, A. (2009). Learning theory reconsidered: EU integration theories and learning. Journal of European Public Policy, 16(8), 1103-1123.

 

D105 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW3
Adaptive Capacity and Self-Organising Citizens under Conditions of Austerity Subas Dhakal, Robyn Keast, Kerry Ann Brown Regional vitality and resilience depends on communities maintaining adequate infrastructure for delivery of services and programs. However in the context of outsourcing and hyper-competition of services and the introduction of economic austerity measures, including public sector and community sector cutbacks - new ways of delivering service delivery goals are needed. The notions of citizen empowerment, volunteerism and community autonomy as replacements for government-funded services link to the concept of self-organising citizens in this panel. The research question is: how do regional community organisations respond to austerity measures? We use an organisational resilience assessment framework to explore the question. We argue it is essential for public policy to be innovative in addressing the contextual service delivery needs and that of service providers in the regions. However, we contend that service providers need to be vigilant about their role in forming community capitals that at least partially, fosters their capacity to comprehend and resolve regional needs. It is in this context that we argue the theory of adaptive capacity - the transformative ability to adapt to changing circumstances - offers a lens to examine the generalised sense of uncertainty and insecurity of regional service providers amidst socio-economic stressors. A case study of a regional community organisation in the social services sector is presented to analyse the concept of self-organising citizens and adaptive capacity. Findings indicate that it is not so much increased capacity in the sense of 'greater funding' but in the contextual understanding of the circumstances in which community organisations operate and whether or not they can organise organisational members to demonstrate the 'value proposition' of the services provided to various stakeholders in the region. The paper responds to the challenge of identifying forms of citizen collectives and how these operate and evolve, especially in times of austerity. D105 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW3
Understanding Leadership in Public Collaborative Contexts Siv Vangen

The paper aims to make a contribution to practice-oriented theory on collaboration through problematizing and exploring the complexity that characterizes leadership in collaborative contexts and to provide some conceptual handles to inform reflective practice. It draws on a substantial review of leadership theory relevant to the context of public sector collaboration and provides examples from the authors’ empirical research on collaboration over the last two decades in the UK and US respectively.

The paper provides a needed synthesis of what is already known about leadership in collaborative contexts with a view to indicate opportunities for future empirical and conceptual development. It starts with an identification and exposition of the defining characteristics of public collaborative contexts in which leadership is undertaken. This includes, for example, the identification of different types of collaborations/networks and associated units of analysis, the paradoxical nature of collaboration, types of structure and modes of governance, varying perceptions of membership, and sense of purpose. It proceeds with a discussion of the importance of context for collaborative leadership and the nature of leadership as perceived by those involved in leadership roles. This includes, for example, distinctions between overt versus explicit leadership, directive versus facilitative leadership, leadership “in” versus leadership “of” collaborations,  leaders versus followers, and so on. In view of the inevitably “messy” context and ambiguous nature of collaboration, the final section addresses leadership agency and how individuals who perceive themselves as leaders actually make a difference in the process and outcomes of collaboration. This final section then effectively synthesises what is known about the enactment of leadership for collaborative practice. The paper concludes with some suggestions for future practical and conceptual development of collaborative leadership.

Representative References

Agranoff, R. & McGuire, M. 2003. Collaborative public management: New strategies for local governments. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Huxham, C. & Vangen, S. (2000) 'Leadership in the shaping and implementation of collaboration agendas: how things happen in a (not quite) joined-up world', Academy of Management Journal, vol.43, no.6, pp.1159-75.

McGuire, M. & Silvia, C. Forthcoming. Managing effective collaborations. Handbook of Public Administration (3rd edition).

Silvia, C. & McGuire, M. 2010. Leading public sector networks: An empirical examination of integrative leadership behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly 21(2): 264-277.

Vangen, S. & Huxham, C. 2003. Enacting leadership for collaborative advantage: Dilemmas of ideology and pragmatism in the activities of partnership managers. British Journal of Management, 14: S61-S76.

Vangen, S., Hayes J. P., & Cornforth, C. 2014. Governing cross-sector, inter-organizational collaborations. Public Management Review, Advanced access, doi: 10.1177/0899764014532836.

 

J104 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART7
The Craft of Collaborative Practice in an Interdisciplinary Healthcare Setting Peter Tsasis

Theoretical/Conceptual Foundation:

Studies of interdisciplinary teamwork in healthcare indicate that collaboration is a contested process in which parties have to learn to work together. However, the process by which this type of learning is enacted remains poorly understood which has hindered the development of collaborative practice. We frame the research within Complex Adaptive Systems Theory, focusing our attention on patterns of interactions that are co-evolving within their embedded context in supporting (or not) collaborative behaviours.

Research Questions:

This study examines (1) how learning and knowledge exchange processes unfold within and across interdisciplinary and interorganizational teams, and (2) identifies what factors contribute to the development of effective collaborative practice in healthcare settings.

Methods:

In depth semi-structural interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of thirteen Community Care Coordinators embedded in multiple interdisciplinary teams of healthcare professionals providing integrated care to patientts with complex needs. Interviews were complemented by observations of group meetings and listening-in on patients' case study group discussions. Results were validated in a focus group of Community Care Coordinators.

Results:

The data highlighted that much of what makes collaborative practice successful or challenging is based on the quality of the inter-professional interaction and the type of social engagement determined by attitudes, preferences, and expectations of the individual providers in the interface. Also, how each team member defined and enacted the concept of collaboration and communication in the context of care provisions was important. Interdependence and collaboration among team members generally increased over time as team members recognized the value of others' knowledge and expertise and became accustomed to drawing on that knowledge in care provisions. Learning occurred through active participation as a collective social process, rather than an individual process without points of contact, through four interrelated behaviours: interaction, feedback, reflection, and self-directed learning. The results of the study can be used to identify ways to better support healthcare professionals in collaborating for integrated care delivery.

J104 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART7
Shaping the future of Public Administration Education: Enabling Professionals to Think Critically Ricardo Gomes, Greg Streib

Trying to understand the required needs and skills for public administration education, Denhardt (2001) contended that public managers need cognitive, linguistic, and psychosocial development. There are some knowledge on the field of using critical thinking in management education (Athanassiou, McNett, and Harvey 2003). Although, the indications that scholars have been thinking and studying critical thinking as a step forward to public administration the advancements seems to be a little timid at the moment. One might argue that public administration lacks a signature pedagogy – “modes of teaching that are distinctive to a profession, and pervasive across its curriculum (Abel 2009, p. 146). Maybe the identity crisis of public administration as a discipline is still enduring (Raadschelders 1999, Rutgers 1998, Henry 1975). Raadschelders (1999, p. 285) mentioned a “confidence crisis (i.e., loss of professional confidence and commitment among scholars of public administration)”. The fact is, the way we have been teaching public administration needs to evolve in order to turn public managers into professionals able to deal with the growing complexity of government matters.

In this essay, we propose a set of objectives by combining the POSDCoRB and Bloom’s Taxonomy.  The first is a consolidated representation of the public manager job and the second is a cognitive educational process for teaching competencies from concrete to abstract. As a result a set of educational objectives are suggested to implement critical thinking in public administration courses syllabi. Depending on the maturity level of the students, teachers would be able to engage them into more ambitious objectives in order to improve critical thinking abilities.

Combining the activities public managers do on a regular basis with cognitive skills, we propose a set of 42 educational objectives, which would improve in a great deal the way professionals face public administration problems and challenges. For devising the cognitive skills the educational process needs to focus upon in order to produce professionals able to employ abstraction for problem solving, we used the Bloom’s Taxonomy.
B109 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART3
Training Public Servants: Toward An Appropriate Pedagogy for Mid-Career Public Servants Ken Rasmussen

The question of training public servants in executive education programs is one that is fraught with challenges.  However as more and more MPA programs begin to emphasis competencies among their full time cohorts and explicitly talk about developing the next generation of leaders, there are fewer barriers surrounding offering practical and relevant education rather than just providing an introduction to the academic literature and theory.  This is especially the case as more schools and programs are now offering a variety of executive MPA programs for mid-career public servants and working closer with public sector clients.   Most schools of public administration also a number of stand alone and custom built executive education modules for a variety of public sector clients.

Yet there is some concern that the academic community is not best suited to teach public servants and many national public services have developed elaborate national schools staffed mostly by public servants and ex-public servants.  The Canada School of Public Service is only one example, but these in-house training colleges exist around the world.   However training public servants is not only a practical matter, but also one that requires distance, academic rigor, and a solid grounding in the nature of the changing literature.   In short, good public management is a is an effective combination of craft, with some art or insight, and with some analysis.  This mix is best found in schools of public administration and the trend towards in-house training is one that needs to be resisted, but must also be done in a way that demonstrates the advantages of having this activity done  in conjunction with universities.

This paper explores what the current approach to executive development looks like and how to move beyond it. It will be based on a survey of both public servants who are part-time students in MPA programs and those public servants who have attended non-credit modules and other custom training opportunities.  The results of the survey will help us better understand what is wrong with our current approach and also point towards a possible way forward and examine the question of what pedagogy is most effective.  Most people will agree that lectures and case studies are not enough and that training, to be effective and valuable, must bring about real change in behavior.   In the end, it is proposed that the development of public managers can and should take place not beyond the universities, but in conjunction with them.

 

B109 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART3
Mountains of the mind: Leadership in a perfect storm Jean Hartley

The leadership literature has burgeoned over the last two decades (Dinh et al, 2014; ‘t Hart, 2014).  Much of the initial research came from studies of military leadership and this was then extended to managerial leadership.  In the public administration field, leadership is increasingly being seen as important in a context of polycentric and networked governance (e.g. Pedersen and Hartley, 2008; Benington, 2000; van Wart, 2012).  However, the academic literature on leadership is quite variable in quality, both theoretically and empirically, and there is a danger that the construct leadership becomes a conceptual sponge, soaking up a wide variety of meanings and theoretical insights and therefore losing analytical precision and insight.  Furthermore, the over-reliance on managerial models from the private sector can be restrictive. 

If public organizations are facing ‘perfect storm’ conditions, then one way to stay grounded, both literally and metaphorically, is to pay detailed attention to context and purpose, and this paper will undertake this by examining mountain leadership.  The paper uses a close analysis of a key mountaineering leadership text:  Mountaincraft and Leadership by Eric Langmuir (2013), now in its 4th edition.  Originally published in 1969, it rapidly became the bible for mountaineers and is widely used in mountain leadership training in the UK.  It has much to say which is relevant to understanding the terrain, purposes and challenges of public policy and public management.  In this analysis, “reading the context” (geography, weather, light, conditions underfoot) and understanding the goals, abilities, condition and dynamics of the mountaineering party are crucial, along with continuing mental alertness and reflexivity.  Langmuir book argues for a contingent approach to the practice of leadership, in that the choice of leadership practice depends on a variety of factors, including the current and anticipated terrain and weather conditions.  This is highly relevant to the ‘perfect storm’ conditions of current public management. 

Mountain leadership is compared with aspects of military leadership (generally a form of public leadership) and managerial and professional leadership in the public sphere to highlight commonalities and differences and to argue for the criticality of context and purpose in understanding public leadership.  The implications for key theoretical frameworks about public leadership are raised. 

References:  on request. 

B102 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART1
E-leadership: New Skills, Knowledge, and Approaches for Public Managers Montgomery van Wart

The administrative and technological developments of the past few decades have significantly changed the nature of public management. While we have made important progress in our comprehension of these new dynamics, there is much that remains to be learned about the latter transformations, especially in terms of new conditions that it imposes in terms of leadership. E-leadership has become a necessity and reality for public managers operating at all levels of government (see Bekkers & Homburg 2007; Dunleavy et al. 2006; Milakovich 2012; West 2005; Van Wart 2014); yet, there’s little that we know about it. This presentation, drawing on original quantitative and qualitative analysis of a municipal government will provide a detailed assessment of where e-leadership and e-government are currently in the co-evolution of e-leadership and e-government.  It will also provide some practical guidance for public managers that they need to effectively operate in the digital governance. In particular, this project will define e-leadership; identify the new skills, knowledge, and approaches in dealing with leadership challenges imposed by advanced information technologies (AIT) as well as define e-government and its associated virtual technologies in the case of a municipal government.

Two decades ago, the placement of leadership in government within a digital domain might have appeared to be a matter of choice. This is no longer the case. Current public administration is increasingly reliant upon digital platforms and the administrative capacities required by them. In a number of ways, effective leadership today cannot be envisioned without virtual technologies ranging from simple but ubiquitous email systems, to dynamic but unpredictable social media, to narrowly focused blogs and highly sophisticated internet interfaces, among others. Not only has e-leadership risen in importance, its ascendance as an approach appears to be still rising (White 2007). And while we have come a long way in our understanding of more technical aspects from an expert’s perspective of current possibilities (e.g., network design, transitions from legacy systems) (e.g., Carrizales 2008; Kohlborn 2014), there is surprisingly little that we know about leadership within the context of this new and often challenging space (e.g., Avolio et al. 2014 Purao, Desouza, & Becker 2012; Rocco 2013); this is especially true in government. Extant literature (see Ahn & Bretschneider 2011; Roman 2013) suggests that information communication technologies (ICTs) impose a significantly different set of operational, managerial and human challenges when compared to “traditional” face-to-face management. This, of course, requires a detailed revision of the skills, knowledge, and approaches that should be developed by leaders when operating within this new administrative space.

The presentation will be based on a critical and in-depth review of most up-to-date studies and literature in the fields of e-government, MIS, virtual management, and virtual communications. These areas provide numerous insights which can be used to delineate the demands and dynamics of e-leadership as the knowledge base exists at present. As importantly, extensive original data is being collected through surveys and interviews with public managers from a municipal government to put together a comprehensive look at the state of the practice from an average U.S. city.

There are important contributions that this paper will make. First, this will encompass an original (perhaps first of its kind) comprehensive examination of a government setting—e-leadership with a multiple, differentiated, levels-of-analysis approach. Second, it will inform and educate public sector leaders on the critical, yet often overlooked, human and organizational challenges of leadership in a virtual environment. Finally, this paper will become a starting point for developing a broader theoretical basis to bridge the fields of e-government, e-governance, MIS, virtual management, and virtual leadership into a more integrated e-leadership theory by providing a stronger empirical base regarding where we currently are.

 

References:

Ahn, M. J., & Bretschneider, S. (2011). Politics of e‐government: E‐government and the political control of bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 71(3), 414–424.

Avolio, B. J., Sosik, J. J., Kahai, S. S., and Baker, B. (2014). E-leadership: Re-examining transformations in leadership source and transmission. The Leadership Quarterly 25: 105-131.

Bekkers, V., & Homburg, V. (2007). The myths of e-government: Looking beyond the assumptions of new and better government. The Information Society, 23(5), 373–382.

Carrizales, T. (2008). Functions of e-government: A study of municipal practices. State and Local Government Review 40(1): 12-26.

Dunleavy, P., Margetts, H., Bastow, S., & Tinkler, J. (2006). New public management is dead - Long live digital-era governance. Journal of Public Administration: Research and Theory, 16(3), 467–494.

Kohlborn, T. (2014). Quality assessment of service bundles for one-stop portals: A literature review. Government Information Quarterly 31(2): 221-228.

Milakovich, M. E. (2012). Digital governance: New technologies for improving public service and participation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Purao, S., Desouza, K.C., and Becker, J. (2012). Investigating failures in large-scale public sector projects with sentiment analysis. E-Service Journal 8(2): 84-105.

Rocco, P. (2013) Technology-focused critiques of Obamacare are distracting from the political sabotage of the program by congressional Republicans. LSE American Politics and Policy (October 29).

Roman, A. V. (2013).  Framing the questions of e-government ethics: An organizational perspective. American Review of Public Administration. DOI: 10.1177/0275074013485809

West, D. M. (2005). Digital government: Technology and public sector performance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

White, J. D. (2007). Managing information in the public sector. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Van Wart, M. (2014). Administrative Leadership Theory: A Reassessment after 10 Years.  Public Administration 91(3): 521-543.

 

B102 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART1
Leading Contested Sensemaking in Public Arenas: Contemporary Challenges for Politicians Annette Stansfield, Jean Hartley


Much research into public leadership draws on generic leadership theory, and applies this to public managers.  However, similar studies of elected politicians are rare.   On the other hand, theorising about political leadership within political science has been both limited and ambivalent: limited in that a focus on structures has precluded much emphasis on agency; ambivalent because democratic theory has led to a scholarly wariness about the risks of leadership.   As a consequence, public administration has generated relatively few theory-driven contributions on political leadership.

This study aims to address that gap.  It takes place at the heart of UK government, its Parliament.  Steeped in history, tradition and institutional processes, this initially appears to be a setting where there is little room for agency or leadership.  Addressing the research question “how do select committee chairs lead?” it closely examines the leadership practices (Denis et al, 2010; Carroll et al, 2008) of one House of Commons select committee chair, working within the same committee and timeframe on sharply contrasting inquiries. It adopts an interpretive ethnographic approach, based on participant observation, interviews and archive material (video and transcripts from Parliament).  Unusually, it draws on generic leadership theory to probe and reveal everyday leadership practices in multiple arenas where contest is prevalent.

Of particular interest is how the chair leads through sensegiving.  The research evidence shows that s/he attempts to exert narrative direction and dominance in a cacophony of stakeholders each of whom is trying to exercise their own influence through sensemaking interpretation of an immediate national dilemma.  While generic leadership theory encompasses some aspects of sensemaking, this paper’s distinctive contribution is showing how this is actually undertaken in contest with others across multiple arenas, thus providing leadership concepts which may be more widely generalized and usefully applied in increasingly turbulent times.

B102 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART1
The (Under-managed) Managed Professional Organisation: The Case of Public Hospitals in the English National Health Service Gianluca Veronesi, Ian Kirkpatrick, Ali Altanlar An assumption found in much of the literature about professional services organisations in both the private and public sectors is that they are increasingly adopting ‘more corporate and managerial modes of operation’ that are ‘less distinctive from for-profit business corporations’ (Hinings 2005; pp. 414, 419). In private law and accounting firms, this new mode of organising has been characterised as the ‘Managed Professional Business’ (MPB) (Cooper et al. 1996; Powell et al. 1999). In the public sector, it is also argued that the reorganisation of services to create more autonomous organisations such as hospital trusts, universities, civil service agencies and self-managed schools is having basically the same effect (Ackroyd et al. 2007). Here too it is assumed that older modes of ‘professional bureaucracy’ (Mintzberg 1979) are being substituted for organisations that have a stronger management capability, with a greater emphasis on performance and financial control. However, while there is considerable research on the changing relationship between management and professions in the public sector, our understanding of how far distinctly new organisational forms, similar to the MPB, have emerged in this context remains limited. In this paper we seek to address this deficiency focusing on the changing management profile of acute public hospitals in the English National Health Service (NHS). The NHS has been at the forefront of NPM reforms, pioneering the development of hospitals (termed foundation trusts) as semi autonomous professional organisations ran by their own boards with degrees of independence to allocate resources and develop services (Exworthy et al. 2011; Wright et al. 2012). Yet, what remains unclear is the extent to which this process of ‘decentralisation’ has led to the development of stronger non clinical management functions and capabilities within hospitals?To address these concerns the paper draws on a range of sources from the management and organisation literature to discuss two key questions that will frame our analysis. First is whether increasing the formal autonomy of public agencies (such as trust hospitals) has led to the expansion of dedicated, specialised, management functions. On the one hand, a range of theoretical perspectives, including contingency theory, social closure, labour process and institutional theory can be used to predict an expansion in management. Against this are questions about what role the political and ideological context of public sector organisations might play in restricting autonomy and the ability of organisations to inflate their management overheads.A second, more specific question regards the precise form that management takes. Following Mintzberg (1993), it might be argued that an expansion of middle tier management (with a stronger focus onoperational service delivery) represents less of a departure from traditional models of professional administration than might a greater focus on management that is concentrated more in the ‘strategic apex’, ‘technostructure’ and ‘support functions’.In the main body of the paper we address both of these questions drawing on a mix of official statistics on NHS employment(supplied by the Health and Social Care Information Centre) and a commercial database supplied by Binley’s. The latter provides a detailed breakdown of NHS managers, by job function and organisation over the past decade. Using these data sources we explored whether the shift towards ‘foundation trust’ status of NHS hospitals (granting them increased formal autonomy) had any impact on: a) the proportion of managers relative to all staff; and b) the distribution of managers between Mintzberg’s (1993) four categories of middle tier, strategic apex, technostructure and support staff. In both cases we conducted Panel Corrected Standard Errors regression analysis on data spanning six years (2007-2012), including a variety of controls for organisational size (number of beds), operational complexity (level of outsourcing, number of units, number of clinical directorates, and admissions), efficiency (reference cost index), status (FT, teaching and specialist) and context (market concentration and market forces factor). In the last year examined (2012), the panel included 158 hospital trusts, of which 98 were operating as FTs. There were 19 specialist trusts and 26 teaching trusts. On average, these organisations provided acute care in more than 800 beds, comprised around 4 units (meaningthat more than one hospital site was managed by a trust), had their clinical operations managed through 6 clinical directorates (the backbone of the middle-management tier within hospitals), and employed around 4,000 individuals. Interestingly, the percentage of the number of managers per total staff was below 2% (well below the normal ratio in other sectors of the UK economy, amounting to 6 to 7%), and the strategic apex and middle management tiers respectively represented around 26% and 33% of all managers.The preliminary results of the analysis indicate that in the hospital sector as a whole, the proportion of managers relative to staff has decreased steadily since 2007. This trend is analogous in foundation and non-foundation trusts. Nevertheless, against expectations and despite their increased autonomy, the FTs had fewer managers (relative to their staff) than non-foundation trusts when controlling for other aspects such as trust size,specialism, market concentration and so forth. What the results also show is that FTs are statistically more likely to have increased the size of their management functions in their strategic apex at the expense of middle tier management when the possible confounders are taken into consideration. The opposite phenomenon is true for non-foundation trusts, where the size of the middle tier management has ballooned in the 6 years under investigation whereas the ratio of the strategic apex to total number of managers has progressively decreased. In the concluding section of the paper we consider the wider implications of these findings for research and theory. Specifically, we raise questions about the extent to which public sector re-organisation is leading to new organisational forms that are more directly managed than in the past. Notwithstanding the rhetoric of change in the NHS and other public services, the profile of these organisations is still very much one characterised by numerically weak management and administrative functions relative to the professionally dominated operating core. While autonomy may have generated pressures to develop management functions, these, it would appear, have been less powerful than competing political imperatives to control management staff costs. However, at the same time, our results do indicate some shift in the character of management in this context, with greater resources directed towards management that is focused more on the strategic, externally facing aspects of hospital governance. E101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART9
Trade union or trait d’union? Setting targets for general practitioners: a regional case study Sara Barsanti, Manila Bonciani, Luca Pirisi, Laura d'Amato, Federico Vola

The Italian General Practitioners (GPs) are not directly employed by the national health care service but work as independent contractors. Their activity and their salary are governed at the national level (through the “National Agreement”, between the central government and the national GPs’ Trade Unions – TUs), at the regional level (“Regional Agreement”, between the regional government and the regional TUs) and at the local level (“Local Health Authority Agreement”, between the LHAs’ managers and the local TUs). Each Region and each LHA is granted some autonomy to integrate the national agreement, by fine-tuning the governance tools to the local contexts. Moreover, the 2009 National Agreement introduced a mono-professional general practice organizational model (the "AFT"): GPs are grouped (about 30 for each AFT) according to their geographical position and they coordinate their clinical activity through an “AFT coordinator”, who is elected by and among them.

The quality and appropriateness targets are assigned to the Italian GPs by the different governance levels, through the three above-mentioned agreements. We propose a classification of the different target-setting (ideal typical) styles, ranging from “financial governance - FG”, mainly based on financial targets, to “clinical governance - CG”, that mainly relies on clinical targets.

This paper analyses the Tuscany Region case study to investigate if the target-setting styles (“financial” vs “clinical” ones) are associated with different reactions by the GPs, by comparing six different LHA Agreements (embracing different governance philosophies) to a survey on 114 AFT coordinators.

Results show that GPs are more likely to have a better knowledge and a more favorable attitude towards primary care governance tools if they work in a LHA adopting a CG system.

This suggest that CG system might promote both the GPs’ compliance to the targets set by the LHA agreement and the involvement of the GPs in the governance processes. CG system could pave the way to overcome the classical “trade unionist” relationship between the LHAs and the GPs, working as a “trait d’union” between the two interlocutors.

 

Essential references

Galli D, Vendramini E (2008), "I nuovi accordi integrativi regionali con la Medicina Generale", in L’aziendalizzazione della sanità in Italia. Rapporto OASI 2008

Longo F, Vendramini E (eds.) (2001), Il budget e la medicina generale, MCGraw-Hill, Milano

Marshall M, Harrison S. (2005), "It’s about more than money: financial incentives and internal motivation" Qual Saf Health Care, 14:4-5

E101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART9
Networks, networking and public sector innovation capacity Jenny M Lewis, Lykke Margot Ricard

The importance of facilitating innovation at the organizational, sectoral and national level is now a major focus in the public sector. Both formal and informal structures are likely to have an impact on the innovation capacity of public sector organizations. Formal governance structures, such as state traditions and resource arrangements, can either stimulate or block innovation. Informal structures are represented by networks, which are postulated to be associated with innovation capacity in various ways. Network diversity, an external/customer focus, and higher levels of trust and openness are all regarded as having positive impacts on innovation. But how are particular network positions and networking behaviour related to each other? What might this reveal about the link between networks and innovation capacity?

In this paper, we aim to theorize and test the relationships between innovation capacity, social network structures, individual networking behaviour, and formal organizational position within a single governance context (Copenhagen municipality), which will later be compared to three other municipalities in different European nations. To do this, we analyse the results of an online survey of Copenhagen municipality. A total of 175 at least partially completed responses were received. 173 of these were from senior managers (the top three levels), one was from a politician, and one mayor was interviewed face to face.

Based on scores for each of these individuals (our sample), we will examine:

-          social network structures (based on interpersonal communication related to work on projects and strategic information seeking)

-          networking behaviour (reported levels of external contact and boundary spanning activities)

-          innovation capacity (self-rated innovativeness of the municipality)

A series of hypotheses about the relationships between formal organizational position, networks, networking behaviour, and innovation capacity, will be addressed to answering the research question: What is the link between networks, networking behaviour, and innovation capacity?

B102 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART1
Third sector-led collaborative governance: network characteristics and workforce implications Jo Barraket, Michael Moran, Andrew Joyce

Cross-sectoral service design presents new opportunities for social innovation and new challenges for all policy actors engaged in New Public Governance (Osborne 2006). Both domestically and internationally, current public policy reforms place substantial emphasis on the role of non-government actors in delivering service innovations. While there is a reasonably well established evidence base for collaboration driven by governments (see Keast & Mandell 2012), there is relatively little empirical literature that examines private-private collaborations between third sector and commercial providers (for an exception, see Mills 2009), where government’s role is as an upstream service purchaser.

 

This paper presents preliminary findings from a case study analysis of a third sector-led service innovation, which involves collaboration between community sector agencies and utilities companies in the context of substantial reforms to social service provision in the Australian state of Victoria. The case under examination seeks to bring together knowledge resources of community sector agencies with consumer support provided by utilities companies in an effort to establish a comprehensive response to financial hardship. It is a prime example of an attempt to socially innovate through collaborative governance, by seeking scalable new and improved solutions to complex social problems (Pol and Ville 2009).

 

Drawing on this case example of cross-sectoral collaborative governance, the paper examines the conditions under which third-sector led collaborative governance arrangements focused on social innovation succeed (or fail). Using social network analysis and qualitative interviews, the research specifically examines the network characteristics that matter in collaborative governance arrangements led by third sector organisations, and the implications of these characteristics for workforce capabilities for all parties to the collaboration.

 

References

Keast, Robyn, and Myrna Mandell. 2012. "The Collaborative Push: Moving Beyond Rhetoric and Gaining Evidence" Journal of Management and Governance October (Special Issue ):1-20.

Mills, Ray. 2009. “Social Private Partnerships: Innovation in Public Service Delivery”. PricewaterhouseCoopers Wales. http://www.pwc.co.uk/wales/pdf/social_private_partnerships_innovation_in_public_service_delivery.pdf.

Osborne, Stephen P. 2006. “The New Public Governance? 1.” Public Management Review 8 (3): 377–87.

Pol, Eduardo, and Simon Ville. 2009. “Social Innovation: Buzz Word or Enduring Term?” Journal of Socio-Economics 38 (6): 878–85.

D101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF2
An Exploratory Analysis of Regulatory Implications of Governance and State Dynamics: Reflections on Developing Countries Abu Elias Sarker, Saba Khalid

Governance has become a conspicuous issue over the last three decades or so in the intellectual and practical domains of public management. Significant debates have proliferated about the meaning, domains, types and their implications for democracy and development, particularly in developing countries. Despite the differences there is also a consensus that the domains within the governing system and their constructed relationships have major implications for creating and reforming regulatory institutions and their enforcement leading towards negative/positive development outcomes. For this study the Limited-Access Order (LAO) framework developed by Douglas North, a Nobel laureate in Economics and his colleagues (2012) will be employed to investigate the question: how do the conjured relationships within the governing system dynamics help create and reform the regulatory institutions and their effects? The focus of this study is exclusively on one or two regulatory areas in selected countries in South Asia, a low-income region in the developing world.

I101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART8
What do We Know about Government-Nonprofit Collaboration? A Comprehensive Systematic Review of the Literature Beth Gazley

This full-length paper will report on a systematic literature review of research on nonprofit-government collaboration. The presentation will report on the range of analytic methods and theories employed, and the key findings generated from 400+ empirical studies published in more than 50 English-language social science journals worldwide. To date, no comprehensive, comparative analysis of the literature has been accomplished. In particular, the scholarship lacks a systematic and non-discipline-specific review of the qualitative and quantitative research, to understand the full scope of the knowledge scholars have generated.

As Koschmann, Kuhn, and Pfarrer (2012) have observed, cross-sector partnerships represent a distinct line of research but fall under many different labels (partnerships, alliances, cooperation) with some parts of the globe preferring one label over another. Additionally, the previous scholarship, in its quest for normative and dominant models, has not always succeeded at capturing the full scope of published research, since scholars conducting reviews often limit their searches to their own disciplines (e.g., public affairs) or apply other selective judgments of quality (e.g., journal impact rankings). But a broader analysis that deliberately crosses disciplinary and geographic boundaries has real value for the field of collaboration research in building generalized knowledge regarding collaborative outcomes (Lecy, Schmitz, and Swedlund, 2012). This analysis also will test the content of prior literature against Gazley’s (2008) suggestion that collaboration research is missing opportunities to employ a greater range of theories (e.g., cognitive, gender, political, life cycle, group dynamics, social ecology, etc.) and units of analysis (e.g., individual, institutional, systems).

Systematic literature reviews (which differ from meta-reviews and meta-analyses) are used to generate comprehensive data about the content of past research articles, which is then coded and analyzed for the content of interest (in this study, trends, methods, units of analysis, theories, variables, and key findings of collaboration research). This analysis employs Cochran-Campbell protocols, including the use of independent review teams, to minimize bias in the interpretation of the texts (Bearman et al. 2012).To be of greatest interest to IRSPM attendees, this presentation will also report on a subset of the data, focusing on the content of research articles about government-nonprofit collaboration specifically. The benefits for IRSPM attendees will also be enhanced by a forward-thinking set of propositions about the future needs of inter-sectoral collaboration research.

------------------------------------

Bearman, M., Smith, C.D., Carbone, A., Slade, S., Baik, C., Hughes-Warrington, M. & Neumann. D.L. 2012. Systematic review methodology in higher education, Higher Education Research & Development, 31(5):625-640.

Gazley, B. 2008. Inter-sectoral collaboration and the motivation to collaborate: Toward an integrated theory.  L.B. Bingham and R. O’Leary (Eds.), Big Ideas in Collaborative Public Management (pp. 36-54). Armonk, NY: M.E Sharpe.

Koschmann, M.A., Kuhn, T.R., and Pfarrer, M.D. 2012. A communicative framework of value in cross-sector partnerships. Academy of Management Review, 37(3):332-354.

Lecy, J.D., Schmitz, H.P., and Swedlund, H. 2012. Non-Governmental and Not-for-Profit Organizational Effectiveness: A Modern Synthesis. Voluntas 23:434-457

 

 

D101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF2
Accounting for the multiple dimensions of government / nonprofit relationships Craig Furneaux, Neal Ryan, Kerry Brown

(Authors) (2014) recently advanced an extension of older models of government / nonprofit relationships. While welcome, this model posited the relationships between government and nonprofits across a single continuum. Indeed, most of government / nonprofit relational models follow this approach. Putting relationships into a linear typology, outlines Weberian ‘ideal types’ of relationships, at best. While better than simply ‘good’ or ‘bad’, such an approach can arguably oversimplify matters, as relationships between organisations, are often far more complex that a simple continuum allows.

Moreover, 'government' is an omnibus construct, and the same government department can have multiple different roles, such as purchaser of services and regulator, with a single nonprofit organisation. Likewise, nonprofits can function in the roles of service provider, advocates, and even co-planner / co-provider with government.  So organisational relationships can be complex, with multiple roles and multiple different ways in which the relationship is constituted and enacted. Thus, the notion of government / nonprofit relationships is arguably multifaceted. What is needed, then, is a multi-dimensional model of government nonprofit relationships, a point that (Authors) (2014) concede.

The paper advances a novel multi-dimensional model of government / nonprofit relationships built theoretically by firstly identifying from extant literature the suite of potential elements which might constitute different aspects of a government / nonprofit relationship. For example power () and trust (), have been argued as key elements of relationships between government and nonprofit organisations. Secondly, the metrics by which each of the different aspects of the model could be measured, are advanced. Feedback from the conference will be sought to critique, and potentially validate, both the model and the method(s) of measurement.

Reference:

(Authors) (2014), “Modelling NPO-Government Relations: Australian case studies”, Public Management Review, published online 26th March, 2014.

D101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF2
State-Third Sector Partnerships in Brazil: an analysis from organizational/management and legal perspective Patricia Maria Emerenciano Mendonça, Eduardo Pannunzio

This paper aims to discuss partnerships between Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and the State in Brazil from its organizational/management perspective and from its legal perspective, making comments on the new regulation recently approved by Law 13.019/May 2014.

The paper concentrates on the history of state-CSOs relationships in Brazil and its changes, highlighting the main events related to these changes.

It then proceeds two different descriptions, one focusing on management and organizational perspective, and another one focusing on legal perspective.

Organizational and management describes the main limits of state-CSOs partnerships from an organizational perspective, looking at impacts of partnerships on the management of public organizations and CSOs; and the possibilities of aligning public policies goals and CSOs interests to systems of evaluation.

Legal perspective sheds light the regulatory framework for those partnerships, both in terms of legal standards that shape them and of the institutions responsible for regulating and overseeing their implementation. Differently from what has been done in respect to partnerships with companies, there has not been significant efforts to create regulatory institutions for partnerships with CSOs — and this may bring important consequences, such as legal uncertainty, regulatory activism from supervisory bodies (such as the Brazilian Auditing Courts) and damages to the effectiveness of the correspondent legislation.

Main conclusions look to explore links between organizational/ management limits in partnerships with the legal/regulatory systems pitfalls. This paper is a most empirical description, nonetheless some theoretical dialogues can be established with the literature of CSOs management and accountability; public management and partnerships; and regulation of State-Third Sector partnerships.

References

Biggs, S., & Neames, A. (1995). Negotiating room for manoeuvre: reflections concerning NGO autonomy and accountability within the new policy agenda. In Edwards, M., & Hulme, D. (Ed.). Beyond the Magic Bullet. London: Earthscan.

Brinkerhoff, J. M., & Brinkerhoff, D. W. (2002). Government- Non-Profit relations in comparative perspective: evolution, themes and new directions. Public Administration and Development, 22, p. 3-18.

Ebrahim, Alnoor. (2005) Accountability Myopia: Losing Sight of Organizational Learning. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 34 (1) 56-87.

Gidron, B., Kramer, R. M., & Salamon, L. S. (Ed.). (1992). Government and the Third Sector: Emerging Relationships in Welfare States. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hansmann, H. (1987). Economic theories of nonprofit organization. In Powell, W. W. (ed.). The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook. New Harlem: Yale University Press, p. 27-42.

Salamon, Lester (1995). Partners in Public Service: The scope and theory of government-non-profit relations. In E. W. Powell (ed.) The Non Profit Sector: a research Handbook. New Heaven: Yale University Press.

Young, D. R. (2000). Alternative models of government–nonprofit sector relations: theoretical and international perspectives. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(1), p. 149–172.

Zimmer, Annette (2010). Third Sector-Governmnet Partnerships. In Taylor, R. (edt). Third Sector Research. New York: Springer.

D101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF2
Governance and the policy dilemmas of health care integration: a systematic review James Andrew Gillespie, Stefano Calciolari, Carmen Huckel-Schneider

Objectives:
The effective management of the growing burden of chronic illness relies as much on broader reforms of public policy and governance as improvements in medical and health practice. The problems of chronic illness span policy sectors ranging from medical and social care through employment and income support. Care is better (and cheaper) if provided in the community and integrating health and social support. However, most resources and political attention are focused on the older model acute care, centred on hospitals and episodic, rather than integrated care. Even the best resourced health systems are struggling with the complex challenges of shifting resource allocation and management practices.  These issues of governance are exacerbated by tight budgetary constraints, fragmented funding streams, perverse forms of remuneration and inflexible professional boundaries.

The most widely accepted models of chronic care management recognize the importance of contexts – especially community and health systems.  However, these broader issues have received little systematic investigation. While public policy and public management research have focused on the changing capacities of the modern state and new forms of governance – and their limits, these issues remain largely unexplored in debates over the integration of care.

This paper uses a conceptual review of the large literature on the integration of care for chronic illness in developed societies to identify the political and institutional aspects that shape (and limit) responses to these new health challenges.

Methods:

A systematic review of empirical and more conceptual studies of health care integration will examine the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on the integration of chronic care. Eligible studies are identified through searches of the major health and social science databases, websites of relevant organisations, and manual searches of academic journals. Findings are synthesised by narrative review.



Conclusions: Contribution to Public Management:

One of the frustrations of contemporary health policy has been the difficulty shifting priorities to meet new social and health needs. This paper will identify a research agenda to engage with the political and institutional factors that shape health services. We identify the main models of governance that underlie successful models of integrated care and categorize different models of power and structures of decision making. What are the different levels of governance that determine who gets to decide what? How is this established in policy? In what ways are these new challenges to governance reshaping public management?

Progress to date: Data is being collected and analysed.


E101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART9
Politicians and Performance Management Systems: Comparing Government and Opposition Engagement Strategies in Australia and Italy Michael Di Francesco, Alessandro Spano

The aim of this research is to investigate how politicians – elected officials – engage with formal performance management systems in parliamentary government. There is an increasingly sophisticated theoretical literature on models of performance management in the public sector (e.g. Bouckaert and Halligan 2008; Talbot 2010) and a growing literature on the roles and behaviours of politicians, including their utilisation of performance information, most commonly at the local government level (e.g. Ter Bogt 2004; Askim 2009; Liguori, Sicilia and Steccolini 2012). This research will examine elected officials’ engagement with performance management systems by focussing on a specific arena (parliamentary mechanisms for policy debate and accountability) and differentiating the interests and approaches of institutional roles (the engagement strategies of executive government and opposition parties). The research aims to gauge the impact (if any) that formal performance management systems have on executive government and opposition strategies for interacting with parliamentary processes. By investigating attitudes towards and utilisation of performance information by politicians, the research will develop a taxonomy to differentiate role types of politicians (e.g. senior or junior ministerial, policy or financial legislative, and policy or financial accountability). The study will examine whether these role types have strong or weak expression across two very different politico-administrative settings, and the extent to which there may be convergence and divergence.

Askim, J. 2009. ‘The demand side of performance measurement: Explaining councillors’ utilization of performance information in policy-making’, International Public Management Journal, 12 (1): 24-47.

Bouckaert, G. and Halligan, J. 2008. Managing Performance: International Comparisons. London, Routledge.

Liguori, M., Sicilla, M. and Steccolini, I. 2012. ‘Some like it non-financial . . . Politicians’ and managers’ views on the importance of performance information’, Public Management Review, 14 (7): 903-22.

Talbot, C. 2010. Theories of Performance: Organizational and Service Improvement in the Public Domain. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Ter Bogt, H. 2004. ‘Politicians in search of performance information? Survey research on Dutch aldermen’s use of performance information’, Financial Accountability & Management, 20 (3): 221-52.

B101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART4
The White Paper on Reform of the Australian Federation: Implications for Local Government John Martin

In June 2014 Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced the terms of reference for a White Paper on the Reform of the Australian Federation. The objectives are, broadly, to reduce duplication and achieve efficiencies across levels of government and to make it easier for citizens to interact with government. In a listing of twelve broad issues local government is mentioned once – recognised as part of the overlapping functions of government problem. The Steering Committee comprises the heads of the Commonwealth Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet and State/Territory First Ministers departments and the Australian Local Government Association. Local governments omission from the ToR and its marginal position on the Steering Committee reflects its status in the Australian Constitution. While several attempts have been made through referenda at Constitutional recognition of Local Government over recent decades these have failed as party politics thwarts the majority required of those voting in all states.

In this paper we consider the implications for Australia’s systems of local government of its marginal position in the development of this White Paper seeking reform given its continuing penury status in the Federation. We also reflect on the requirements of the New Public Governance now recognised as the prevailing paradigm whereby citizens are engaged in the policy making and delivery of public services (Osborne 2006, 2010). NPG is ‘predicated upon the existence of a plural state and a pluralist state and it seeks to understand the development and implementation of public policy in this context.’ (Osborne 2006, p.383). Osborne posits a plural state ‘where multiple interdependent actors contribute to the delivery of public services’ supported by a pluralist state ‘where multiple processes inform the policy-making system.’ (2006, p.384). Local Government is very much a part of the Australian pluralist state.

The ToR for the White Paper on the Reform of the Federation overlook the role of local government contributing to service delivery and the reality of the role it plays in informing the policy making system. In this paper we re-write the ToR away from legalistic approaches to reform based on the constraints of the Constitution to a set of terms that reflect the reality of local government’s current and future possible roles.

References

Osborne, S. (2006) ‘The New Public Governance? (Editorial) Public Management Review, 8(3), pp 377-387.

Osborne, S. (ed) The New Public Governance: Emerging Perspectives on the Theory and Practice of Public Governance, Routlege, London.
C101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART5
Local Leaders and the Implementation of Local Government Reforms Reto Steiner, Claire Kaiser Local government reforms are widespread in many European countries (Kuhlmann/Wollmann 2014), often given impetus by higher-ranking tiers of government or by the local political leaders. Local government thereby plays a crucial role because the local politicians usually have to approve reforms or are at least responsible for their imple-mentation. It is therefore interesting to know more about the role of local political leaders – here defined as the mayor as well as the other councillors in the local executive authority – in the modernization process of local governments. While there is a lot of literature on local government reforms (see, for example, Kersting/Vetter 2003; Boukaert/Pollitt 2004) and on the role of the local executive authority in general (see e.g. John 2001; Wollmann 2004; Copus 2006), studies which investigate the connection between the two are scarce. This study investigates the question about the influence of the institutional settings within which the leaders act, the leaders’ personalities and their (self-assessed) leadership style on the reform agenda. The hypotheses-based paper assumes that institutional settings, specific personal attributes and specific behaviour of the leaders influence the local reform agenda. For the empirical analysis, the case of Switzerland was chosen, where local politics is mainly made by the local political leaders. Two surveys build the database for the study: a survey of all 15’000 elected local politicians in the 2’500 Swiss municipalities in 2008, which achieved a response rate of 54%, as well as a comprehensive survey of all Swiss municipal secretaries, i.e. the top bureaucrats, which was conducted in 2009/2010 (with a response rate of 58%). Preliminary results of logistic regression analysis suggest that the empirical data support the hypotheses, because i.e. language region as institutional setting variables, the average level of education as a personal attribute variable and the use of investment plans as a leadership instrument have a significant influence on the reform activities of local governments. C101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART5
Political theory of local government: How the ‘long view’ informs contemporary processes of ideology and reform. Bligh Grant

Arguably, discussions of political theory and local government have become an increasingly salient component of scholarly attention in local government studies and have made a significant contribution to policy formulation. This is exemplified by the rhetoric and policy attached to ‘localism’ in a variety of jurisdictions across the globe, so much so that ‘localism’ ought to be viewed – and taught – as a bona fide ideology and introduced to students as other, major political ideologies are. This paper places contemporary discussions of localism in some relief (both historically and theoretically) by examining Hardy Wickwar’s (1970) bold, but concise discussion The Political Theory of Local Government. Wickwar’s (1970) is a rambunctious and unapologetically historicist tour de force through the history of western political theory, arguing that local government can be viewed as the premier unit of politics, first in a narrative which sees them as ‘intermediary bodies’; second as the ‘governmental subdivisions’ of enlightenment theory and practice; third in the tradition of the self-governing community founded principally on German, then English idealism from the eighteenth century, and fourth , as an ‘export article’ of the North Atlantic economies in the twentieth century. Following reflections upon Wickwar’s (1970) categories, this paper critically examines the political theory localism and how this theory has been deployed at a rhetorical and policy levels. Despite the conjecture and refutation around the moral desirability of localism at the level of policy formulation, we nevertheless argue that localism ought to take its place in the canon of political theory – both historical and contemporary – due to its now fully formed character. This signifies the unification – at least potentially – of mainstream political and administrative studies and local government studies. In some contexts at least this possibility embodies radical change.

C101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART5
The Legacy of the Scholar Practitionner Michael O'Neill, John Wilkins Topic

Legacy of the scholar-practitioner

Purpose/objective

The research proposes to examine a group in academic field of public administration made up of individuals who we term scholar-practitioners (also increasingly referred to as pracademics) [1].   For the purposes of this study we define this group functionally as individuals who are employed (or recently retired from) by a public administration (i.e. federal, provincial, territorial, or municipal and, potentially international organizations) and a post-secondary academic institution.  This may potentially include:

  1. Part-time instructors under various titles (i.e. sessional lecturer, adjunct professor, etc.);
  2. Scholars (full or part-time) who come to academia following a career in a public administration;
  3. Research fellows/executives in residence who are on a formal interchange arrangement between the academic institution and their public sector employer.

The starting point for this research is a test of observations made by Ken Kernaghan[2] in two articles on the topic.  In these Kernaghan makes a number of observations about the conditions and factors that both motivate practitioners from engaging in scholarly activities as well as providing disincentives for such activities.  The motivating factors include:

  • Personal interest, motivation, sense of accomplishment
  • Remaining current with the field (scholarly thinking)
  • Contribution to mentoring new/future public servants
  • They were an invited to do so (invitations to a conference, book or article, and an invitation to collaborate with someone else)
  • Using scholarly writings as an outlet for their thinking about public administration and management (“testing ideas before embarking on some action”)
  • Self-interest (e.g., monetary reward, seeking an academic post, professional advancement in the public sector)

The factors that serve as disincentives to pursuing scholarly activities include:

  • Receiving little encouragement for their scholarly activities (teaching and research/publication) from senior levels in the public service
  • Obstacles for their imposed by necessity of maintaining political neutrality

Though of interest, the issues of disincentives identified by Kernaghan would not be the object of this initial round of research.

Finally, Kernaghan also notes that when practitioners do choose to contribute to the scholar-practitioner exchange, they have confined their writings to the pages of Canadian Public Administration and certain practitioner-oriented publications (e.g. Canadian Government Executive).

Contribution to the field

This research proposes to address two important areas.  Firstly, this proposal touches upon the topic of the utility of professional programmes in public administration by considering them from the angle of whether they are sufficiently infused with knowledge and information drawn from a practicing cadre of practitioners.  These touch upon a growing body of literature concerned with the teaching of public administration.  In this light this research will be of particular interest to those involved in existing public administration programmes or those involved in their further development (see Reichard 1998; Clark and Pal 2011).

Our second area of interest concerns the factors that contribute to scholarship by public administration practitioners, in so doing, taking up Kernaghan’s invitation to “to prompt additional research and publication” (2009: 507) in this area.  This may also contribute to extending a debate in the literature about the relationship between both communities from the perspective of those with a leg in both domains (see Gow and Wilson 2014).

Method

This research will rely on three main sources of information. The first will consist of an on-line survey used to gather input from scholar-practitioners.   The survey will be constructed in a manner to gather demographic information as well as information about scholarly activities (e.g. publications, courses taught, etc.).  Finally, the survey will collect qualitative information to test Kernaghan’s postulates.  To maximize the value of the results it is proposed to make the survey broadly available through departments/schools of public administration/political science.

A secondary source of information will consist of research interviews with a subset of survey participants (likely self-selected) in order to gather information of a principally qualitative nature.

Finally, the information gather from the above two streams will be looked at against a literature review based on scholarly and practitioner literature.

Proposed questions

Demographic

  • Current status as practitioner (e.g. practicing, retired, professional development programme, etc.)
    • Practitioner title
    • Principal employer (public administration - federal, provincial, municipal)
    • Years of tenure/employment in public administration
    • Current status as scholar (e.g. full, part-time, interchange agreement)
      • Scholar title/ “classification” (e.g. adjunct, sessional lecturer, lecturer, n/a)
      • Institution(s)
      • Scholarly activities:
        • Teaching
          • Field (e.g. public policy, public management, etc.)
          • Courses taught (titles/numbers)
  • Research
    • Topics
    • Publications
      • Number of articles in peer reviewed publications
      • Number of articles in non-peer reviewed publications
      • Number of publications – deemed by the respondent as scholarly – in other media (e.g. public reports, media op-ed, blogs, etc.)
      • Optional - bibliographic information about their publications.

Qualitative questions

Using a Likert scale the questions could be designed to seek comment on factors that motivate or inhibit scholarly activities, based on the lists drawn from Kernaghan cited above.

Preliminary literature

Ian D. Clark and Les A. Pal (2011), Academic Respectability Meets Professional Utility: Canadian MPA/MPP Programs and Professional Competencies, Canadian Association of Programs in Public Administration.

James Ian Gow and Seymor Wilson (2014), Speaking what truth to whom? The uneasy relationship between practitioner and academic knowledge in public administration, Canadian Public Administration, 57 (1), pp. 118–137

Kenneth Kernaghan (2012), The legacy of the scholar-practitioner, Canadian Government Executive, 7 May.

Kenneth Kernaghan (2009), Speaking truth to academics: The wisdom of the practitioners, Canadian Public Administration, 52 (4), pp. 503–523

Kenneth Kernaghan (1976), Politics, policy and public servants: Political neutrality revisited, Canadian Public Administration, 19 (3) Fall: 432–56.

Christof Reichard (1998), Educating and Training New Public Management in L. R. Jones, K. Schedler (Eds.), International Perspectives on the New Public Management.

B109 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART3
Reconceptualising Evidence-Based Social Policy in the Age of Big Data: Implications for Public Administration Theory and Practice Miriam Lips, James Mansell

Public sector organisations are increasingly interested in using ‘Big Data’ in order to develop more efficient and effective public policy and services. However, the application of large digitised data sets, data analytics and predictive modelling in policy making not only are fundamentally changing the policy process, interventions, and outcomes, but are also creating substantial tensions around traditional public sector values, such as equity and fairness. Thus far, there is hardly any empirical understanding available of what is happening as a result of the application of Big Data in evidence-based public policy and service delivery, and what this means for public administration theory and practice.

This paper uses two illustrative case studies to empirically explore the impact of using Big Data in social policy, and the managerial, policy and democratic implications. In New Zealand, the Ministry of Social Development have used Big Data, data analytics and predictive modelling in the following two cases: 1) to develop an investment approach towards the delivery of welfare benefits and services; and 2) to improve outcomes for vulnerable children. Case study research methods have been used for data collection. Data analysis has been conducted in an inductive way by confronting the empirical findings with existing concepts and theory in public administration in order to explore possible tensions and the need for reconceptualising evidence-based social policy in the age of big data.

G107 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Aston Webb AST2
Challenges to the Introduction of e-Participation and Digital Democracy in Switzerland: A Cultural Perspective Tereza Cahlikova

Consequence of communication possibilities that modern information and communication technologies offer, traditional policy-making concepts and schemes based on top-down decision-making processes and hierarchical power pyramids are being nowadays progressively replaced with more horizontal participative structures falling under the scope of the so-called “digital democracy”. Switzerland does not represent an exception in this regard. Although indicators such as the level of technological development and the access to technologies rank the country among the most “connected” in the world and underline the readiness to replace or complement traditional communication channels between citizens and government by electronic ones, the existing potential has not been lived up to. Among several categories of interactions, it is mostly the electronic participation that reflects the comparatively reluctant approach of Swiss public administrations towards the introduction of electronic government.

Electronic participation tools that enable citizens to be continuously involved in public affairs demand from politicians to constantly take citizens’ wishes into account, therefore disrupting the usual waves of political engagement based on the election cycle. As a consequence, the introduction of new technologies represents equally a major political question (Macintosh, Coleman et al. 2009) and an important challenge to the continuation of “politics as usual.” The introduction of new technologies in the public sector in this sense implies a transformation of bureaucratic to “post-bureaucratic” organisational culture. The question of success or failure of organisational reforms is consequently closely connected to their nature, which should be “compatible” with the organisational culture (Parker and Bradley 2000).

The main objective of our research conducted in the framework of a doctoral thesis of the author is to assess the influence of political and administrative traditions on the introduction of electronic instruments in the Swiss public sector. The core of our methodology consists in semi-direct interviews with politicians, public officials and technological experts, which will be conducted with the aim of discerning their attitudes towards the use of information technologies in general and the electronic participation of citizens on public affairs in particular. By undertaking the cultural perspective to the issue of e-Participation introduction, we will fill in an important research gap. Besides the considerations related to organisational culture, principal theoretical concepts will involve two theories that explain the ways in which organisations react to changes: contingency and new institutionalist theory. The results of our research will contribute to the clarification of an overarching issue of the redefinition of historically embedded ways and nature of interaction between public administrations and citizens.
G107 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Aston Webb AST2
Broken Performance Frameworks: The Australian Case in Comparative Perspective John Halligan

The Australian performance management system has been subject to reframing and persistent critique from governments, central agencies and the audit office. According to a major oversight agency, the performance framework is now broken.

The paper seeks to explain why the performance framework is judged to be in a parlous condition, and the extent to which this can be attributed to the political-public service interface, in particular the intensification of new political governance. As a further means of elucidating the Australian case, the paper examines roles of politicians and senior public servants in the ‘mature PBM’ environments of Anglo-American systems. This entails addressing the condition and utilisation of frameworks under the fluctuating fortunes of performance management.

The research draws on secondary sources, in particular independent reports, and interviews with senior public servants in the Australian context. The results will traverse issues about the failures in the design and institutionalisation of PBM, the engagement of politicians in the reform process for PBM systems, the apparent disjuncture between political and public service expectations, and the difficulties with achieving alignment between the different interests.

B101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART4
Mixed roles and responsibilities in Finnish ministries Liisa Heinämäki Since new legislation 2005 in Finland, State Secretaries has been named in ministries as a keen support to minsters. The need for this change was based in two issues: First, Finland had joined EU, which means that more issues, legislation and travelling was needed in minister’s job. Second aim was to get rid of politically named Special Advisors in ministries. But, during ten years the amount of Special Advisers has been rising from 8 to over 30. Having many parties in government, amount of ministries has also been high: 19 ministers in 12 ministries.

The State Secretaries, named by parties, assist and represent ministers. Their work involves furthering and monitoring the implementation of the government program and frame budget in the minister's particular field of responsibility, dealing with the collaboration between the ministry and other administrative sectors, and assisting the ministry in its international work.

The Permanent Secretaries in ministries lead and oversee the ministry's work (including budgeting processes) and assists the ministers. Their responsibilities include the quality of legislation drafting, the coordination of the activities of the ministry and the administrative sector, and the preparation and monitoring of the ministry's set goals. All Permanent Secretaries has a weekly meeting together as a part of governmental co-operation and whole-of-government developing. In Finland government is using a framework for budget. Both civil servants and political actors are involved in budgeting, but most important decisions are made by politicians in Government Program process.

In spring 2015 there will be parliamentary election in Finland. Many leaders of parties have already told they want to have fewer ministers in next government as there has been now. There have also been some initiatives to reshape State Secretaries role. Government Program for the past four years has included about 900 measures, and both politicians and civil servants want have a more focused and more cross-sectional program for next four years.  Permanent Secretaries as leading civil servants have a key role in affecting political decisions - in addition to policy makers.

Aim of this research is to determine, how Permanent Secretaries co-operation with State Secretaries is influencing management of ministries. Special attention is paid to preparatory phase process before election and forming new Government Program.

In this research, in aim to reach topical issues, main data is based on reports and governmental documents. Some key personnel interviews will be done based on review of reports and governmental documents. Data analysis is qualitative.

Theoretical framework is based on organizational theory and strategic management theories. Finnish Government has developed a lot during last years, and movement form bureaucratic thinking towards post-modern Governance is in progression. In this paper my aim is to recognize, if Finnish Purple Zone can be explained by Ackoff’s qualitative and interaction analysis with holistic approach; or Oliver & Holzinger’s (2008) dynamic capabilities framework.

In my paper I will present the main findings about mixed roles of Permanent Secretaries and State Secretaries in ministries, theoretical summary about what kind of organizational theory is represented in this data, and development proposals.

 

 

Ackoff ,Russell L.& Emery,Fred E. 1972: On Purposeful Systems: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Individual and Social Behavior as a System of Purposeful Events.

HE 142/2004. Hallituksen esitys Eduskunnalle

L173/2003 Laki valtioneuvostosta 28.2.2003/175.

Oliver, Christine & Holzinger, Ingo 2008: The Effectiveness of Strategic Political Management: A Dynamic Capabilities Framework  Acad. Manage Rev April 1, 2008 vol. 33 no. 2 496-520

Tala, J. 2013. Lainvalmistelun laatu ja kehittämistarpeet.

TrVM 2013 Tarkastusvaliokunnan mietintö 10/2013.

Valtiontalouden tarkastusviraston  selvitykset 3/2013

VaVM 2013 Valtiovarainvaliokunnan mietintö 9/2013 vp

VM 2014. Valtion virkamieseettisen toimikunnan raportti. VM 3/2014

VNK 2011. Ministerin käsikirja. Valtioneuvoston kanslia. Toukokuu 2011. Edita Prima.

VNOS. Valtioneuvoston ohjesääntö 3.4.2003/262

B101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART4
Politicization in the context of the Canadian public service Lori Beth Turnbull, Robert Shepherd, Christopher Stoney

Panel B101: Mapping the Purple Zone: Performance Based Public Management and the Interface between Politicians and Public Servants

In a paper presented at IRSPM 2014, we set out a definition and a typology of the concept of politicization as it exists in the context of the Canadian public service. That paper was largely theoretical, and the paper we propose here is a continuation of the same project.  The central question at hand for the current paper is: how do we recognize when a particular type of politicization is occurring? What are the indicators? Building on our typology in the first paper, the second paper will fill out the descriptions of each of the types of politicization and, most importantly, will add indicators and measures that describe how we might collect data on each of these types. We want to build a research methodology that would center on each part of the typology separately, as we cannot assume a homogenous framework that would apply universally.  We also aim to develop logic frames on each type of politicization.  We hope to offer this as a research template for others working to understand the dynamics and implications of politicization in the same and other contexts. We would want a framework that tests assumptions on both the existence and manifestation of each type of politicization.

B101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART4
E-participation and web pages of Czech statutory cities David Spacek

For several years, improved participation and inclusion of relevant stakeholders has been often emphasized as an instrument for solving democratic deficit and low public trust in institutions that gained the power to regulate the life of a society. Ideas of ICT use for improving quality of governance have been discussed and translated into practice intensively. Still, while e-government is a well-established field in research and practice, e-participation trails behind with only a low number of programmes and strategies at the moment (Scherer, Schneider and Wimmer, 2008). In compliance with concepts of e-government/e-governance, e-participation projects apparently attempts to improve government by achieving better governance through enlarged participation. The term refers mainly to interactions similar to G2C and G2B emphasizing the role of ICT to enlarge the space for discussion and inclusion of opinions of stakeholders into policy outputs, although its ideas have important role also in G2G interactions (including back-office integrations). This most probably results from the essence of participatory democracy which is a combination of representative and direct democracy.

In the Czech Republic, e-participation has not been given sufficient attention in Czech academic works. It is also not sufficiently incorporated in governmental documents which prescribe national e-government/e-governance plans.  However, in general, participation is often heard in governmental documents which speak about plans of public administration modernization and introduce various quality management tools like EIPA’s CAF, EFQM Excellence Model, Local Agenda 21, or BSC. Such quality management tools require making public decision- and policy-making more participatory and inclusive for internal as well as external stakeholders and have been implemented particularly by self-governments in the Czech Republic (municipalities and regions).

Municipal administration is probably the place where interaction between public administration and citizens takes place most frequently. Citizens’ opinions on the quality of its work can affect the public image of the entire administrative system. Statutory cities (besides the capital of Prague) represent a specific group of more than 20 municipalities in the Czech administrative system which have from 40 to 300 thousands of inhabitants. The specific character of the statutory cities lies in the optional decision of their council to divide the city into city districts/boroughs (possibly, after considering the results of a local referendum).  If subdivided, the bodies of statutory cities also have important coordination functions which may be facilitated by e-participation.

Based on the international e-participation literature, the paper will first discuss a broader context of (e-)participation. The main aim of the paper is to address the question to what extent can users of web pages of Czech statutory cities use instruments which are enumerated in international e-participation literature. The author would like to follow the framework he used for a web-content search carried out in 2007 and 2008 and adapted in 2014 (for purposes of analysis websites of Czech regions, analysis of FB profiles was included) also in order to map shifts in practices (in 2008, the web analysis revealed that a prevailing presence of the e-information aspects over e-participation aspects and availablity of more transparent e-participation instruments only on web pages of 2 out of 23 statutory cities).
G107 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Aston Webb AST2
From Bureaucracy to (Mandated) Networks: A New Approach to Solve the Illicit Opium Poppy Cultivation in Thailand Patamawadee Jongruck

The "Golden Triangle" is one of the world's most productive opium producing areas, incorporating Myanmar, Laos and Thailand, which is now account for 18 per cent of global opium production (UNODC, 2014). With regard to Thailand, the northern region is where the opium poppies are cultivated the most and 75 per cent of the country’s production is from Omkoi district, Chiang Mai province (ONCB, 2014). Omkoi is one of the poorest districts in Thailand and opium poppy cultivation is perceived as the best way to get out of poverty for villagers who mostly are hill-tribes. Although the opium poppy cultivation in Thailand in general has significantly reduced over the past four decades, the figure of opium cultivation in Omkoi district was hardly decreased. In 2012, the government has become aware of this threat and declared Omkoi as a ‘special area’. An ad hoc committee, comprising of members from both state and non-state sectors, was set up to serve this purpose. This can be considered as a shift from the bureaucratic approach to the networks one. An operation of the committee has been an area-based approach, which is opposite to the traditional functional-based approach. It enhances cross-functional collaboration among actors focusing on solving the illicit opium poppy cultivation and poverty reduction issues. The change of approach illustrates that the government has been aware of the inefficiency of the traditional bureaucracy to solve the wicked problems like the illicit opium poppy cultivation in poverty-stricken area. The networks, however; are not the self-governing, rather, it is mandated by the government using the top-down approach. Although the outcomes of the networks have not been clearly manifested, this attempt can be considered as a good trial to tackle the illicit drugs problem in Thailand.

I101 March 30, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART8
Changing organisational form to match changing expectations Pauline Jas

This proposal realtes to a research project where access to the organisation to be studied is in the process of being negotiated. The organisation was set up in 1995 as an Non-Departmental Public Body (NDPB), working closely with a related charitable trust. The Department's triennial review in 2013 advised that the organisation should retain its NDPB status, but work towards an organisational form that is independent from government. Taking charitable status was suggested as an option that would "improve [the] ability to draw in a wider range of funding sources" (Dept X, 2013). The organisation's 2014-2024 strategy includes this option as part of its phased transition towards independence. The emphasis is on operation more entrepreneurially whilst still providing a public good, and strengthening local engagement, representation, and accountability (Org X, 2014).

This project studies how the organisation responds to the changing external environment in order to maintain its so far successful performance. The concept to frame this research is 'absorptive capacity', which refers to an organisation's ability to locate new knowledge in its environment and use it effectively. In particular, socialisation and coordination mechanisms and how they contribute to the transition process are of interest (Easterby-Smith et al., 2008).

The organisaiton has appointed a new CEO to start in January 2013, with a brief to lead the organisation in its next phase of development. The aims of the organisation mean its operations are largely carried out through working in partnership with a wider range of stakeholders. Together with the transition it is undergoing, this makes it an intrinsically interesting case study to study absorptive capacity. Interviews and focus groups with staff, the incoming and departing CEOs, and external stakeholders will focus on how the organisation has developed and puts into practice its strategy of diversifying and growing its activities and income streams.

References

Department X (2013) Triennial Review of Organisation X

Easterby-Smtih, M., Graca, M., Antonacopoulou, E., and Ferdinand, J. (2008) Absorptive capacity: A process perspective Management Learning 39(5); 483-501.

Organisation X (2014) Strategy 2014-2024

 

G103 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:15 Nuffield Building NUF1
Bouncing back and bouncing forward – European municipalities’ responses to financial shocks from a comparative perspective Iris Saliterer, Ileana Steccolini, Martin Jones, Carmela Barbera, Sanja Korac

Environmental shocks like economic, financial or natural crises put enormous pressures on governments to cut back expenditures, restructure service delivery strategies and reset priorities (Kioto et. al. 2013), while simultaneously forcing them to take a leading role in economic recovery and growth (Pandey 2010) in their local context. Embracing these challenges, the paper addresses the strong link between financial and organizational capacity concepts by investigating how local governments respond to shocks that affect their financial condition as well as its management over the long-term. In this context, the evolutionary concept of resilience provides a useful framework to analyze the capacity of local governments in dealing with uncertainty related to shocks and disturbances (Shaw 2012), as it allows a longitudinal and strategic view on the whole life-cycle of public organizations. Resilience from this view means ‘…to maintain the capacity to deal with future change or distresses to a system without undergoing significant changes in function and structural identity, while maintaining the option to develop…’ (Nelson et. al., 2007 p. 397). This allows the recognition of paradoxes, such as the stability of some parts of the systems as a desirable enduring feature, which in turn provides the base for flexibility (stability-flexibility paradox). Resilience hence is viewed as one part in a path-dependent trajectory.

 

This paper, identifies the main shocks perceived by local government management and the related financial strategies adopted in response. Applying a multiple case study analysis based on 12 European municipalities in Austria, Italy and the UK, we identify different forms of municipal financial resilience. The analysis links current responses to long-term municipal financial management to strategies and organizational features in terms of financial vulnerability, adaptive capacity and capacity. We show that, even in a context where the shocks are described and identified as being much the same, financial resilience is multifaceted and can result in a range of different approaches being deployed, which in part may themselves be contextually dependent.

 

G101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:15 Arts Building ART6
Social Investment for Welfare Services - The Apogee of Marketization or the Salvation of Social and Public Value? Barbara Ann Chantal Allen

Social investment is the provision of finance to organisations with the explicit expectation of a social, as well as financial return(Wilson, 2014).  There are over sixty Social Impact Bonds, one form of Social Investment, either currently funding services or in development in the UK.  Social Investment is evolving into an important source of funding and infrastructure for the design and implementation of early intervention programmes.  There is a significant political and policy agenda under the umbrella of central government ‘Troubled Families’ programme through which many Local Authorities are accessing finance for early intervention.  This topic has had essentially no academic attention thus far and is a new contribution to the study of public management.

Social investment can be viewed as the extension of the marketization of social and health services, as the injection of external non-state funding from private investors, investment funds and charitable trusts is based on a potential financial return from the savings achieved.  However, investors are willing to take risk in terms of return on the understanding that they are contributing from a ‘social value’ perspective and indeed Social Impact Bonds are one part of the financing of several intractable programmes such as adoption, addiction, and homelessness that have not been adequately addressed with traditional mechanisms.

A project undertaken by CEDAR* at the University of Warwick evaluated the potential of a third sector organization Addaction to attract social investment in order to offer its family intervention addiction programme in more locations, for longer periods.  Local authorities previously commissioning this service were withdrawing due to financial cutbacks.  Part of the project involved a set of interviews with local authority commissioners to investigate their understanding and appetite for Social Investment.  This paper will use public and social value theory as a conceptual tool in conjunction with the interview results to assess whether commissioners view Social Investment as a way to pursue the social value objectives under which they must operate, for example under the Public Services (Social Value) Act 2012.  Is Social Investment a further extension of market-based solutions extending the role of non-state actors in traditionally delivered state services, or is it a way to fulfil the expectations of the Social Value agenda and allow a new form of service ethos to emerge?

Indicative sources:

Benington, J. and Moore, M.H.eds.(2011) Public Value: Theory and Practice. Basingstoke:  Palgrave Macmillan.

Bozeman, B.(2007) Public Values and Public Interest:  Counterbalancing Economic Individualism.  Washington, DC:  Georgetown University Press.

G103 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:15 Nuffield Building NUF1
Perceptions of influence: to what extent do public managers take note of social influence scores when responding to complaints on Twitter? Stephen Jeffares

The longstanding interest in the capacity of one actor to influence others has been reignited by the recent rise of social media and, in turn, social influence analytics (Maiti et al., 2013, Dubois and Gaffney, 2014) . Here scholars compete to provide measures and metrics to distinguish “influentials” on social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook (Serrano-Puche, 2012). Such measures offer alternatives to the "million follower" fallacy (Cha et al., 2010), to instead produce algorithm based proprietary tools aimed at helping firms, advertisers, investors, activists and campaign managers better identify those actors than can influence buyers, markets, movements and voters (Author, 2014). Rather than develop or even critique such measures, this paper explores to what extent public managers acknowledge social influence metrics when working on the digital frontline.

As public organisations increasingly draw on social media tools for social listening, communication and complaint management, they use Customer Relations Management (CRM) software tools and dashboards that not only flag up discussions about their policy, service, or locality, they also report influence scores (Czyszczon and Zgrzywa, 2013). Transport and energy firms that were early adopters of these CRM dashboards have learnt to pay attention to those with high influence scores for fear of reputation risk. And yet companies that provide these tools have faced fierce criticism from users and academics that their algorithms are opaque, commercially biased and not to be trusted (Bevilacqua et al., 2013).

With the largest local authorities and police departments receiving between 3,000 and 15,000 tweets a month, this paper explores how public services in the UK are making use of social media management tools and to what extent influence metrics shape practice. It starts with a meta-analysis the tools widely in use and the algorithms upon which they are founded. The paper proposes a research design based on both social media data and interviews:  twitter tweets and conversations captured from active council and police accounts and interviews with professionals fielding these messages then illuminate to what extent perceptions of influence are included in decision making. The paper explores the implications for increasingly sophisticated tools are now used by large public organisations, specifically implications of the potential to segment users into influential and non-influential. The paper concludes that just as search engine algorithms are shaping what we read, in the public services opaque influence algorithms are shaping to whom we listen.

 

 

 

BEVILACQUA, G. S., CLARE, S., GOYAL, A. & LAKSHMANAN, L. V. S. 2013. Validating Network Value of Influencers by means of Explanations. 2013 Ieee 13th International Conference on Data Mining (Icdm), 967-972.

CHA, M., HADDADI, H., BENEVENUTO, F. & GUMMADI, K. P. 2010. Measuring user influence in twitter: The million follower fallacy. 4th international aaai conference on weblogs and social media (icwsm).

CZYSZCZON, A. & ZGRZYWA, A. 2013. Automatic Customer Segmentation for Social CRM Systems. Computer Networks, Cn 2013, 370, 552-561.

DUBOIS, E. & GAFFNEY, D. 2014. The Multiple Facets of Influence: Identifying Political Influentials and Opinion Leaders on Twitter. American Behavioral Scientist, 58, 1260-1277.

Author. 2014.

MAITI, S., MANDAL, D. P. & MITRA, P. 2013. Detecting Influential Users using Spread of Communications. 2013 Ieee Recent Advances in Intelligent Computational Systems (Raics), 288-292.

SERRANO-PUCHE, J. 2012. Digital influence measurement tools: an analysis of Klout and PeerIndex. Profesional De La Informacion, 21, 298-303.

G107 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:15 Aston Webb AST2
Interactive governance, or counteractive? Summing up lessons learned about representative and participatory democracy Asbjørn Røiseland, Signy Irene Vabo

For quite a while it has been observed, at least in the Western world,  that self-governance and citizen initiatives  is on the rise, adding a new channel for participation in addition to traditional representative democracy.  The literature on interactive governance – one of the subfields paying attention to this development, tends to see self-governance and citizen initiatives as a fruitful and welcomed expansion of democracy. One is left with the impression that representative democracy and citizen initiatives can work hand in hand. However there are also arguments  suggesting a deep tension between the two models of democracy, pointing to e.g. the conflict elected political leaders will find themselves in when citizen initiatives are contradicting politicians will or their parties manifestos. After many years of democratic experiments and reforms there are today a huge body of evaluations, offering a great opportunity to make some qualified suggestions about the relationship between representative democracy and citizen initiatives.

The empirical part of our contribution will be based on a literature study where we will select a number of contributions in a number of international journals (methods to be developed). We presume we will find a mixed picture, and a much more complex relationship between “representation” and “participation” than what is common in interactive governance literature. This will finally lead us to discuss to what extent there is a need of transformative theories in this field, and how these analytical frameworks can be developed.

C103 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART10
Challenged or championed by local political leadership? The democratic anchorage of local governance networks in Kortrijk (Belgium). Sander Van Parijs

In this paper we try to scrutinize the role of local executive politicians in relation to the democratic anchorage of the local governance landscape in Flanders (Belgium). Since we can only pursue this by opening the black box of local governance, we need to figure out how local political leadership works in practice in order to fully understand its consequences with regards to local democracy.

In the Kortrijk region one can identify a proliferation of local network-like arrangements. Local governments establish relationships with e.g. autonomous agencies, other governments, private organizations or with a combination of these. This new organizational layer on top of the local political landscape challenges traditional merits of local democracy like popular control, local sovereignty and the primacy of politics.

A central issue concerning these new arenas is their democratic anchorage or how to link them with the classic institutions of representative democracy. From a liberal point of view it is argued that local elected politicians are the lynchpin between both worlds.

Yet we realized in our case study that some local executive politicians, especially mayors, use these opened-up politics to strengthen their own steering potential with regards to strategic and wicked policy cases. Hence they rather cherish the policy-entrepreneurial opportunities of local governance networks than to play the watchdogs for their own local government institutions.

Moreover we noted that analogous to the number of network-like arrangements also the number of potential representative and accountability relations for these leading politicians has multiplied. Hence in terms of accountability we not only witness a challenge of “too many hands” but also a problem of “too many eyes”. However from a post-liberal point of view this proliferation of actors and forums also offers opportunities for genuine deliberation. Hence analysing the democratic anchorage of these arenas is a balancing act.

C103 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART10
New Generation of Municipal Leaders – The current state and future of municipal leadership and management from the perspective of young municipal leaders Henna Paananen

During the last years there has been unambiguous generation shift among Finnish municipal chief executive officers (CEOs). A great amount of very experienced municipal CEOs (born in 1940s and 1950s) have retired and are followed by a whole new generation of leaders. These followers differ from their predecessors in many ways, and not least because of their age: youngest individuals have been born in 1980s. By representing different views, values and skills, the leaders of the new generation shape the present and future of whole municipal leadership.

The new generation of municipal leaders face a situation, where the context of municipal leadership has changed from clear and well-defined tasks and traditions towards a more complex reality dominated by multiple interaction relations. Major changes like dissolving municipal boundaries, cooled relations between the national State and municipalities, the changing role of municipal inhabitants and the fragmentation of local politics set new demands and challenges for municipal leadership and the leaders. By exploring the new generation of municipal CEOs it is possible to trace the key elements and aspects of present and future municipal leadership. The research questions are following:

-          How young municipal CEOs perceive municipal leadership as work. (E.g. what kind of things motivate and demotivate them, and what kind of relation they see between vocation, personal mission and paid work, what do they think about their careers)

-          How young municipal CEOs see their managerial latitude, and how it can be affected and in which way? (Especially media publicity point of view and cooperation with other municipalities and political leaders)

-          What kind of acts municipal CEOs use when they try to maintain balance on different leadership interfaces?

-          How young municipal CEOs see the future of municipal leadership and management?

The data is collected in three phases. First 25 Finnish municipal CEOs, born in 1976 or later, will be interviewed with a light thematic approach. The interviewees represent different municipalities (smaller towns – major cities, rural – urban, different parts of the country) and both genders. The interview material will be complemented with focus group conversation of young municipal CEOs’ network existing within The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. The third phase, conducted in early 2015, the empiric material will be fulfilled with observation of a working day of three municipal CEOs’. The data will be analyzed with an ethnographic approach. Shortly explained seeing common and ordinary things in new light and as an extraordinary culture. We aim at produce a thick description on the culture and ‘world’ of the leadership aspects of young municipal CEOs.

This study looks for young municipal CEOs’ ways to respond to the expectations set and the ways they build their leadership. Secondly the study offers an interesting possibility to seek for different interpretations on the changes seen in their work and resolutions found for the development of municipal leadership. As result of this study, at summer 2015, we expect to reach explanations and points of view to young municipal CEOs’ position and tasks in contradictory situation due to the multiple expectations towards the local government system. The study’s results are beneficial in multiple ways. Results will support the debate on local government development by shedding light on the life of leaders, promote good practices for maintaining the well-being of the municipal CEOs, and give tools to develop university education on local and regional governance.

C103 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART10
The reality of co-production: a case study of a deprived area Simon Roberts, Bruce Stafford

Co-production has been presented as a means to radically transform public services, it implies a change in the contract between the citizen / user and the state; a shift from the passive recipient of services to people having some degree of responsibility for service provision and / or delivery.  The concept promises a lot. But a small scale study in Aspley, a ward in Nottingham, suggests that co-production is not possible, indeed undermined by cuts in public services. The paper is based on the findings from two focus groups held in July 2011 with residents of Aspley, which form part of a larger exploratory action research study of Nottingham.

 

The paper provides a critical analysis of co-production; the economic and public expenditure background is then presented followed by the research findings from the Aspley focus groups. These findings include residents’ limited awareness of cuts – so not co-producers; the impact of the cuts reducing availability of local amenities and resources; opposition to greater use of unpaid labour to provide public services; engagement with Council perceived as a ‘talking shop’; and, from interviews with front line staff, lack of time for City Council to engage in co-production.

 

The paper concludes that to the extent that third sector agencies are engaged in social policy planning and delivery then they need the capacity to engage effectively in co-production.  However, austerity has led to cuts in the capacity of the third sector, and, the Aspley case study shows, this reduces the capacity for co-production. Thus, in times of tightening fiscal budgets at least, co-production does not appear to be able to deliver the promised transformation to service delivery that its proponents claim.

G103 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Nuffield Building NUF1
National media attention for local accountability processes: heightened consequences? Harmen Binnema, Sandra Jacobs

Dutch local governments face major transformations in their responsibilities as a result of a series of decentralizations. From January 2015 on, they will become responsible for health and youth policy, care for the elderly and employment. These new responsibilities require a lot of political and professional expertise to be organized at the local level. In addition, given the nature of these new policies, there is a probable risk of failure or incidents. Trouble caused by criminal youngsters or the neglect of elderly people may result in bad publicity and agitation among citizens. Aldermen will face   a demand for account giving and political action. At the same time, decentralization is a process which will raise debate on who is to blame or to credit (cf. Mortensen 2013) for some time to follow.

In line with the growing scientific interest for local leadership (e.g. Steyvers et al. 2008; Bochel & Bochel 2010; Bergstrom et al. 2012, Boogers, 2014), we will focus on the accountability mechanisms between aldermen and the municipal council. Over the last years, the position of the alderman has become more vulnerable (cf. Aardema et al. 2012) and a larger number have resigned, either by own choice or as a consequence of a vote of no confidence. Local accountability mechanisms are especially relevant for research as they received little attention up to now. Accountability processes on the national level have been one of the major research subjects (Bovens, Goodin and Schillemans, 2014) but these results cannot directly be translated to the local level. Our specific take on this is that we will look at accountability which is spurred by media attention (see Bruns & Himmler, 2011; Djerf-Pierre & Pierre, 2014; Korthagen & Van Meerkerk, 2014 for the interplay between media and accountability). Next to the demands of various social actors, we consider (local) media attention as one of the factors in the opening up of local politics.

We hypothesize that more intense media coverage, in particular a shift from local news to national news, leads to stronger consequences for local leaders. Our paper contains, first, a content analysis of attention for local policy issues and incidents in newspapers between January 2013 and December  2014. Second, we will assess the accountability consequences of media attention through an interview study focusing on aldermen and council members.

References

Aardema, H., M. Boogers & A. Korsten (2012). ‘Vallende wethouders.  Een verkenning van de vertrekredenen van onvrijwillig teruggetreden bestuurders op lokaal niveau’, Bestuurswetenschappen, 66 (2), 13-33.

Bergström, T., A. Gianoli & N. Rao (2012). ‘Strong Leadership and Local Democracy: Rivals or Potential Allies?’         in: Schaap, L. & H. Daemen (red.) Renewal in European Local Democracies. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, pp.          119-143.

Bochel, H. & C. Bochel (2010). ‘Local Political Leadership and the Modernisation of Local Government’, Local          Government Studies, 36 (6), 723-737.

Boogers, M. (2014). ‘Pulling the Strings: An Analysis of Informal Local Power Structures in Three Dutch Cities,         Local Government Studies, DOI: 10.1080/03003930.2013.841579.

Bovens, M.A.P., R.E. Goodin & T. Schillemans (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability. Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

Bruns & Himmler (2011). ‘Newspaper Circulation and Local Government Efficiency’ Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 113(2), 470–492.

Djerf-Pierre, M. & J. Pierre (2014). Mediatized local government in 1989 and 2010 – media strategies and social

media activity among local government officials. Paper presented at the conference on Media & Governance, Utrecht School of Government, Utrecht, June 12-13 2014. Retrieved from http://www.gu.se/english/research/publication?publicationId=199418.

Korthagen, I. & I. van Meerkerk (2014). ‘The Effects of Media and their Logic on Legitimacy Sources within Local

Governance Networks: A Three-Case Comparative Study, Local Government Studies, DOI: 10.1080/03003930.2013.859139

Mortensen, P.B. (2013). ‘(De-)Centralisation and Attribution of Blame and Credit, Local Government           Studies, 39 (2), 163-181.

Steyvers, K. , T. Bergström, H. Bäck, M. Boogers, J.M. Ruano De La Fuente & L. Schaap (2008). ‘From           Princeps to President? Comparing Local Political Leadership Transformation, Local Government Studies, 34 (2), 131-146.

 

C103 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART10
Regional cooperation in the information age: do the railway tracks meet at the horizon? Michel Linnenbank, Franciscus Jorna

This paper seeks to draw lessons from an extensive evaluation of a three years regional intergovernmental programme in the east-Netherlands region Twente aimed at converging local government organizational development. Most of the efforts were aimed at organizing the back offices of local government in such a way that local government succeed in keeping their autonomy while simultaneously integrating their daily operations as much as possible. The authors extensively interviewed all of the city secretaries, mayors and directors involved, and audited the projects carried in order to analyze how and to what extent the various projects actually arrive at producing 'convergence'.

The results of the evaluation are analyzed in the context of digital era governance. As such, the paper seeks to develop insight in how the digital era is affecting the functioning of local governance: in political-administrative relations, organizations, core business processes as well as intergovernmental relations.

C103 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART10
Rethinking the governance design – Design Thinking applied to governance Humberto Falcão Martins

This paper seeks to develop the concept of Governance design based on the design thinking method and propose an innovative governance model prototype. Thus, it fits into the debate on Experiments in Public Management in Developing Countries. This approach is unique and relevant because it is based on the view that institutional design modeling is a design science. We propose an innovation method and model to make governance designs more horizontal, biunivocal, integrated, interpenetrated in society and focused on stakeholders.

The paper considers design as thinking, creation, conception, development and specification of objects in the dimensions of style and functionality. It addresses governance arrangements as an optimizable object. Governance design is defined as a particular type of applied institutional design.

The paper also addresses design thinking, a design creation method that attempts to reach beyond style and functionality, starting from needs and demands, and treating them as determinants of style and functionality, based on three pillars: desirability, viability and feasibility.

The primary aim is the construction of a governance design prototype based on design thinking, a proof of concept, contrasting conventional design and a design that is intended to be innovative, thus contributing to reflections on innovation possibilities in current public governance arrangements.

The conventional design is essentially vertical, top-down, single-centered, fragmented and segregating (state-society separation). The predominant vertical orientation by policy theme generates stakeholder fragmentation.

An innovative design considers society as a collaborative network, and works on clusters of stakeholders, identifying their views, needs, expectations. It interacts with unstable segments, and at the same time with institutions. It is based on value streams, flows that integrate formulations, implementations that seek to guide/direct, organize and integrate horizontal and vertical, intra-governmental and extra-governmental work, for the benefit of stakeholders. The horizontal and vertical interaction produces a hiperintensive integration matrix.

I101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART8
Communicating Evidence toward Policy Change: An intervention Approach to Address the Science to Service Gap Kimberley Isett, Nassim JafariNaimi

Communicating Evidence toward Policy Change: An intervention Approach to Address the Science to Service Gap

The problem of communicating science in general and social science in particular is longstanding.  Scientists talk to each other very effectively, but often find it difficult to communicate to general audiences.  For applied disciplines, this traction with a broader audience is even more vexing.  We want policy makers and public servants to hear, understand, and draw on our research to make effective policy decisions.  It is, after all, why we do what we do – to impact public services.

 

In this paper, we introduce a new interdisciplinary approach to this problem. This approach brings knowledge from evidence-based practices in health care, public management, and innovation diffusion together with design theory and practice in digital media to create a communication strategy for a particular healthcare issue.  We explore frameworks of policy making, knowledge transfer and co-production, and evidence use.

 

One area where the gap between scientific knowledge and public service has been well documented is health care.  We know that once a service is developed with compelling evidence to its efficacy, it takes approximately 10 years to its diffusion where it is accessible to enough people that it is considered to be “in use”. The fundamental problem here is that evidence is not accessible to decision makers - whether that is to lawmakers who devise policy incentives, or to public servants who must use the evidence for implementation.  How do we make scientific evidence both available and meaningful to those individuals that can affect the delivery of services? For example, for some it is important to highlight the effectiveness of services for their targeted ailment while for others the short-term and long-term financial gains of implementing new services is a key determining issue.

 

The case: Autism prevalence rates in the United States have grown from 1 in 166 children in 2000 to 1 in 68 children in 2014.  Despite being one of the world’s fastest growing developmental disabilities, many insurance or health service providers do not cover early intervention services for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).  ASD affects all races, ethnicities, cultures and has prevalence across the socioeconomic spectrum with individual, social, and economic impact that is deep and lasting. There is extant evidence that suggests the benefits of early intervention and detection. Late or undiagnosed ASD is 320% more expensive to treat than early diagnosis and therapy. In addition to the economic savings, benefits of funding early intervention and treatment include relieving families of  emotional and social burdens; reducing workplace absenteeism for caregivers; better individual and social outcomes for patients; and reduced economic burden on already overtaxed social service systems for adults.  The current $60 billion cost of treatment for ASD in the US is expected to grow to  $200-400 billion in a decade, if current treatment trends continue.

 

Set in the above context, we illustrate our interactive tool that facilitates better understanding of scientific evidence and the potential benefits of early intervention. We posit this interactive tool as one intervention toward the goal of reducing the science to service gap by bringing forth multiple warrants for putting evidence-based services into practice in ways that are easy to understand by multiple audiences with differing information needs. We will present preliminary evidence about use and emphasis from our pilot experience, where applicable.

F101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Nuffield Building NUF3
The Impact of Civic Technology in Government: A Paradigm Shift or Another Passing Technology? Michael J. Ahn, Tanya Stepasiuk

The emergence of civic technology characterized by Open Data, Open Government and Crowdsourcing provide a promising vision for the future of government administration as current Weberian form of government with hierarchical structure and decision-making process, function-based structure, and operation within pre-determined domain areas is not considered to be adequate for the complex problems of the twenty-first century.  The last attempt to revitalize and “reinvent the government” through market-based government characterized by contracting-out and privatizing government functions has failed to provide an adequate solution.  The declining trust in government to a historic low as a recent Gallup figure indicates reflects citizens’ general dissatisfaction with the quality and effectiveness of today’s government.

At this critical juncture, the emegence of civic technology that harnesses “the wisdom of the crowd,” “co-production” of public service blurring the boundaries between public, business and nonprofit sectors provide a promising vision of the government of the future.  However an important question remains to be answered – “is civic technology just another technology and administrative practice that will pass without any meaningful public sector transformation, or is it causing a fundamental shift in government administration signaling a shift in public administration paradigm?” This study proposes to explore this question by conducting an in-depth case study of one of the leading municipalities in using the civic technology – Boston, Massachusetts.  From the Boston’s case and interviews with key stakeholders, this research will explore the following questions:

  1. What kinds of civic technology has been utilized in Boston and what has been its primary achievements?
  2. How has the use of civic technology influence or change the way the city government is run?  Has there been any significant and meaningful change?
  3. What are the key institutional, political and environmental factors that facilitate or impede the use of civic technology in government?
  4. From Boston’s experience, what are the future prospects of the civic technology in government?

The resulting publication will provide valuable insight for municipal managers and elected officials and for academics and students, a thoughtful assessment of the current status and the future prospects of what may be the next generation public administration paradigm.

G107 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Aston Webb AST2
Fulfilling the potential of sustainable procurement: examining the role of behaviour, commitment to change and knowledge in determining the degree of sustainable procurement Jolien Grandia

The public procurement market is the largest business sector in the world and represents 16% of the EU GDP (Hawkins, Gravier, & Powley, 2011; Rolfstam, 2009). Governments frequently use their authority to reduce the negative aspects of production and consumption (Ho, Dickinson, & Chan, 2010) via sustainable procurement.

However, the degree of sustainable procurement varies across procurement projects (Grandia, Groeneveld, Kuipers, & Steijn, 2013; Meehan & Bryde, 2011). One of the possible explanations for the variance is that sustainable procurement is a decision-making process, where the decisions of the procurers determine whether or not the potential of sustainable procurement is fulfilled (Günther & Scheibe, 2006), and thus the degree of sustainable procurement. This paper tries to gain insight into this by answering the following question: Does the individual sustainable procurement behaviour of public procurers influence the application of sustainable procurement in procurement projects and what influences their behaviour? To answer this question public procurers working in the Dutch national government were surveyed. The data was analysed via structural equation modelling using AMOS.

The results show that knowledge and affective commitment to change directly increase the sustainable procurement behaviour of public procurers. Thus the more knowledgeable about sustainability and the environment and affectively committed to change procurers are, the more sustainable procurement behaviour, such as make suggestions to increase the sustainability of a procurement project, they will show. Sustainable procurement behaviour was also found to significantly mediate the relationship between affective commitment to change, knowledge and the application of sustainable procurement in procurement projects. Interestingly, especially non-compulsory sustainable procurement, as opposed to the compulsory application of environmental criteria, is susceptible for the direct and indirect influence of sustainable procurement behaviour, affective commitment to change and knowledge.

Keywords: sustainable procurement, affective commitment to change, knowledge, sustainable procurement behaviour, structural equation modelling, survey.

References

Grandia, J., Groeneveld, S. M., Kuipers, B. S., & Steijn, A. J. (2013). Sustainable procurement in practice: explaining the degree of sustainable procurement from an organizational perspective. Rivista Di Politica Economica, (April/June), 41-66.

Hawkins, T. G., Gravier, M. J., & Powley, E. H. (2011). Public versus private sector procurement ethics and strategy: What each sector can learn from the other. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(4), 1-586.

Ho, L. W. P., Dickinson, N. M., & Chan, G. Y. S. (2010). Green procurement in the Asian public sector and the Hong Kong private sector. Natural Resources Forum, 34(1), 24-38.

Meehan, J., & Bryde, D. (2011). Sustainable procurement practice. Business Strategy and the Environment, 20(2), 94-106.

Rolfstam, M. (2009). Public procurement as an innovation policy tool: The role of institutions. Science and Public Policy, 36(5), 349-360.

 

H102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Law Building LAW2
The Right to Information and the Performance Legitimacy of Post-Conflict States: A Potential for Legitimization? Ruby Dagher

Right to Information (RTI) is considered as one of the hallmarks of democratic systems and structures. RTI is promoted as a tool to improve effectiveness and efficiency, transparency, regulations, democratic governance, and legitimacy.

The link between RTI and legitimacy is intriguing, not only because of its relevance to the long-term stability of the state, but also because of the fact that it could represent a means to improve the state’s performance legitimacy – the type of legitimacy that is more prevalent in post-conflict countries where democratic norms are limited or non-existent.

Performance legitimacy, or legitimacy that is earned through the provision of public goods and services, often exists during a conflict and continues to play a significant role in the relationship between citizens, leaders, and the state in post-conflict stages. Given the fact that the attribution of performance legitimacy greatly depends on the citizens’ perception of the owner or deliverer of these goods and services, could a more accurate representation of the state of affairs through RTI help identify the proper deliverer of services and thus the actual object of legitimacy? Furthermore, could the potential to properly identify the deliverer curb the ability of leaders to use state resources as a means to divert performance legitimacy away from the state and onto them? Could this reduction allow the state to further build both its performance and process legitimacy?

The paper will attempt to answer these questions by analysing RTI, its theoretical base, the factors for success (drawn from multiple case studies), the political economy of institution-building, the citizens’ relationship with, trust in, or perception of the state, and the type of civil society organizations that are needed to allow citizens to experience the benefits of RTI.

I101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART8
THE INDONESIA’S INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING EFFORT VERSUS REVOLUTIONARY MISSION OF SUKARNO’S IN 1945 – 1956 Vishnu Juwono

This paper will discuss how the newly-born state Indonesia had to cope in struggle to maintain its independence while at the same time embarking its institutional building effort. It starts with analyzing how the power struggle between two diametrically opposed nationalist camp led by President Sukarno compete against administrator camp led by Vice President Hatta. While there are many imperative studies on Indonesia’s Sukarno period era, however this important milestone mostly examines the power struggle of Indonesia’s army, President Sukarno and Indonesia Communist party which was influence by the context  of global competition between the western countries in one camp, while communist countries in other camp. This paper will reintroduce the power struggle analysis under President Sukarno period but under the back drop of public sector reform and anti-corruption initiatives at the time.

This paper will draw upon a range of primary sources including diplomatic correspondents, memo, reports the United Kingdom (UK) Foreign Commonwealth Office and the Australia Department of Foreign Affairs. In complementing these data from the UK and the Australia Government, this paper uses other primary resources from Indonesian government such as relevant laws, presidential decrees and government regulations, presidential speeches and international donor reports or documents. The leading Indonesia newspaper during that period such as Indonesia RayaPedomanSuara Karya and Kompas Daily were also employed in writing this paper.  In addition to President Sukarno’s authorized biography, a biography from a key figure in that period including the first Indonesia Vice President and leading figure of administrator group Muhammad Hatta and also influential Chief of Army during that period General A.H. Nasution would be significant sources for this paper. More importantly to complement formal documents and written publication, the paper will also utilize the interview with key important figures who was a living witness like former Minister of Mining Subroto, former Minister of Environment Emil Salim, and senior human rights activist Adnan Buyung Nasution.

This paper starts by presenting an overview of how Sutan Sjahrir – who later became the first Prime Minister of Indonesia – managed to secure huge concessions from Sukarno in accepting the application of a parliamentary democracy system in Indonesia. Then the paper identifies a number of institutional building initiatives through public sector reform effort after Indonesia gained its independence drove by administrator/ technocrat camp in government led by Vice President Hatta – with support of socialist party and masjumi party – who was tried to established strong parliamentary democracy with impartial bureaucracy that underpinned it. This technocrat was also working with progressive element of the army leadership to push for modernizing military especially in the army. It also identifies how  the administrator/ technocrat camp was gradually lose its influence due to being outmaneuvered by the nationalist camp/ solidarity maker led by President Sukarno, endless political party bickering, corruption by politician and political miscalculation for supporting the rebel group. This paper will also analyze a number of public sector reforms as well as anti-corruption initiatives which were led mainly by the administrator group leaders but that proved ineffectual and even failed to garner public support.

Keywords: Corruption, public sector reform, Indonesian Politics, President Sukarno, government.

 

 

I101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART8
SME Engagement with Public Procurement: analysing gaps between policy and practice Kim Loader

This paper makes a contribution to the debate about SME access to public procurement. Drawing upon extensive evidence that has been produced over the period of the current UK Parliament by key stakeholders, it provides a critical evaluation of the appropriateness of policies and their translation into practice. Moreover, it examines the extent to which the views of the different stakeholders coincide. This analysis helps to explain why policies are not yet achieving desired results.

 

The research questions are as follows:

  1. Is there support for UK government policies to improve SME access to public procurement?
  2. Do gaps exist between policies and their translation into practice?
  3. Do gaps exist between the perspectives of Government and SMEs?

 

The study collects and analyses publicly available evidence, gathered over the period of this Parliament by government and business related agencies. The analysis, adapting a model developed by Harland et al (2013), structures the evidence into a four box template which enables gaps between government and SME views to be determined.

 

The results demonstrate widespread support for the policy in general but some differences over detail. Evidence on progress is more mixed, indicating gaps and tensions. Improvements are seen in the recording of spend with SMEs and in the amount of spend, but both government and business find that barriers are still perceived by a majority and that cost continues to drive procurement decisions. A concern for business is the poor awareness of government measures, and evidence that barriers are worsening.

 

It is suggested that communication of measures is a priority; some elements of policy and practice require further deliberation; and government needs to address tensions affecting the success of the policy. Improvements in measurement are required to evaluate how successful the policies are.

H102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Law Building LAW2
Using informal networks as a resilience strategy to achieve health policy implementation in Ghana Gina Teddy

Background: Policy implementation of national plans often takes place in settings of multiple networks of actors and stakeholders. Although governments under pressure to implement political plans hardly lend themselves to effective analysis of the structures and resources available to support the policy. In Ghana, the National Health Insurance Scheme was implementation nation-wide resulting from a political campaign that led the government into power in 2000. Rolling out the policy and implementing it nation-wide was a national priority by 2005. Meanwhile at the local government levels, districts and their institutions were struggle with lack of capacities and resources to significantly provide the health services promised by the government.

Aim & Methods: This study explores how managers used local and informal networks as an adaptive strategy to achieve implementation and continuity in the face of failed stewardship and direction from the national health institutions. The study was undertaken in three districts in Ghana. It used qualitative approach to explore strategies adopted by (15) stakeholders mainly managers, heads of institutions and community leaders to ‘re’-negotiated their roles and functions for effective implementation.

Findings: The study showed that implementing the NHIP at the districts where formal organizational structures and inter-governmental networks have broken down due to political pressures, lack of resources and mixed support from national-level stakeholders. Government failed to provide governance and leadership for implementation.  Frontline workers and local stakeholders were incapacitated in terms of resources and knowledge of the policy although they were tasks with various responsibilities and roles. In their attempt to address the numerous challenges, local stakeholders developed strong informal networks with traditional leaders and units to influence members of the community, mediate to resolve problems between institutions and institutions and the community, and adapt parts of the NHIP to accommodate local health needs while pooling institutional resources.

Conclusion: The use of informal networks became an adaptive systems creating resilience towards problematic implementation at the local level. The study concluded that in rural local governance system, informal networks are relevant adaptive structures as inter-governmental networks to improve interactions, functions and responses towards implementation because of the sense of communal ownership towards the policy.

A101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART2
Learning in inter-organizational networks Martina Dal Molin, Deborah Agostino

Research on public networks has strongly blossomed during the last fifteen years.  Benefits of this new organizational arrangement have been acknowledged in sharing organizational experiences, identifying innovative solutions to common problems (Dawes et al., 2009; Askim et al., 2007), which finally led to the improvement of public sector performance (Gerlak and Heikkila, 2011; Moyhihan and Landuyt, 2009). A variety of network aspects have been explored starting from network structure, effectiveness, governance mechanisms, arriving until network management and development (see Turrini et al., 2010; Kenis and Provan, 2009). In this proliferating literature, scant attention has been devoted to the learning process of networks (Moynihan and Landuyt, 2009; Knight, 2002), i.e. learning by a group of organizations as a group (Knight, 2002: 428). This is a relevant missing point in extant network literature as long as (1) public organizations are often said to fail in organizational learning (Moynihan and Landuyt, 2009) and (2) public organizations are increasingly struggling to improve their knowledge and performance through interactions with other organizations (Larsonn, 1992).

This study aims at improving this silent stream of research by investigating factors, or conditions, that favor the learning process in networks. Specifically, we use Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to investigate which conditions, or combinations thereof, are able to favor the learning process both at the network level (in which the learner is the network itself), but also and at the organizational level (in which the learner is the single participant). To reach this research objective we analyzed an Italian network of public universities. The network of universities was constituted with the purpose to measure and benchmark performance of their administrative services in order to identify best practices. Operationally, the learning process is assessed through an evaluation participants’ performance on administrative services, assessed through questionnaires of customer satisfaction from service users (students, teachers and administrative staff).

Preliminary results, which will be deeply discussed in the final paper, show that network structure, inter-organizational dynamics and administrative organizational characteristics have an impact on learning processes both at the network level and at participant level.

References

Askim, J., Johnsen, Å., Christophersen, K-A., (2007), “Factors Behind Organizational Learning from Benchmarking: Experiences from Norwegian Municipal Benchmarking Networks”, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(2): 297-320.

Dawes, S.S., Cresswell, A.M. and Pardo, T.A., (2009), “From ‘Need to Know’ to ‘Need to Share’: Tangled Problems, Information Boundaries, and the Building of Public Sector Knowledge Networks”, Public Administration Review,  69(3): 392-402.

Gerlak, A.K. and Heikkila, T., (2011), “Building a Theory of Learning Collaboratives: Evidence From the Everglades Restoration Program”, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(4): 619-644.

Kenis, P. and Provan, K.G., (2009), “Towards an Exogenous Theory of Public Network Performance”, Public Administration, 87(3): 440-456.

Knight, L., (2002), “Network learning: Exploring learning by Interorganizational networks”, Human Relations, 55(4): 427-454.

Larson, A. (1992), “Network Dyads in Entrepreneurial Settings: A Study of the Governance Exchange Relationships”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 76-105.

Moynihan, 2005, D.P., (2005), “Goal-Based Learning and the Future of Performance Management”, Public Administration Review, 65(2): 203-216.

Moynihan, D.P. and Landuyt, N., (2009), “How Do Public Organization Learn? Bridging Cultural and Structural Perspective”, Public Administration, 69(6): 1097-1105.

Turrini, A., Cristofoli, D., Frosini, F. and Nasi, G., (2010), “Networking literature about t determinants of network effectiveness”, Public Administration, 88(2): 520-550.

A101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART2
Bargaining power, Management Control and Sustainability of Public-Private Joint Ventures Martina Santandrea

Despite public-private collaborations have been extensively studied, little is known on how public and private partners affect management control to achieve the joint venture’s objectives and what drives their sustainability.

Extant literature is based on the assumption that management control is a strict consequence of ownership and, therefore, public-private joint-ventures allow public partners to have a tight control over the provision of services. However, literature on (private-private) joint ventures has evidenced that ownership is only one of the factors affecting management control (Geringer and Hébert 1989).  Building on this premise, how public and private partners affect management control for the achievement of the joint venture’s objectives? A bargaining power perspective (Yan and Gray 2001) is applied to partial privatization to unveil the actual governance form of such joint ventures. Once having recognized the actual governance form of joint ventures, it is thus necessary to investigate its coherence with the value-based rationale. As such, what drives sustainability of public-private joint ventures in the long-term?

Empirical results based on in-depth case study research suggest that although the public sector has a formally higher resource-based bargaining power derived by structural aspects, private partners have significant context-based bargaining power if they are indispensable, hardly substitutable and not fully integrated with public partners. As such, private partners can exert significant control over the achievement of the joint venture’s objectives even if they are not fully involved in managerial practises. Diverse bargaining power can also influence the principal-agent relationship among partners depending on who is effectively (rather than formally) involved in managerial practices and who is monitoring the achievement of the joint venture’s objectives.

Finally, sustainability requires an alignment between the governance form and the long-term expectations of partners. Empirical results highlight that partners matching is conducive to the long-term sustainability of joint ventures solving the ‘organizational cognitive dissonance’ faced by public-private organizations.

A101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART2
Participatory governance success based on collective identity: social network analysis Birute Mikulskiene

Participatory governance is widely recognised as a value of a democratic society. The practical significance of participation and inclusion is emphasized as a search for a better solution enhancing the quality of public decision. It is natural that participation practice is still being created and it is encountered with more problems than solved issues. As the main issue of the stakeholders’ inclusion nowadays is establishment of  relationship between policy actors and creation of supportive environment for participation so the stakeholder inclusion would be straightforward with meaningful contribution to policy. Forty years of stakeholder inclusion research establsihed the main managerial recommendations what makes stakeholder input rational and cover balance between stakeholder, proper methods, supportive infrastructure, legitimacy and equity of stakeholders. Those recommendation could be enriched by special efforts to create social cohesion via strong ties between governance actors. Collective identity is a concept interpreting how shared values, shared action and shared identity lead to social cohesion between large number of people. Social cohesion contribute to more effective social tie formation between individuals within social groups and foster collective action that are the target for governance within public institution.

The goal of research is to analyse the precondition of collective identity formation within policy networks with stakeholders when participatory governance mechanisms apply in public management institution.

Methodology. Health policy sector was selected for empirical data collection. The penetration of stakeholder inclusion in the selected governmental sectors is investigated by mean of social network analysis. For that reason legal basis of establishing advisory groups or other participatory instruments employed for stakeholder involvement in Health ministry of Lithuania were collected for the period of 2007, 2010 and 2013. Participants of those instruments let us track the whole policy actor network. The overall research data set covers 245 temporary advisory groups and makes a network of 1433 nodes with 2566 relationships that represent facts of individual participation in the total of the two analyzed years. Technyques such as analysis of social networks help to reveal how the power of decision distributes among political actors and what role stakeholders are granted within these processes. Despite collective identity in groups is not possible to track straightforward, the dynamics of networks corresponds to collective identity changes, what social network is demonstrating. The network analysis and network visualisation were processed by UCINET software.

Findings and conclusion. The investigation clearly demonstrates that stakeholder are granted peripheral position in the network. Formal stakeholder social network formed within public diction making cycle is good representation of the Ministerial attitudes towards external stakeholders. Even the fact that some stakeholders are very prominent, their competences are recognized by policy makers and they are periodically invited in to the groups, they still have the peripheral position. Surprisingly this situation recur every single policy cycle (networks of different years demonstrate the same tendency) despite that many circumstances have been changed during the investigated period of time. Those new circumstances can be listed as follows: political parties nominated new politicians, new personnel involved in advisory groups from the side of ministry and new institutions and individuals act as stakeholder. That brings us to the conclusions that stakeholders are expected to be knowledge providers instead of knowledge co-producers. Networks demonstrates that knowledge and value sharing is not recognised as an important element for the participatory groups and too little efforts are made to build collective identity.

D102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Law Building LAW3
Citizens as self-service innovators: a new form of governing the public sector austerity? Jari Juhani Vuori, Marika Anne Kylänen, Pauline Allen This paper examines new forms of self-organized services as a possible solution for theglobal financial crisis in public finances. The paper suggests that innovationsin the governance of public, private and non-profit services cannot be based soleyon the concept of service delivery tousers as in the future (cf. Kylänen & Vuori & Allen 2012). Servicesproduced by their users (‘self-services’) are a relevant option for publicservice delivery as well as non-profit services, and have relatively reliableperformance indicators (Connolly & Hyndman 2013). Besides, these self-generatedself-services may not necessarily shrink the core of the welfare state, butpromote public interest in it, manifested in self-help, voluntarism and“organizing services beyond their users” (cf. Donahue 1989, 5; Bozeman 2007). Therefore,it is not surprising that the non-profit and voluntary sector has been broadlypositive towards the personalizing public services as “new state-citizencontract” in which the negotiations between expert users and professionals isexpected to increase allocative efficiency of public services (see e.g. Needham2011). There is, however, doubt that this will, in fact, increase allocativeefficiency (cf. Fotaki 2010). This comparative study of public service choices by English people andFinns shows that citizens of both countries choose non-profit and self-serviceoptions, as well as public and private services.  The survey data on English people and Finns(N= 3973) for this study was collected from three cities in England (n=2000)and five cities in Finland (n= 1973) in 2013. Using citizens’ views as a sourcefor service innovation can be questioned, but such views have been proved to beuseful and reliable in the search for public service innovations (see e.g. Johnston2010, Jowell et al 2011, Charbonneau & Van Ryzin 2011, Andrews &Van deWalle 2013). Thus, it makes sense to re-invent public values on thebasis of self-service citizens, notonly on the basis of service users of public, private or any other services. Inorder to create efficient service governance, there needs to be a new balancebetween providing services to users and self-services.  This study shows that the until now unknown innovationsof self-service citizens are a potential source for cost–savings, better serviceaccessibility and better use of the public workforce. ReferencesAndrews, R. & S. VanDe Walle. New Public Management and Citizens’ Perceptions of Local ServiceEfficiency, Responsiveness, Equity and Effectiviness. Public Management Review15:5, 762-783.Bozeman. B. (2007).Public Values and Public Interest. Counterbalancing Economic Individualism.Gerogetown University Press, Washington.Charbonneau, E. &Van Ryzin, G. (2011). Performance Measures and Parental Satisfaction with theNew York City Schools. American Review of Public Administration 42:1, 54-65. Connolly. C. &Hyndman, N. (2013). Towards Charity Accountability: Narrowing the gap betweenprovision and needs? Public Management Review 15:7, 945-969. Donahue, J.D. (1989).The Privatization Decision. Public ends, Private means. Basic Books, USA. Fotaki, M. (2010).  "Towards developing new partnerships inpublic services: Users as consumers, citizens and/or co-producers drivingimprovements in health and social care in the UK and Sweden." Public Administration89 (3): 933-955.Johnston, R. (2010).Survey Methodology, in The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology. Edited byBox-Steffensmeier, J. M. & Brady, H.E. & Collier, D. Oxford UniversityPress, Oxford, 385-403. Jowell, R. , Roberts, C.Fitzgerald, R. , Eva, G. (2011). Measuring Attitudes Cross-Nationally. Lessonsfrom the European Social Survey. Sage, London. Kylänen, M. , Vuori, J.Allen, P. (2012). Exploring Theory for Citizens’ Preferences in Health Policy:The Contribution of Health Policy Cultures to Understanding the Roles of Publicand Private Health Service Providers. IJPPHME 2:2, 38-57. Needham, C. (2011).PersonalisingPublic Services: Understanding the Personalisation Narrative. Bristol: PolicyPress D102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Law Building LAW3
COLLABORATIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR – LEARNING HOW TO MANAGE, MEANS KNOWING WHAT TO MANAGE Tanja Holmegaard Bjørn

An increasing number of public managers and employees promote and engage in collaborative endeavors to stimulate holistic service delivery and collaborative innovation. Simultaneously, the body of literature on Collaboration and Collaborative Management is growing rapidly, contributing to the discussion about how to comprehend and realize collaboration.

The term 'collaboration' has a long history in the public sector, and it is used widely to refer to a vast diversity of interactions. Preliminary analyses of three local cases of collaborative efforts in Denmark show, that the concept is being integrated with the contextual, institutional legacy in the public sector. Often the concept is used unspecified, which leads to a spread of multiple and sometimes opposite meanings. Lack of specification increases uncertainty and inhibits mutual cross-boundary learning between actors, sectors, etc. and might give rise to conflicts, or perhaps more discouraging, inertia. This paper proposes that the collaboration concept is kept wide enough to meet the practical and historical use of the term, but at the same time is refined with analytical distinctions of different types of collaboration. By rooting the collaboration concept in the managerial and organizational history of the public sector, the analytical distinctions are identified in the existing body of literature. The contribution of this paper lies in letting the historical institutional development illuminate the analytical distinctions of different collaboration types (instead of e.g. the organizational boundaries).

The usability of the analytical distinctions will be tried by integrating empirical data about collaborative innovation in a Danish Municipal. Hopefully, the paper might contribute to the development of the collaboration concept, increasing the learning about collaboration, and perhaps even add to the discussion about the development of collaborative management, prospectively.

The paper draws on a PhD study targeting the question of how collaborative innovation processes are led in the Danish municipal sector, and how public managers can learn from these experiences. The study is conducted in Danish and is in its final year. It is carried out as an explorative study with three single-cases. The overall body of empirical data consists of approx. 40 interviews (ranging from public managers and employees, local politicians, citizens, and organizations from non-profit and profit sector, respectively), a similar number official and unofficial documents, as well as similar number of hours of participant observation.

A101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART2
Network performance determinants: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis of UNESCO World Heritage Sites Marianna Elmi, Denita Cepiku, Filippo Giordano

Aim of the paper is to advance the theory on factors affecting network performance. UNESCO World Heritage Sites (WHS) networks are analysed through a configurational approach, highlighting the combinations of factors that lead to a higher performance.

Having described why WHS can be considered networks, the paper builds on an integrated performance model, derived from a thorough literature review and a preliminary double case study. This model includes four main network determinants and three performance levels. The determinants are: network complexity (given by the number and type of actors involved in the network), network stability (given by the political and financial resources), the presence of connecting network management strategies (given by the employment from the network manager of strategies aiming at improving interactions among partners) and, finally, the presence of factors fostering cooperation (given by the presence of trust and goal consensus among the partners). The three performance levels considered are community-level performance (given by the trade-off reached by the UNESCO sites between conservation and promotion), the network-level performance (the way in which the network in sé is working as organizational form and is improving interactions among partners) and the organizational-level performance (the trade-off between resources shared and acquired by the single network members).

The integrated performance model is subsequently applied in a comparative approach to thirteen cases of UNESCO World Heritage Sites through the employment of a six scale fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) with four conditions (network determinant) and one outcome (performance level). Three separate QCAs are carried out, each one for each level.

The results show that there are different causal paths (namely, combinations of conditions) leading to each of the performance levels analysed. The conclusions allow shedding new light on relevant issues for network performance theory, such as the role of network complexity in influencing network performance and the centrality of network management.

J104 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART7
Evidence in Policy and Programs: Supporting critical thinking within the development process. Peter Orpin, Kim Boyer, Matthew Carroll, Winifred van der Ploeg, Judi Walker

Background

Population ageing has led to increasing government interest in evidence-informed policies and practice (EIPP) to support ageing well. Our project sought to assess, and if possible distil, evidence available to policy and program developers seeking to support rural ageing well. The rural context is likely to pose particular issues for both older people themselves and for the development of support policies and programs. The project led in unexpected directions resulting in new insights into the policy environment and an unplanned output.

Method

The project reviewed three literatures: a representative sample of publically available ageing well policy documents and structured reviews of evidence based policy and rural ageing literatures. It also involved embedding a close collaborative research partnership with policy developers and service providers deep within the process.

Findings

As the project developed it became clear that compiling a pre-packaged distillation of the rural ageing well evidence was neither feasible nor necessarily useful. The complexities of the policy/program development processes and environments mean that they involve few straightforward questions with straightforward evidence-based answers. Rather, they involve balancing a complex mix of competing views, influences and imperatives of which formal evidence is only one part. The primary need appeared to be, not for a pre-prepared package of rural ageing well evidence, but processes and materials that empower policy makers themselves to identify and formulate questions amenable to evidence-informed answers.

Conclusion

The EIPP discourse is dominated by researchers seeking understanding about how to ‘push’ or market their evidence onto policy makers. Less attention has been given to understanding what might assist policy makers themselves to identify important questions and therefore prompt them to actively seek out evidence. Our project has, therefore, developed a set of support materials designed to assist policy and program developers in building critical analytical thinking skills and practices. 

F101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Nuffield Building NUF3
Competitiveness in public procurement and its impact on results: evidence from the Czech and Slovak Republic Juraj Nemec, Jan Pavel, Matus Grega

According to the common opinion of experts (see for example Gupta, 2002) competitiveness is one of major factors influencing results from public procurement. It is hardly possible to achieve efficiency and/or quality gains, if too few potential suppliers compete for a government contract. However, existing data indicate that the level of competitiveness in public procurement in new EU member states is rather limited – Figure 1, dealing with EU level tenders.

Figure 1: Average number of bids in EU level procurement 2006‑2010

 

Source: processed data from Strand (2011) and Ochrana a Pavel (2013).

Existing international statistics does not cover the full scale of the public procurement market and because of this the first goal of our paper is to calculate indexes of competitiveness for different types of procurement in two countries – the Czech Republic and Slovakia. For sure, we will try also to search for explanatory factors of limited participation.

The second core task is to estimate the relations between the level of competitiveness and the results from procurement (with focus on prices). This task is not simple, because the “method of estimated price (for example Kuhlman a Johnson, 1983) has several shortcomings (Millet et al., 2004 propose three possible options how to calculate savings).

Based on findings we expect to formulate conclusions, reflections and especially possible measures focusing on improvements. 

 

Literature

[1]     GUPTA, S. 2002. Competition and Collusion in a Government Procurement Auction Market. In Atlantic Economic Journal, roč. 30, 2002, č. 1. ISSN: 0197-4354, s. 13-25.

[2]     KUHLMAN, J., JOHNSON, S. 1983. The Number of Competitors and Bid Prices. In Southern Economic Journal, roč. 50, 1983, č. 1. ISSN: 0038-4038, s. 213-224.

[3]     MILLER, W.L. (2006). Corruption and Corruptibility. In World Development, roč. 34, 2006, č. 2. ISSN: 0305-750X, s. 324-404

[4]     STRAND, I. 2011. Public Procurement in Europe: Cost and Effectiveness. [online] Brusel: European Commision, [cit. 2014-05-10], s. 128.

[5]     OCHRANA, F., PAVEL, J. 2013. Analysis of the Impact of Transparency, Corruption, Openness in Competition and Tender Procedures on Public Procurement in the Czech Republic. In Central European Journal of Public Policy, vol. 2 č. 7. 2014. ISSN: 1802-4866

 

H102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Law Building LAW2
A Dynamic Network Analysis of a large scale disruption in the Dutch railway system Danny Schipper

Networks, Complexity and Innovation

Panel J104: Network Studies 2.0: Complexity and Networks

Our critical infrastructures (CI’s) have changed from mostly large-scale integrated monopolies in to networked systems consisting of multiple private and public organizations, with significant dispersion and varied interconnections (De Bruijne & Van Eeten, 2007; Schulman & Roe, 2007). This poses new challenges to these networks of organizations to coordinate their activities in order to provide reliable services, especially when dealing with unexpected events.

In this paper I want to understand how this distributed network structure affects the adaptive capacity of the system. An in-depth case study is used on how the organizations in the Dutch railway system failed to stay in control, after they were confronted with the unexpected news that four double-switches and two rail tracks were exceeding safety standards. In this study a quantitative and qualitative approach to social network analysis is combined (Coviello, 2005; Crossley, 2010; Edwards, 2010). Qualitative data is analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. With the qualitative data results of the statistical analysis of the data can be interpreted.

For this study real time data was used in the form of records of telephone conversations to reconstruct the process, supplemented with interviews and document analysis. I use dynamic network analysis (DNA) as a tool to structure the case description and to identify key moments and actors in the process. The quantitative analysis shows that what should have been a coordinated process, soon resulted in a situation in which information was uncoordinatedly flowing through the system, as people were trying to return to normal procedures. The adherence to formal procedures actually hindered the system to adequately respond to the unexpected event.

With this research a contribution to the literature is made on at least three different aspects. First of all, an inter-organizational perspective on coordinating in highly uncertain and time constraint environments is applied (Gittell & Weiss, 2004; Provan, Fish, & Sydow, 2007; Ren, Kiesler, & FuSSEll, 2008). Secondly, a mix method approach is used (Coviello, 2005; Crossley, 2010; Edwards, 2010). Thirdly, the call for the integration of time dynamics in to network studies is answered (Abbasi & Kapucu, 2012; Wolbers, Groenewegen, Mollee, & Bím, 2013).

References

Abbasi, A., & Kapucu, N. (2012). Structural dynamics of organizations during the evolution of interorganizational networks in disaster response. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 9(1)

Bruijne, M.L.,C., de & M.J.G. Van Eeten (2007). Systems that Should Have Failed: Critical Infrastructure Protection in an Institutionally Fragmented Environment. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 15(1), 18-29.

Coviello, N. E. (2005). Integrating qualitative and quantitative techniques in network analysis. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 8(1), 39-60.

Crossley, N. (2010). The social world of the network: Combining qualitative and quantitative elements in social network analysis. Sociologica, 1

Edwards, G. (2010). Mixed-method approaches to social network analysis. NCRM.

Gittell, J. H., & Weiss, L. (2004). Coordination networks within and across organizations: A Multi‐level framework*. Journal of Management Studies, 41(1), 127-153.

Provan, K. G., Fish, A., & Sydow, J. (2007). Interorganizational networks at the network level: A review of the empirical literature on whole networks. Journal of Management, 33(3), 479-516.

Ren, Y., Kiesler, S., & FuSSEll, S. R. (2008). Multiple group coordination in complex and dynamic task environments: Interruptions, coping mechanisms, and technology recommendations. Journal of Management Information Systems, 25(1), 105-130.

Schulman, P.R. & E. Roe (2007). Designing Infrastructures: Dillemas of Design and the Reliability of Critical Infrastructures. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 15(1), 42-49.

Wolbers, J., Groenewegen, P., Mollee, J., & Bím, J. (2013). Incorporating time dynamics in the analysis of social networks in emergency management. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 10(2)

 

 

 

J104 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART7
Investigating the Relationship of Network Governance Centralisation and Network Complexity – The Case of Interoperability in Government Information Networks Florian Henning

Increasingly, electronic governance involves multi-organisational ICT-enabled networks, referred to as “Government Information Networks” (Janowski, Pardo, & Davies, 2011). Such networks require that the various organisations in them and their systems are “interoperable” (i.e. able to exchange services and information by adhering to agreed standards). A key success factor for this is effective “Interoperability Governance”, i.e. the decision-making on these standards. A central question here is whether such decisions are more effectively made in a centralised or a decentralised manner (cf. Bekkers, 2007).

The primary objective of this paper is to investigate whether and how, for Government Information Networks of different complexity, different degrees of Interoperability Governance centralisation differ in their effectiveness (i.e. ensuring organisations’ adoption of standards). To this end, the paper presents two case studies of Government Information Networks from the Netherlands to develop theoretical propositions on this relationship, by identifying key dimensions of Interoperability Governance centralisation (brokerage, stakeholder inclusion, coercion, accountability mechanisms) and tracing their relation to network complexity in their effect on standards adoption.

The findings provide empirical support for the argument that the effectiveness of a given network’s governance depends on how it matches the specific characteristics of that network, in particular its complexity (cf. Provan & Kenis, 2008). It proposes 1) that in more complex networks, assigning centralised control to a broker is associated with higher likelihood of organisations to adopt the network’s standards; 2) that a minimum level of inclusion of relevant stakeholders generally has a positive effect on standards adoption; 3) that in more complex networks, stronger coercion is associated with higher likelihood of standards adoption; and 4) that in more complex networks, using stricter accountability mechanisms is associated with higher likelihood of standards adoption.

Selected References

Bekkers, V. (2007). The governance of back-office integration. Public Management Review, 9(3), 377 - 400.

Janowski, T., Pardo, T. A., & Davies, J. (2011). Government Information Networks - Mapping Electronic Governance cases through Public Administration concepts. Government Information Quarterly, 29, 1-10.

Provan, K. G., & Kenis, P. (2008). Modes of Network Governance: Structure, Management, and Effectiveness. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(2), 229-252.


J104 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART7
About the New Approach to the Anti-corruption Expertise of Legal Regulation: Public Procurement Case Andrei Ivanov

The paper proves a necessity of changing the approach to anti-corruption expertise: an analysis of opportunities for mala fide agents’ behavior and evaluation of incentives for their bona fide behavior have to be completed by the assessment of possibility of making a best choice for the society in terms of regulation proposed by the principal (ex ante impact assessment).

In the paper two different algorithms of anti-corruption expertise have been introduced: first one is applied to the new regulation tool, second one – to the regulation tool which has been used and some information on agent’s reaction is available. In both case the expertise starts from the modelling of society’s preferences and comparing them with the principal’s preferences generated by the proposed regulation.

The second algorithm used by the author in the anti-corruption expertise of applying the price English auction in public procurement of Russian Federation. Some amendments to RF public procurement regulation are proposed. The possibilities of applying the amendments in the public procurement regulation of EU countries are discussed. The relationship between algorithm of anti-corruption expertise and the typology of principal-agent models, based on the assumptions of bona /mala fides of the Principal and the Agent, is underlined.

H102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Law Building LAW2
Re-Invention by public sector accounting research? - Stepping back when going forward Hans-Juergen Bruns, Mark Christensen, Alan Pilkington

Aim of the study/relevance to the panel: To identify the evolution of the ‘intellectual structure’ of the New Public Sector Accounting research in order to evaluate the knowledge base shaping its future

The main proposition of this paper is that public sector accounting (PSA) research as a discipline is more heterogeneous than the common figure of its subject may indicate: accounting devices (e.g. rules, routines, practices) are a matter of concern in order to improve public management and the governance of public sector organizations. Subsequently, the potential role of the discipline to explain the latter with theoretical and practical relevance depends on a comprehensive understanding of the intellectual structure of the post-1995 PSA research. If we do not have the transparency of ‘A Public Management for all Seasons’ - as Hood (1991) has claimed in his seminal paper - we need to further discuss what the reasonable consequences are of the range and perhaps the obfuscate state of sub-doctrines, justifications and philosophies for theorizing the phenomenon of interest and how opportunities for future intellectual investments can come about within the now more matured PSA research field.

In this sense, the paper aims to have a closer look at the evolution of PSA research within and across its ‘generic’ but even separated sub-disciplines: Public Administration and Accounting. The analysis builds upon a bibliometric approach which helps to substantiate the evolution of the PSA field, not only in terms of ideas but also in terms of its accepted knowledge base(s), in particular when going across ideas and the disciplines. Conceptually, the construct of ‘structural knowledge groups’ refers as the analytical unit to explore issues and areas of theoretical development(s) within the field based on the ‘complementary’ or the ‘dissimilarity’ of rival ideas and empirical findings to explore the causes and effects of operational accounting practices.

Research design: Bibliometric analysis

The bibliometric analysis refers to the ‘intellectual structure’ of New Public Financial Management (NPFM) as the recurrent research topic, and is based on an initial setting of Public Administration (Public Administration Review, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Public Administration) and Public Sector Accounting journals (Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, European Accounting Review, Management Accounting Research). The first step of analysis aims to use two seminal papers of NPFM research (Hood 1991, 1995) as the ‘initial’ core’  to identify the associated ‘knowledge groups’ based on a descriptive citation and co-citation analysis (e.g. publication year distribution, most frequently cited, co-cited, continuity according to time periods). The second step then refers to the concept of ‘structural knowledge groups’ (SKA) and the assumption of the heterogeneity of ideas and sub-doctrines, basically noted as the ‘pros’ and ‘critics’ of NPFM research. Thus, the analysis needs to cover the identification of SKA’s in terms of ideas, concepts and disciplinary foundations, the exploration of their relationships within the discipline, and, probably, the description of relationships across the discipline(s).

Findings and discussion: The Evolution of the Intellectual Structure of New Public (Financial) Management-Research

The outcome state of the paper is tentative. The aim is to step back to Hood’s (1991) claim to further explore the relationship between core types of ‘administrative value(s)’ (‘Frugality, rectitude, and resilience’) and the ‘administrative design’ of NPFM systems instead of accepting normatively the value of NPFM as a new language within the public sector. These terms might be useful to categorize distinct ideas and research streams within the NPM/PSA/NPFM research realm when the bibliometric outcomes of the co-citation analysis come about. The paper also contributes to an emerging, albeit perhaps temporal, literature on the ‘death’ or otherwise of NPM.

Literature
Hood, C. (1991). A public management for all seasons?. Public Administration, 69(1), 3-19.

G101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART6
A ‘fine line’: Examining the delicate Relationship between Political and Bureaucratic Heads in Public Sector Management in Ghana Kwaku Ofosu-Adarkwa, FRANK KWAKU OHEMENG Governance -- how government deals with the governed, including the capacity to build public sector institutions and deliver services -- is problematic throughout developing countries. Good [enough] governance has therefore become their theme of development. One characteristic of good governance is partnership between the political and administrative leadership that is innovative and promotes participation and trust, and that thereby enhances their collective responsiveness to the needs of the citizenry through consensus building. Governance, then, is concerned not only with decisions, but with process outcomes, arising from the engagement and empowerment of all societal actors. It accordingly entails the exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority in the management of a nation’s affairs. Through its complex mechanisms and processes relationships are built, on one hand, between those entrusted with political and bureaucratic authority and, on the other, between the political and bureaucratic authorities and the citizenry. Nevertheless, the relationship of those who hold political power with those who have administrative authority is extremely important if the ideals of good governance are to be achieved. Notwithstanding, the public administration literature continues to debate, sometimes contentiously, the relationship between politicians and bureaucrats in the policy making process. That debate has concentrated on the inability to draw a line, even a fine one, between the roles of these two actors and, conversely, to indicate where they converge in the policymaking and implementation processes. The problem also has much to do with the ethos of liberal democracy that entrusts policy making to elected officials, while the bureaucracy is expected to implement what they have decided. It is this scenario that has led to the popularization of the dichotomy between politics and administration. Unfortunately, most of the literature focuses on this relationship at the decision-making level, rather than on the overall management of the public sector. We thus deem it necessary to move this discussion into the politics-management realm, especially in the developing world. The necessity to understand the relationship between politicians and bureaucrats in public management derives from the fact that in many cases, this relationship is central to the success or failure to implement institutional (administrative) reforms. In many cases, if not all, the literature dealing with this important subject has, despite its long history, focused on the developed world to the neglect of developing countries. It is therefore our intention to fill the gap that has been created by the dearth of studies in developing countries and at the national level by examining the politico-administrative relationship in the Ghanaian context. The Ghanaian situation merits our attention because in recent times, numerous disagreements between political (ministers) and bureaucratic (chief directors) heads, have been, and continue to be, reported in the media. Such conflicts are not necessarily new, but their escalation is a cause for worry because they affect the overall development of the country. Repercussions of this conflict include stalled reform initiatives, high administrative turnover -- which creates bureaucratic instability -- and the over politicization of the bureaucracy. What accounts for this poor relationship, and how does it affect the overall management of the public sector, particularly the civil service? We attempt to answer these questions by placing particular emphasis on the relationships and partnerships between political and bureaucratic heads in public sector management, which should be designed to mediate differences among the citizenry, the private sector, and the government, in such a manner that public resources and problems can be seen to be managed effectively and efficiently, and to meet the critical needs of the citizenry. 
B101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART4
The renewed role of public managers: some evidence from Italy Benedetta Bellò, Alessandro Spano

This article is relevant to the panel topic as it reports the results of a research aimed at investigating the renewed role of managers, in the Italian public sector, after the recent normative changes.

According to the New Public Management framework, in many advanced economies (area OECD countries), public services have come under increasing pressure to improve their efficiency and efficacy, while maintaining the quality of services delivered. Italian legislation tried to raise the quality of public services through a new management approach orientated towards continuous performance improvement, adopting quality standards and benchmarking. Moreover, according to the legislation, Italian Regions implemented renewed managers’ evaluation systems characterized by the following:  incentives/rewards (monetary and non-monetary) based on innovative capability and excellence in performance, more responsibilities given to managers.

Based on a mixed methodology (interviews and questionnaire), the article provides evidence of the managers’ perception of the renewed evaluation systems, their new accomplishments and their responsibilities in order to improve their accountability and obtain the incentives/rewards. The sample is composed on 568 public managers (66% being men; 70% being more than 50 years old); the results show that they are usually evaluated on objectives achieved but also on organizational behaviours, managerial and professional competencies. They are assigned objectives by their immediate superiors who also evaluate them once a year. However, they perceive that the equity of the evaluation system is not guaranteed due to the influence of politicians on the objectives that have to be given priority and the existing rewards/promotions policies. Moreover, they perceive the evaluation system as a mere fulfilment and a tool to exert a control on their working behaviour; the system is not a tool used to stimulate employees’ growth nor the acquisition/development of professional competencies. Finally, after the normative changes, managers perceive themselves to have greater responsibility but not enough autonomy and power to act on this responsibility: it determine a limited usefulness of the changes introduced for increasing overall performance.

B102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART1
The influence of political support on the robustness of performance mesurement systems in Australia Graham John Smith

Performance measurement has frequently failed to live up to expectations of contributing to accountability snd performance improvement: measures are subject to gaming, some are not logically based or even measurable.  The extensive literature on performance measurement has mostly been in static terms; the current research project takes a systems approach to address the research question of how changes to performance measures and the underlying performance measurement frameworks are influenced by internal and external factors.

Aucoin (2012) has suggested that New Political Governance puts management performance at risk. The current paper considers the specific case of the influence of political forces on changes to performance measurement systems in Australia, primarily based on publicly available documents for three Australia jurisdictions over the period 2009-2014, and also some interviews with managers.

Political support is necessary to implement legislative and policy changes to performance measurement frameworks at the jurisdictional level, and this is reflected in the quality and structure of the performance measures.  However, these changes tended to be bipartisan or at least uncontroversial and therefore required little expenditure of political capital.  There is even less political interest in defining performance measures, and this paper addresses whther this is primarily due to this being considered a technical issue, or whether it is because of the risk of unwanted disclosure at the mangement and political level.  This is significant as it points towards a potential reason for the ongoing lack of quality of performance measures in some government agencies.

Reference:

Aucoin, Peter.  New political governance in Westminster systems: impartial public administration and management performance at risk. Governance, Volume 25, Issue 2, March 2012

B101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART4
A Comparative the Growth of Civic Technology and Open Government John Glenn McNutt, Jonathan Burton Justice, James M Melitski, Micheal J, Ahn, Shariq R. Siddiqui, David T. Carter, Angela D Kline

The growth of Civic Technology, Transparency and Open Government promises a sea change in the relationship between government, nonprofits, commercial organizations and the public.  This emergent technology may rewrite the current paradigm for intra sector relationships and the resulting management practices that are postulated on this paradigm (Baraniuk, 2013; Newson, 2013; Living Cities, 2012; Goldstein & Dyson, 2013; Suri, 2013).   This revolution promises to eclipse the changes engendered by social media/web 2.0 and create a new understanding of the way that civic life and civil society are considered (see Durose, Justice & Skelcher, 2014).

Much of what we know about this exciting phenomenon is based on case studies.  These are useful but limited in scope and setting specific.  There are also comparative studies of state efforts (see Justice & McNutt, 2014), which also have limitations.  This study will address these weaknesses by comparing the municipal governments of an entire state to a balanced sample of exemplars, in terms of their current and planned use of civic technology.  The study addresses the following research questions:

  1. To what extent have civic technology interventions been adopted by smaller municipal governments?
  2. Which components of the civic technology arsenal are most commonly adopted?
  3. What are the commonalities among communities in terms of their experiences with civic technology?
  4. What are the differences between communities in terms of their experiences with civic technology?

Theoretical Framework:  The research will use Rogers (2003) Diffusion of Innovation theory as the theoretical framework.  This approach is appropriate to the problem at hand and supported by a large body of research.

Sample: A census of Delaware's 48 municipal governments that have operating websites will be compared to an equal-number stratified sample of recent general-purpose municipalities that are winners of the Government Finance Officers Association Popular Annual Financial Reporting Award (http://gfoa.org/pafr) and have operating websites. The sample of GFOA PAFR winners will be selected to match as closely as possible the population-size characteristics of the population of Delaware municipalities, which range in size from 75 to 72,000 residents. Comparison to the sample of PAFR exemplars will provide an opportunity to compare Delaware municipalities' innovations to those of a national sample of municipalities that have been recognized for their efforts to produce reports that have no purpose other than to inform and engage ordinary citizens. This presumptively selects a comparison group of exemplars that will have varying levels of resources and technical expertise, but share a commitment to transparency and citizen engagement. No Delaware government participates in the PAFR award program.

Method: Content analysis of municipal websites, complemented by an online survey and/or telephone interviews to elicit information about relevant municipal motivations, plans, and barriers to implementation of civic technology and open-government initiatives. We will also ask about implementation strategies and resources used by the local governments that do have open-government and civic-technology initiatives already.

This research should contribute to our understanding of how civic technology happens in smaller municipalities.  It should also provide interesting comparisons with similar programs worldwide.

References

Baraniuk, C. (2013). The civic hackers reshaping your government. New Scientist, 218(2923), 36-39.

Durose, C., Justice, J. & Skelcher, C.  (2014). Governing at arm’s length: eroding or enhancing democracy? Policy and Politics.  Fasttrack Online Ahead of Print Publication

Goldstein, B.. & Dyson, L. eds. (2013) Beyond Transparency. Washington, DC: Code for America. http://beyondtransparency.org/pdf/BeyondTransparency.pdf

Justice, J. B. & McNutt, J.G. (2013-2014). Social capital, e-government and fiscal transparency in the states. Public Integrity, 16(1), 5-24.

Living Cities (2012).  Field scan of civic technology. Available at http://www.livingcities.org/knowledge/media/?action=view&id=94

Newsome, G. (2013). Citizenville. New York: The Penguin Press.

Suri, M. V. (2013). From Crowdsourcing Potholes to Community Policing: Applying Interoperability Theory to Analyze the Expansion of “Open311”. Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University.

Rogers, E.M. (2003). The Diffusion of innovation. [Fifth Edition]. New York: Free Press.

 

G107 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Aston Webb AST2
The Purple Zone and the undermined design of the performance-based system in a Brazilian Municipality Andre Carlos Busanelli de Aquino, Lydia de Oliveira Reis

This paper presents a case study on how the purple zone can foster disappointment in or misconception of a performance-based management (PBM) system. Notwithstanding the NPM movement in the federal government beginning in the 1990’s, performance-based management policies are still isolated and rare experiences in Brazilian municipalities. It can be associated not only with the lack of politicians’ engagement with formal PBM systems or strict Brazilian regulation of public-sector jobs, but also the unwillingness of public servants and their unions to pay-for-performance systems.

A quite common characteristic in Brazilian municipalities is the ministers’ position offered to allied parties in the legislative branch, to validate and ensure their previous and future support, respectively. Then, those ministers (chiefs of secretariats in the executive branch) recommend their second-in-command for commissioned positions. Both levels are focused on the short-term. Additionally, the union has also a political position. Then, PBM implementation is decided and supported by a bargaining process in the purple zone, as it depends on mayoral support and on support from the legislative branch and on the labor union’s interests. These actors negotiate the PBM terms and conditions.

The paper reflects the IRSPM panel discussing a case of purple zone influence on PBM adoption in a Brazilian municipality. We conducted interviews with the human resources director, public servant union representatives, and 1st- and 2nd-level public servants. Preliminary analyses stress the technical solution designed to boost staff efficiency, which was immediately supported by the mayor. However, political forces bargaining in the purple zone caused a reduction of the PBM’s scope (to a competence-based career) to accommodate politicians, civil servants and union interests, reducing motivation and confidence in HR policies. We offer some thoughts about PBM implementation in representative governments at the local level.

B101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART4
A Qualitative Study of Distributed Leadership in Organizational Change Processes Anne Mette Kjeldsen, Maria Shubhra Ovesen

In these years, many public sector organizations go through profound organizational changes including mergers, cutbacks, and general restructuring to become more effective at delivering welfare services and keep costs down (Kuipers et al. 2014). Successful implementation of such changes requires not only skillful management but also support and active engagement from the employees  (Fernandez and Rainey 2006). The distributed leadership (DL) literature emphasizes the importance of involving employee resources in leadership tasks to facilitate organizational support and performance (Bennett et al. 2003; Bolden 2011; Gronn 2000). Generally, DL can be defined as the sharing of generic leadership tasks to influence resource availability, decision making, and goal setting within an organizational perspective (Gronn 2000; Gronn 2002). This means that it includes many of the de facto managerial functions that employees (without formal management responsibilities) perform on a day-to-day basis – functions that are essential for a successful outcome of change processes. Compared with transformational and transactional leadership styles, looking towards DL might thus be advantageous in an increasingly complex public sector during times of organizational change.

This paper focuses on how employees are involved in managing public organizations in times of changes. What are the boundaries for engaging in DL – both from a management and an employee perspective? And when and how can managers induce employee participation and engagement in leadership tasks tied to a change process? These questions are empirically examined using qualitative panel data consisting of 34 semi-structured interviews with Danish hospital staff (clinical managers and employees) working at four different hospital units in one of Scandinavia’s largest public hospitals. The first round of interviews were conducted in the spring 2012 right after two of the studied hospital units went through a profound merger process with units from other hospitals in the region, whereas the two other studied hospital units were almost untouched by this merger process (control cases). The second round of interviews were then conducted in the autumn 2014, 2.5 years after the change process was initiated.

By conducting this study, the paper seeks to contribute to the literature on DL in at least three ways. First, examining DL during organizational change processes may comprise a hard case for both management and employee engagement in DL since such processes often creates uncertainties about positions and responsibilities. Second, most previous research in DL has been conducted in the education sector (Bolden 2011), whereas the hospital sector is rather new to the field. With its bureaucracy archetype of organization and many layers of professional knowledge distribution and jurisdiction, hospitals may create a paradox to DL (Günzel-Jensen et al. 2013). An aim of our study is thus also to get a firmer grip on how DL can be conceptualized and enacted in such settings. Last but not least, the use of qualitative panel data makes it possible to analyze the causal mechanisms by which management attempts to distribute leadership at t1 might affect employee engagement in DL and support for the organizational changes at t2. This methodological contribution to the DL literature is further supported by the use of vignette case-stories to qualitatively investigate how DL unfolds in the health care context – an approach which creates unique opportunities to explore and validate different perceptions of DL.

References:

Bennett, N., C. Wise, P. A. Woods, and J. A. Harvey. 2003. “Distributed Leadership: A Review of Literature.” Open Research Online. http://oro.open.ac.uk/8534/1/bennett-distributed-leadership-full.pdf.

Bolden, R. 2011. “Distributed Leadership in Organizations: A Review of Theory and Research.” International Journal of Management Reviews 13 (3): 251–69.

Bordia, P., E. Hobman, E. Jones, C. Gallois, and V. J. Callan. 2004. “Uncertainty during Organizational Change: Types, Consequences, and Management Strategies.” Journal of Business and Psychology 18 (4): 507–32.

Fernandez, S., and H. G. Rainey. 2006. “Managing Successful Organizational Change in the Public Sector.” Public Administration Review 66 (2): 168–76.

Gronn, P. 2000. “Distributed Properties a New Architecture for Leadership.” Educational Management Administration & Leadership 28 (3): 317–38.

———. 2002. “Distributed Leadership.” In Second International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Administration, 653–96. Springer.

Günzel-Jensen, F., A. M. Kjeldsen, and A. K. Jain. 2013. "Distributed leadership in health care: The role of formal leadership styles and organizational efficacy". Manuscript under review.

Kelman, S. 2005. Unleashing Change: A Study of Organizational Renewal in Government. Brookings Institution Press.

Kuipers, B. S., M. Higgs, W. Kickert, L. Tummers, J. Grandia, and J. Van Der Voet. 2014. “The Management of Change in Public Organizations: A Literature Review.” Public Administration 92 (1): 1–20.
B102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART1
The cut-build paradox: a role for authentic leadership Robert McLeay Thompson, Maree Armansin

The cut-build paradox: a role for authentic leadership?

Robert Thompson

School of Management

QUT Business School

QUT

2 George Street

Brisbane Q4000

Australia

r.thompson@qut.edu.au

 

Maree Armansin

Director

OrgDevSolutions

PO Box 856

Lutwyche Brisbane 4030

Australia

maree@orgdevsolutions.com.au

Phone: 61 7417613531

 

 

 

PANEL B102 CONTEMPORARY LEADERSHIP ISSUES: MANAGING PEOPLE, CHANGE AND INNOVATION

 

Submitted to Panel B102, Contemporary leadership issues: managing people, change and innovation of the International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM 2015), University of Birmingham, 30 March – 1 April, 2015.

 

Please forward feedback and comments to:

Dr Robert Thompson

School of Management

QUT Business School

QUT

2 George Street

Brisbane QLD 4000

Australia

Phone:             61 7 3138 508261 7 3138 5082

Fax:                  61 7 3138 1313

Email:              r.thompson@qut.edu.au


 

Public managers are expected to do much more with much less; for example, there is a strong imperative to adopt large-scale austerity measures and at the same time build service delivery capacity (e.g. Queensland Commission of Audit, 2013). Not only do managers have to cope with the contradictory demands of cut and build at a personal level they must also communicate these contradictory expectations to employees in ways that enhance or at least do not adversely affect ongoing service delivery. The issue of how public leaders address or do not address contradictory demands is important; mismanagement can lead to vicious cycles while effective management can lead to virtuous cycles (Smith and Lewis, 2011) however little attention has been given to how to make virtuous cycles more likely.

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to explore the relationship between authentic leadership (Luthans and Avolio, 2003) and managing the paradoxical tension between cut and build. We raise concerns about the traditional implicit strategies for managing paradoxical tensions; temporal separation and spatial separation (Poole and Van de Ven, 1989). Instead we argue that authentic leadership and the associated development of Psychological Capital (Luthans, 2002) has the potential to develop and sustain what Smith and Lewis (2011) refer to as a transcendence strategy. In addition, we argue that a paradigmatic shift is required if authentic leadership and the development of Psychological Capital is to become embedded in public leadership thought and practice.

The paper contributes to the literature on public leaders’ response to austerity-capacity building in two main ways. First, the paper seeks to explain how authentic leadership (Carson et al. 2007) can provide a persistent transcendent strategy to manage the cut and build tension. Second, the paper provides propositions for future research on Authentic Leadership and Psychological Capital in public contexts.

 

References

Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E. and Marrone, J. A. (2007). Shared leadership in teams: an investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1217.

Luthans, F. (2002). Positive organizational behaviour: developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 57-72.

Luthans, F. and Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership: a positive developmental approach. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, and R. E. Quinn, Positive organizational scholarship: foundations of a new discipline. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Poole, M. S. and Van de Ven, A. H. (1989). Using paradox to build management and organization theories. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 562-578.

Queensland Commission of Audit (2013). Final Report – executive summary, February. Brisbane: Queensland Government.

Smith, W. K. and Lewis, M. W. (2011). Toward a theory of paradox: a dynamic equilibrium model of organizing. Academy of Management Review, 36(2), 381-403.

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B102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART1
The New Intersections of Philanthropy, the Third Sector and Public Policy: Revealed, Reinvented, Revolutionized? Susan D. Phillips, Steven Rathgeb Smith

In the study of the third sector, philanthropy is often treated as the ‘man behind the curtain’ to which we pay little attention.  Philanthropy is implicit in the study of the third sector, but is usually treated rather passively as a source of revenue, on average about 12 percent of total revenues (Salamon et al. 2003: 29; Lasby 2011), and gets noticed mainly when the injection of very large gifts seems to be pulling certain organizational or policy levers. This paper lifts a corner of that curtain to examine the changing dynamics of philanthropy, including the ongoing transformations of the third sector and the public policy regimes  governing  philanthropy and the overall sector.  To what extent is public policy facilitating a constructive and sustainable relationship between philanthropy and the third sector?  What would constitute appropriate public policy leadership given trends in philanthropy and this sector?  These questions are examined through a broad comparative analysis of the jurisdictions of the ‘Anglo-Saxon’ cluster, although the findings have relevance more widely across developed countries.

Both philanthropy and the third sector are undergoing significant change (see  Martin 2011; Milbourne 2014; Pestoff et al. 2011), but the nature of these changes may be leading in quite different, perhaps incompatible directions.  For example, the sector continues to grow and diversify in terms of both missions and revenues, but philanthropy is becoming more concentrated with a smaller number of donors providing a larger proportion of giving and volunteering (CAF, 2013).  In addition, many foundations and major donors propelled by the movement to achieve greater impact are choosing to support fewer causes and organizations, and ‘giving’ is being replaced by ‘social investment’ (Salamon 2014).  Further, , philanthropy is increasingly trans-border – whether through the massive international granting of Gates and other large foundations or the micro acts of purchasing goats on Kiva for impoverished families in developing countries.  Yet, most third sector organizations remain localized, and several of the Anglo-Saxon countries have recently limited the range of international charities that qualify for domestic tax incentives, thereby making trans-border giving less attractive.  In general, public policy for philanthropy and nonprofits has been subject to considerable policy drift in recent years or has responded to exogenous economic and political pressures (Phillips and Smith in press).

The first part of the paper documents and analyzes these changes drawing on primary and secondary sources, including the extant literature and a wide range of official government policy documents, sector briefs, and media reports (and selected key informant interviews) in the US, England, Canada, and Australia.  We then consider the implications of the intersections of these developments  for the reconfigured relationships of philanthropy, the third sector and public policy, and consider the extent to which common patterns and policy may be converging across the cluster.  Have these relationships, in fact, been reinvented, perhaps revolutionized?

This examination of recent developments in philanthropy in broad comparative perspective is a complement to our article on public policy for the third sector that is in press with Public Management Review. By wedding more closely the study of philanthropy and ‘philanthropy policy’ to that of the third sector,  the research interrogates the conceptual foundations of our comparative research and contributes new questions to the work of the Third Sector Special Interest Group.

 

CAF – Charities Aid Foundation. 2012.  Mind the Gap: The growing generational divide in charitable giving – a research paper. London:  CAF.

Lasby, D. 2011. What the Numbers Say: What T3010 Data Tell Us About Charity Financing, The Philanthropist, 24, 2: 155-60.

Martin, M. 2011. Four Revolutions in Global Philanthropy,  Impact Economy Working Papers Vol 1. Geneva:  Impact Economy.

Milbourne, L. 2014. Voluntary Sector in Transition:  Hard Times or New Opportunities? Bristol:  Policy Press at the University of Bristol.

Pestoff, V. Brandsen,T. and Verschuere, B. eds. 2011. New Public Governance, the Third Sector and Co-Production. London:  Routledge.

Phillips, S. D. and Smith, S. R. In press. A Dawn of Convergence?  Third Sector Policy Regimes in the ‘Anglo-Saxon’ Cluster, Public Management Review.

Salamon, L. M. 2014. Leverage for Good: An introduction to the New Frontiers of Philanthropy and Social Investment. New York:  Oxford University Press.

Salamon, L. M., Wojciech Sokolowski, S. and List, R. 2003.  Global Civil Society:  An overview. Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies.

 

D101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Nuffield Building NUF2
Exploring the public-third sector boundary – designing and managing a dynamic partnership for innovative services with young people Tony Bovaird, Garath Symonds

This paper explores several key themes identified in the SIG Call for Papers, including: development of design and implementation of partnerships between state and third sector; effect of partnerships on innovation; co-production of public services; and sustainability of collaboration. It examines these issues in the context of one of the most dramatic transformations of public services in the UK in recent years, namely the recommissioning of all Services for Young People by Surrey County Council in the South-East of England.

In 2009, Services for Young People in Surrey were seen as vulnerable to austerity-driven budget cuts. At the same time, a bold political decision was made to aim for zero NEETs (under-25s ‘Not in Education, Employment or Training’), although 10% of all Surrey young people were NEETs at that time. This sparked a radical shake-up of Council services, moving to a new holistic approach to the wellbeing of young people, unique in the UK.

Some services were recommissioned in-house but the majority were outsourced, almost all to third sector organisations (TSOs). Although the overall budget was cut by over 25%, outcomes improved remarkably – a 60% reduction in NEETs (becoming lowest in England), 90% decrease in first-time entrants to criminal justice system, 30% increase in young apprenticeships, and high satisfaction of young people. Moreover, by 2013, professional staff working directly with vulnerable young people had actually increased.

This research study explores the key drivers for the transformation through an interview survey and analysis of secondary data. It shows that the key drivers of the transformation were externalising most services to third sector providers (managing the market to develop new TSOs and TSO-consortia), taking a system-wide approach, focusing on priority outcomes for most vulnerable young people, engaging with young people as co-producers, and working in partnership with other public commissioners.

Finally, the paper considers the implications arising from this study. Clearly, the heterogeneity of the third sector has caused problems for the public sector commissioners - for every excellent TSO, there were several which caused performance issues, which  reinforced the need for market management to develop new TSOs, encourage entry by TSOs from elsewhere, and promote TSO consortia which could offer longer-term, outcome-oriented contracts. At the same time, the council performance management system had to change, so that it became accepted as an improvement-oriented ‘can-opener’ for problems, not as a punishment routine in case of contract non-compliance (especially as the outcome-based contracts with TSOs were regarded as starting-points for learning, NOT as statements of ‘best practice’). Throughout the recommissioning process, as lessons emerged, flexible approaches to service design and delivery and dynamic adaptations to new political priorities were needed from all stakeholders. The role of TSOs in the remarkable outcome improvements in Surrey is still contestable – their claimed advantages of lower cost and higher speed may be due more to poor public agency policies than inherent features of TSOs, and the externalisation to TSO provision may have been partly because the myth of ‘innovative TSOs’ legitimated major changes not otherwise possible.
D101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Nuffield Building NUF2
Managing the sector boundary in co-production of public services: The importance of people, power, and process Carol Jacklin Jarvis, Alessandro Sancino, Martino Andreani

Co-production of public services is an inter-organizational phenomenon that happens across the service chain and across the policy cycle (Sicilia et al., forthcoming) and that is enacted through individuals (Pestoff et al., 2006). This paper will explore how co-production of public services happens through the collaboration between public and third sector organizations focusing on the role of managers of those organizations working together across the sector boundary (Jacklin-Jarvis 2013).

As a matter of fact, the day to day practice of co-production takes place between managers from third and public sector organizations, who are continually engaged in spanning the sector boundary, seeking to achieve collaborative advantage and avoid collaborative inertia (Huxham and Vangen, 2004). This is still more interesting because public and third sector organizations have significantly different resources, accountabilities, and sources of authority.

In our paper we develop a theoretical framework drawing both from the literature on co-production of public services (Joshi and More, 2004; Pestoff et al. 2006; Bovaird, 2007; Thomas, 2013) and on inter-organizational collaboration, more specifically the theory of collaborative advantage (Huxham and Vangen, 2004; 2005): we find this dialogue particularly promising for advancing the literature.

The paper is an exploratory study, which draws on case studies of practice in Italy and the UK in the context of the development of services for children and families. In this sense, it responds to the call (Verschuere et al., 2012) for research which focuses on who the actors are in co-production, and on how co-production works. More specifically, our research question is: How do managers from third and public sectors negotiate the sector boundary to co-produce services?

The importance of investigating the role of managers in inter-organizational collaboration has been pointed out from other relevant studies (e.g. Agranoff and McGuire, 2003; Esteve et al., 2012). In particular, in our research we explore the motivations both from the public and third sector organization perspectives for engaging in coproduction processes, the inter-organizational processes and structures put in place for enabling co-production, the critical skills needed by public and third sector managers, their leadership styles and the collaborative advantage achieved. Data have been gathered by 8 extended semi-structured interviews conducted with public and third sector managers.

Preliminary findings highlight some convergent findings across the two countries in terms of the importance of power and people related issues, whereas highlight interesting differences in terms of the nature (formal vs. informal) of the inter-organizational processes and structures employed for making co-production happens.

D101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Nuffield Building NUF2
Middle Managers as Change Leaders in Government Reform: Experiences of Change and its Impact on Behaviors Malcolm Higgs, Ben Kuipers, Bram Steijn, Lars Tummers

Within the broad organisational change literature there is agreement that a very high proportion of changes fail to achieve their goals (e.g. Higgs & Rowland, 2005; 2011, etc). Recent research within the Public Sector has shown a similar picture (Kuipers et al 2014). In exploring this issue the focus of research has been on the way in which organisations approach change with a view to understand the causes of failure. Until recently little attention has been paid to the role of leadership and leader behaviors in the change process, and the impact of these behaviours on the success or failure of change. The relatively few studies that examine leadership impact on change have tended to examine the role and behaviours of top/senior leaders. However, within the broader leadership literature there is an increasing view that leadership is a more distributed function and that managers at middle levels in the organization can play a significant role in change implementation (Pappas and Wooldridge, 2007,  Bologun & Johhnson, 2004; Jarzabkowski & Balogun, 2009; Harris et al, 2007). The role of these managers within the overall Management literature has, to date, been under explored.

Much change research has been critiqued as failing to take account of the context of change, the detail of what happens in the process of implementing change and the longitudinal nature of change initiatives (e.g.Pettigrew, 2001; Carnall, 2007). Context is certainly an important consideration within the Public Sector (Kuipers et al,2014). Governments initiate public sector reforms to realize budget cuts and deal with today’s societal challenges (e.g. an ageing society and increased, more complex healthcare demands - Kuipers et al, 2014). In implementing these reforms there is a need for significant change to establish new modes of governance. In this implementation, middle managers play a pivotal role. The way they experience change and deal with it will impact the attitudes and behavior of employees which in turn will have an impact on the effectiveness of the change (Harris et al, 2007).

Against this background we have focused on middle managers’ roles, experiences and related behaviors in implementing changes in the context of significant public sector reforms. This study focuses on how they experience and implement new organizational forms and analyzes their consequent behaviors and related effects on employees and stakeholders in the large-scale reform of the Dutch decentralization of healthcare and youth-care responsibilities towards municipalities.

This paper will report the findings from the first stage of a larger study designed to examine these phenomena. The study was designed based on a Critical Realist paradigm. To explore the experiences and consequent behaviors of middle managers in implementing the changes we interview 20 managers with a sample drawn from Youthcare providers and Municipalities dealing with the decentralization reform. The participant interviews employed a Critical Incident interviewing technique in order to avoid some of the limitations of interviewing as a research method. In order to triangulate the core interview data short interviews were conducted with a sample of direct reports of the managers we interviewed.

The analyses of the initial data will be presented in the paper together with a discussion of their impact on the design of the further stages of the study.

B102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART1
Measuring Performance in the Purple Zone: Popularly elected full-term mayors versus those elected annually from their peers John Martin

In the Australian, state-based system of local government mayors are elected in one of two ways: popularly, at the same time as a general election for councillors; or, from their peers annually after the general election for councillors. Within each of the six states and the Northern Territory there are combinations of these different approaches. However, in two states, Queensland and Victoria they are elected popularly and by their peers, respectively (except for the cities of Melbourne and Geelong, the two largest suburban centres in Victoria where the mayor is popularly elected). Recent research on the working relationships between mayors and CEOs (Martin and Aulich 2012) reveals that there are differences in the roles taken on by mayors in each jurisdiction, notwithstanding that they are but one vote in the council chamber. Mayors in each of Queensland and Victoria have no additional powers than their fellow elected councillors. Popularly elected mayors are however in office for the four year term of council, where as the mayor elected annually is typically a different councillor as the norm is that they ‘take turns’ with different factions making sure their councillor gets one year as mayor. Other variations include the remuneration paid to councillors: seen as ‘full time’ in Queensland and ‘paid’ for their ‘work’ whereas in Victoria they are volunteers who receive an honorarium to cover the costs of their representation.

These differences in the way mayors are elected, how they function and their orientation to the role of the mayor in each jurisdiction creates differences in the way they are assessed as leaders of their council. In this paper we draw on our recent research into the nature of effective working relationships between mayors and CEOs in Queensland and Victorian local government to identify the criteria used to assess the effectiveness of mayoral leadership under these two different types of mayoral electoral systems. This includes criteria related to the ‘purple zone’ of overlapping roles of mayor and CEO.

References

Martin, J. and Aulich, C. (2012) Political Management in Australian Local Government:  Exploring Roles and Relationships between Mayors and CEOs, Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government, University of Technology, Sydney.

B101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART4
The hollowing out of local self-government in Sweden? Stig Montin, Mikael Granberg

The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of institutional change in the local government system in Sweden since the 1980s with a focus on central-local government relations, the relation between politics and professions (occupational and organizational) and citizen roles. The main theoretical aim is to contribute to the understanding of local governance of welfare in an increasing politically, economically and social complexity. Empirically the paper will mainly be based on own research during the more than three decades. Examples will be drawn from different policy areas, such as elder care and primer and upper secondary schools. In order to sort out and analyse the empirical observations of the development four perspectives of local governance are developed:  (1), The municipality as community. (2), The state integrated municipality. (3), The facilitating municipality and (4), The market oriented municipality. It is argued that all four perspectives have been important guiding ideas for the development, but since the 1990s there has been an emphasis on the market-oriented municipality combined with the state integrated municipality, especially in the field of welfare. It is argued that this particular combination of marketization (municipalities on the market and the market invading the municipality) and increased central control by output measuring, inspections and other forms of “performance scrutiny” may lead to a situation were democratic local self-government as it was understood in the 1980s becomes hollowed out.  However, due to the political dynamic surrounding how to finance and organise the decentralised welfare system in Sweden and the increasing questioning of the neoliberal ideology, new ideas of institutional changes may occur.

 

First the theoretical frame of reference (the four perspectives) will be justified and presented. After that an overview of institutional changes during more than three decades will be provided and assessed in the light of the four perspectives. In the third section a broad explanation to the more recent development will be outlined and scenarios for the near future will be provided.
C101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART5
What does ‘market accountability’ to public governance? Lessons from the re-organized German hospital sector Ingo Bode, Johannes Lange, Markus Märker

Internationally, health care organizations – while still being accountable for the universal delivery of medical services – have been urged to behave like enterprises geared towards earning revenue, often in an environment featuring free user choice and a more capricious demand side. This brings about both new foundations of what has been coined professional bureaucracy (Mintzberg) and change concerning the public governance of the sector. As being ‘business-like’ (Rey & Hinings) becomes an influential mantra, public service providing agencies are facing not only a configuration implying ‘multiple accountability’ (Bovens & Schille­manns), but also a new ‘institutional logic’ (Thornton et al.) that is challenging other, pre-established patterns of accountability.

Taking the example of acute care hospitals, our paper engages with the concept of ‘market accountability’ that thus far has not been developed in a more systematic way across the wider literature. Market accountability is understood as bringing a new rationale to the hospital sector, differing from patterns of accountability that involve both the public mission of this sector and the role ascribed its professional agents who, by tradition, are expected to deliver according to the best of their knowledge and in the light of needs encountered with an individual patient.

Drawing on findings from a large research project exploring the changing governance of (and in) the German hospital sector, the paper demonstrates how a competition-oriented regulation of the sector has made ‘market accountability’ taking centre stage and how hospitals reorganize themselves in line with the new pattern. We capture this process by scrutinizing, first of all, the evolving employment patterns throughout the sector. Secondly, we examine the discourse on organizational challenges held by those holding a management role within typical hospitals. A key finding is that the sector and its agents are exposed to structural ambivalence which narrows down the corridor in which innovative models for enhancing public sector accountability can be developed.

E102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART9
Redesigning an economics course to achieve more reflexivity Peter Marks

Working – public – professionals that want to study Public Administration can follow a mid-career Master of Public Administration (MPA) program at the Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), the Netherlands. As graduates of an academic program they not only have to ‘know’ relevant PA academic theories and methods, but also to ‘use’ these in sensible ways in their professional practice (Quinn, 2013). Moreover they should be able to make sensible, situated connections between ‘theory’ and ‘praxis’ and critically and creatively derive new modes of professional action from these (Van der Meer & Marks, 2013).

Teaching staff of our program at Erasmus University feel that for many students it is difficult to meet these standards. Some students seem to use methods, models and theories quite instrumentally and without reflection. It may be that students do not expect this reflection as a core task and hence have a Surface Approach to learning, which means that students’ main intention to learning is to satisfy assessment requirements, routine, unreflective memorization and procedural problem solving are associated strategies. Whilst a more reflexive attitude requires that students adopt a Deep Approach to learning, which means that students main intention in learning is to develop personal understanding, and is associated with an intention to comprehend, to active conceptual analysis and result in a deep level of understanding (Struyven, et al. 2006; Trigwell, 2010).

To be able to enhance more reflexive students their attitudes need to be more in line with the Deep approach. However, the attitude of the student needs to fit into a curriculum that offers ample opportunity to maintain this reflexive nature. Even though a lot of courses in the MPA program at the EUR use several working methods to enhance reflection it is still underdeveloped. At curriculum level changes have been implemented to strengthen reflective working methods, e.g. management of expectations, developing staff vision and commitment. However, certain improvements to strengthen reflective working methods need to be implemented at course level, i.e. effective use of face-to-face contact, using diversity and comparison, or giving less structured exercises and assignments. One of the courses in the MPA curriculum ‘Government and Economic Policy (GEP)’ (in Dutch: Overheid en Economisch Beleid) has changed its traditional didactical method to a more reflective working method by applying a blended learning strategy. Hence the question central in this paper is:

How can blended learning create preconditions for implementation of reflective working methods in the Government and economic policy course of the MPA program at the EUR?

Literature

Meer, F.B. van der, & Marks, P.K. (2013). Teaching and learning reflection in MPA programs towards a strategy. Teaching Public Administration, 31(1), 42-54.

Quinn, B. (2013). Reflexivity and education for public managers. Teaching Public Administration, 31(1), 6-17.

Struyven, K., Dochy, F., Janssens, S., & Gielen, S. (2006). On the dynamics of students' approaches to learning: The effects of the teaching/learning environment. Learning and Instruction, 16(4), 279-294.

Trigwell, K. (2010). Promoting effective student learning in higher education.

B109 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART3
Intellectual capital evaluation in a health care organization. A case study Andrea Garlatti, Maurizio Massaro, Valentina Bruni

Abstract

Literature often argues that public sector organizations face greater pressures for representativeness, accountability and responsiveness than private sector firms (Jain and Jeppesen, 2013, p. 347). However, as De Angelis and Trindada (2013, p. 1) state the public sector is influenced by a growing need for: “competition, performance standards, monitoring, measurement, flexibility, emphasis on results, customer focus and social control.” Accordingly, public sector organizations should not import managerial tools and models from private companies ignoring the public sector context (UNPAN, 2003, p. 1).

Within emerging managerial tools Intellectual Capital, (IC) offers an interesting perspective to analyze both public and private organizations (Dumay, 2014). Indeed, to resolve some of the limitations of traditional financial reporting literature developed models to identify, measure and report IC (Brooking, 1996; Green and Ryan, 2005; Stewart, 1997). Interestingly, research on IC within the public sector in general and within health care organizations in particular seems to be fragmented and not well connected (Garlatti et al., 2014).

Several reasons make IC within Hospitals an emerging topic. First, health care organizations are knowledge-intensive organizations, and the study of their intangibles seems to be appropriate. Second, the development of an austerity period pushes public organizations to face financial resource constraints that must be compensate by non-financial resource improvements to keep service quality and sustainability. Third, the growing pressure of transparency and performance measurement within the public sector pushes the need to develop integrated reporting tools.

This paper aims to investigate the topic of IC measurement within a public health care organization. First a literature review is presented, second the case study of the hospital Santa Maria della Misericordia in Udine (Italy) is presented. Using an ethnographic approach, the case study is analyzed to draw some insights on the risk and opportunities of implementing an IC reporting within a healthcare organization.

References

De Angelis, C.T. (2013), “Models Of Governance And The Importance Of KM For Public Administration”, Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 1–18.

Brooking. (1996), Intellectual Capital, International Thomson Business Press, London, UK, p. 204.

Dumay, J. (2014), “15 years of the Journal of Intellectual Capital and counting: A manifesto for transformational IC research”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 2–37.

Garlatti, A., Massaro, M., Dumay, J. and Zanin, L. (2014), “Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management within the public sector. A systematic literature review and future developments”, International Conference on Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management.

Green, A. and Ryan, J.J.C.H. (2005), “A framework of intangible valuation areas (FIVA): Aligning business strategy and intangible assets”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 43–52.

Jain, A.K. and Jeppesen, H.J. (2013), “Knowledge management practices in a public sector organisation: The role of leaders’ cognitive styles”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 347–362.

Stewart, T. (1997), Intellectual Capital, Doubleday, New York.

UNPAN. (2003), Knowledge Management in Government Organizations and Programmes, Geneva, pp. 1–10.

E102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART9
Sense and sensibility: legitimating accounting change in the UK central government Mariannunziata Liguori, Noel Hyndman

Accounting is often viewed as a neutral technology to support governance and transparency within organisations. However, the introduction of accounting practices can be framed in a variety of ways, from value-neutral to ideologically-charged instruments. Accounting changes are embedded in the global discourses (in the public sector often identified as PA, NPM and PG, Hyndman et al., 2014) present in a field at certain points in time. Once new discourses emerge, however, the preliminary condition for the implementation of change is that it is considered legitimate within its own context; legitimacy possibly seen in terms of how ‘sensible’ change is. The rhetorical strategies set in place can strengthen or weaken the adoption of new practices and the way actors rationalise the usefulness of change (Green, 2004). The more persuasive the justification for the introduction of new practices, the more rational their adoption is perceived, and ultimately accepted.

This study investigates the transposition of rhetorical sense and legitimation at different stages of the change process, exploring how accounting changes are introduced through the use of global discourses at the political level, and how actors subsequently legitimate such discourses at different organisational levels. Focusing on financial accounting, budgeting and performance management changes in the UK central government over the last 25 years, a textual analysis of political debates and interviews at two organisational levels (Treasury and two operationally-focussed departments) were carried out.

In the political discussions there was consistency between discourses and accounting changes. A cocktail of legitimation strategies was subsequently used by the departmental actors, with authorisation in combination with rationalisation widely utilised. Treasury displayed considerable pathos, a strategy absent in other departments. While previous literature suggests that different actors use the same rhetorical sequences during change, this study highlights differences in the legitimation process as different organisational levels are considered.


References

Green, S. 2004. A rhetorical theory of diffusion. Academy of Management Review 29: 653-669.

Hyndman, N., Liguori, M., Meyer, R.E., Polzer, T., Rota, S. and Seiwald, J. 2014. The translation and sedimentation of accounting reforms. A comparison of the UK, Austrian and Italian experiences. Critical Perspective on Accounting 24: 388-408.

G101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART6
Context-specific responses to the financial crisis - a comparative study of financial risk management in Austrian and U.S. local governments Sanja Korac, Iris Saliterer

For several years, governments all over the world have been experiencing the effects of a global financial, economic, and debt crisis (Kickert et al. 2013). Public financial management, and adequate instruments of the 'financial toolbox' (Hendrick 2011) hence gained new momentum (Trussel and Patrick 2009, Cohen et al. 2012, Garcia-Sanchez et al. 2012) and dominated discourses in academia as well as practice across sectors (e.g. Arnold 2009, Claessens et al. 2010, Peters et a. 2011, Chor 2012). However, financial management in local governments has received relatively low academic attention (Somers 2009, Pandey 2010, Crotty 2012, Behn 2013, Steccolini et al. 2014), and so has their role and behavior throughtout the crisis.

The paper presents a comparative study of local governments in Austria and the U.S. We apply a contingenct theory perspective and explore the implementation and adaptation of risk management interpreted as a strategic management oriented approach in coping with financial stress and financial crises. The main research questions are if the financial crisis triggered implementation or adaptation of financial risk management models in local governments, and if and how these are dependent on the context that local governments operate in. Two different views are included: first, the local governments themselves (key decision-makers in financial management) and second, audit offices and oversight authorities (national/state audit offices, state comptroller, state department of revenue).

A mixed methods approach is applied in the study. Based on a quantitative secondary data analysis of external factors and internal (fiscal) capacity factors (e.g. fiscal discretion limits, own revenue share, financial autonomy, diversity of revenue sources), we identify cases that show similar patters. In a next step, we consider and discuss the impact of country/state-related differences regarding the level of autonomy, and roles of audit offices and oversight authorities. Semi-structured qualitative interviews are then carried out in eight local governments and six respective audit/oversight bodies. On the one hand, we are interested in the perceived potential and use of risk management models in early signaling of financial opportunities and threats/crises and their role in financial management decisions from the perspective of local government actors. On the other hand, we capture local government financial risk management from an oversight and audit perspective and explore accountability and monitoring issues within different levels of local government autonomy.

The finding contribute to the growing literature in the field of financial condition and related concepts. We point to the relevance of risk management in local government financial management and its effects on maintaining and/or restoring financial health. Furthermore, we provide explanations of different perceptions of the concept itself based on contexutal differences. Our results provide a framework for further contingency-based comparative studies, as well as longitudinal studies of the impact of risk management on financial condition.

 

 

Bibliography:

 

Arnold, P. (2009): Global financial crisis: The challenge to accounting research. Accounting, Organizations and Society 34, 6-7, pp. 803-809.

Behn, R.D. (2013): Cutbacks vs. Performance: What's the Conflict? Financial Deficits and Attention Deficits. International Public Management Review 14, 2, pp. 1-16.

Chor, D. (2012): Off the cliff and back? Credit conditions and international trade during the global financial crisis. Journal of international economics 87, 1, pp. 117-133.

Claessens, S., Dell'Ariccia, G., Igan, D., Laeven, L. (2010): Cross-country experiences and policy implications from the global financial crisis. Economic policy 25, 62, pp. 267-293.

Cohen, S., Doumpos, M., Neofytou, E., Zopounidis, C. (2012): Assessing financial distress where bankruptcy is not an option: An alternative approach for local municipalities. European Journal of Operations Research 218, pp. 270-279.

Crotty, J. (2012): The great austerity war: what caused the US deficit crisis and who should pay to fix it? Cambridge Journal of Economics 36, pp. 79-104.

Garcia-Sanchez, I.-M., Cuadrado-Ballesteros, B., Frias-Aceituno, V., Mordan, N. (2012): A New Predictor of Local Financial Distress. International Journal of Public Administration 35, pp. 739-748.

Kickert, W., Randma-Liiv, T., Savi, R. (2013): Fiscal Consolidation in Europe: A Comparative Analysis. COCOPS, European Commission.

Pandey, S. (2010): Cutback Management and the Paradox of Publicness. Public Administration Review July/August, pp. 564-571.

Peters, B.G., Pierre, J., Randma-Liiv, T. (2011): Global financial crisis, public administration and governance: do new problems require new solutions? Public Organization Review 11, pp. 13-27.

Somers, S. (2009): Measuring Resilience Potential: An Adaptive Strategy for Organizational Crisis Planning. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 17, 1, pp. 12-37.

Steccolini, I., Guarini, E., Barbera, C., Jones, M. (2014): Financial Resilience in Local Authorities: an exploration of Anglo-Italian Experiences. Paper for the IRSPM 2014.

Torres, L., Pina, V., Acerete, B. (2006): E-Governance Developments in European Union Cities: Reshaping Government's Relationship with Citizens. Governance 19, 2, pp. 277-302.

Trussel, J.M., Patrick, P.A. (2009): A Predictive Model of Fiscal Distress in Local Governments, Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management 21, 4, pp. 578-561.

 

G101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART6
Public Management Training for Sustainable Public Sector Reform: How evaluation affects training cycle Hiroko Kudo, Vincenzo Zarone

This paper primarily underlines the redundancy of public sector reforms, issued over years in various countries and in many cases far from being actually implemented (Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Kuhlmann, 2010). The reform process is often perceived as "constitutive and legitimized by procedure", "not in tune with existing organizational lifeworlds" (Broadbent et al., 2010).

The training of public management can be seen as factor influencing the formation of the set of values and beliefs that affect efficiency and efficacy of each public organization, could actually impact on complex dynamics and possibly represent significant steering mechanism, and should be seen and consequently structured as multi-year plan of development, growth and consolidation of individual and organizational competencies.

After discussing the mismatch between training objectives and results, the authors argue the importance of structuring the training process by linking its different stages, with the aim of influencing trainees' perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours and orienting established practices to disseminate knowledge, skills, and capabilities, coherently with the institutional reform guidelines. The training could be intended as both relational and transactional mechanism, if single initiatives and their outcome are connected to career advancement of public servants, considering as actual mean of competency management and development. In particular, the evaluation stage is significantly important, because of the need for assessing individual competencies in relation to the path of growth that the organization has established in the training strategy, the revision of objectives, and the content and delivery of training initiatives.

The outcome of training on individual and organizational performance is difficult to measure due to many factors. This difficulty often leads to underestimate or to avoid the fundamental stage of evaluation. In this perspective, the paper presents an empirical research, developed through a survey on data related to the management of the training cycle of Italian central government organizations and similar dataset from the Japanese counterparts.

 

 

 

B109 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART3
Ethics Education in Public Administration: Systematic Cultivation of Ethical Thinking and Moral Development using Case Study as a Pedagogical Method Celia Lee, Cindy Tan

The conduct of public sector officers is key to the success of public governance. Ethics have profound effects on the image and public perception of the government. The public sector is required to and expected to have higher ethical standards than other sectors due to two factors:  first, the relationship of trust between citizens and the public officers is the bedrock of government (Lawton 1998[1]), and second, to eliminate, reduce or mitigate public sector corruption. Therefore public sector officers should not only pay lip service to ethical conduct but act in the best interest of the public in their official dealings. In all circumstances, even when faced with an ethical dilemma involving personal interests, officers should always be accountable to the public and avoid potential conflicts of interest.

However, the paradigm shift from the traditional bureaucratic form of government to an entrepreneurial government, along with globalization and economic rationalism, have  created new tensions between private sector values and traditional roles, responsibilities and standards of the public sector (Osborne and Gaebler 1992[2]). The changed requirements for success in public agencies have made adherence to ethical obligations even more challenging (Barley 2007[3]), prompting self-preservation rather than consideration of the implications of government’s actions for the public good. Consequently, cases of abuse involving senior public officers and the misappropriation of public funds become more common. These ethical failures have led to breach of trust between government and citizens and caused governments to “over-legislate”, “over-regulate” and “over-prosecute” to prevent public officers from committing misconduct (CAPAM 2010[4]). But is this the best way to foster integrity as an enduring culture in the public sector? Are there more effective ways in which the ethical foundation of public administration can be reinforced to preserve the integrity of public service, and address mounting calls for greater public accountability? 

The literature offers two broad approaches to the systematic management of ethics in public sector organisations: “compliance-based” and “integrity-based”, also referred to as the “low road” and “high road” approaches respectively (Maesschalck 2004[5]). The compliance-based approach emphasises the importance of external controls on the behaviour of civil servants by using formal and detail rules and procedures to guide the decision making process so that “the individual ethical choice is limited to choosing to follow the rules (ethical thing to do) or to violate them by commission or omission (unethical acts)”. On the other hand, the integrity-based approach focuses on internal self-control exercised by individual civil servants, and is based on two components: moral judgement and moral character which can be strengthened by cultivating the necessary values and norms as well as by developing the skills in ethical decision making through training and education (Hejka-Ekins 2001[1]). While these two approaches may seem to belong to opposite poles of management, they need not contradict each other, and in practice ought to be best used in combination, complementing and reinforcing desired behaviours. In the public management and administration literature, there has been less attention on public sector ethics although there have been a rising trend of questions on accountability (Radin 2006[2]). Literature on ethics education and training in the public sector is also scant especially in the Asian context. In the context of contemporary public sector management, ethics education and training is a topic that ought to be studied in-depth to inform knowledge and understanding of ethical theory and practice in its application to the public administrative sphere of government. This paper aims to contribute to this research gap by studying and analyzing Public Service ethics education and training curriculum in Singapore, in particular, how the Civil Service College Singapore (“CSC”) as the core learning and training institute for the Singapore Public  Service uses the case method to support ethics education and training.

Like many developed countries, the Singapore Public Service has largely adopted a compliance-based approach to ethics management by laying down a set of principles and internal control procedures on financial control, procurement, staff matters, asset management and other matters through its service-wide Instruction Manual (“IM”). As such CSC has been actively involved in training new and in-service officers to apply these principles and internal control procedures through most of its training programmes.   There is general scholarly consensus (OECD 2013[3]; Kennedy and Malatesta 2011[4]; NASPAA 2009[5]; Menzel 2006[6]) that ethics training should be an important and integrated part of the training of public servants, particularly in the grooming of leaders with  moral character,  empathy and integrity. Therefore, ethics is covered in key milestone programmes designed to train leaders at all levels in an integrity-based approach. These programmes are delivered through lectures, dialogues and vignette discussions centred on articulating public service values and creating awareness but do not sufficiently address issues of moral character and ethical judgement in workplace dilemmas. Over the past year, CSC has moved towards developing more awareness of ethical issues and problems in specific domain areas; building officers’ analytical skills to address them through moral reasoning; and cultivating an attitude of accountability as Public Service officers.

There are many approaches to teaching ethics. However current literature suggests a lack of consensus on the most effective approach to teaching and training ethics.  Hence, this paper aims to make a case for the systematic cultivation of ethical thinking and moral development in public administration using case studies as a pedagogical method. To assess effectiveness of this method, we will be observing and analysing how case studies that illustrate ethical failures and dilemmas are used in two classes of about 50 middle-level and senior managers in two workshops. They will come together to discuss ethical violations, conflicts and dilemmas presented in cases and apply their moral reasoning and professional judgement. In addition, we will also be seeking feedback from all participants and speaking to selected participants to triangulate findings obtained from the class observation. Through our study, we hope that the findings from this research will contribute to a more effective ethics education curriculum in schools of public administration.

[1] Lawton, A. (1998). Ethical Management for the Public Services, Buckingham: Open University Press, 167

[2] Osborne, D. and Gaebler T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector, New York: PLUME

[3] Barley, S. R. (2007). Corporations, Democracy and the Public Good. Journal of Management Inquiry, 16, 201-215

[4] CAPAM (2010). CAPAM Featured Report: Ethical Dilemmas in the Public Service, June, Commonwealth Association for Public Administration & Management

[5] Maesschalck, J. (2004). Approaches to Ethics Management in the Public Sector: A Proposed Extension of the Compliance-Integrity Continuum,  Public Integrity, 7, 21-41

[6] Hejka-Ekins, A. (2001). Ethics in In-service Training, T.L. Cooper, Handbook of Administrative Ethics, New York: Marcel Dekker, 79-104

[7] Radin, B. (2006). Challenging the Performance Movement: Accountability, Complexity and Democratic Values. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

[8] OECD. (2013). Ethics Training for Public Officials. Paris: OECD Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern and Central Europe

[9] Kennedy, S., & Malatesta, D. (2010). Safeguarding the Public Trust: Can Administrative Ethics be Taught? Journal of Public Affairs Education, 16(2), 161-180.

[10] NASPAA. (2009). Code of Good Practice. Retrieved April 17, 2013, from NASPAA: http://www.naspaa.org/codeofgoodpractice/

[11] Menzel, D. (2006). Ethics Management for Public Administrators. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
B109 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART3
Dutch Decentralisation Measures: Expectations at the Municipal Level Caspar Van Den Berg, Jan Porth

Wide-ranging decentralisation measures will be implemented in the Netherlands in 2015. Responsibilities within the three policy areas of social support, participation, and youth will be transferred from the national to the local level. Services closer to the citizens and a higher efficiency in the execution are the declared targets of these changes.

Taking into account, that no country of the European Union became more centralised since 1980 and that the half of the these countries decentralised authorities to regional levels (Marks & Hooghe, 2004, p. 15), the Netherlands are following common trends. However, beside political concepts and law changes on the national level, the implementation at the municipal level is of particular importance and can be the subject of variation.

As a result, the effects of the decentralisation measures on municipal finances can differ as well. In order to assess the expected financial impacts, a survey among Dutch mayors and city managers was conducted in spring 2014. With 282 participants, covering the whole range of municipalities of different population sizes and political majorities, we generated a data set, that enables us to research on the expected financial impacts of the decentralisation measures at the municipal level.

Preliminary results indicate that revenues linked to social support, participation, and youth are expected to decrease in average, while expenditure in these three policy areas are expected to increase in average. In general, Dutch municipalities expect unfavourable financial developments in the context of the upcoming decentralisation measures. How the effects on municipal finances differs according to the population size and political majorities, as well as the potential variation in the expectations of mayors and city managers, will be the topic of this conference paper.

 

 

Literature

 

-   Biela, J., Hennl, A., Kaiser, A. (2013). Policy making in multilevel systems : federalism, decentralisation, and performance in the OECD countries, ECPR monographs series, Colchester, United Kingdom.

-   Bos, F. (2010). Fiscal decentralisation in the Netherlands, History, current practice and economic theory, CPB Document No. 214, http://www.cpb.nl/sites/default/files/publicaties/download/ doc214.pdf (Accessed on August 7, 2014).

-   Bos, F. (2012). Economic theory and four centuries of fiscal decentralisation in the Netherlands, OECD Journal on Budgeting, 12(2), 9-60.

-   Bosscher, N. (2012). The decentralisation and transformation of the Dutch youth care system, http://www.nji.nl/nl/ThedecentralisationandtransformationNJi2012.pdf (Accessed on August 7, 2014).

-   Centraal Planbureau (2013). Decentralisaties in het sociaal domein, http://www.cpb.nl/sites/ default/files/publicaties/download/cpb-notitie-4september2013-decentralisaties-het-sociale-domein.pdf (Accessed on August 7, 2014).

-   Faguet, J.P., Wietzke, F.B. (2006). Social funds and decentralisation: Optimal institutional design, Public Administration and Development, 26(4), 303-315.

-   Marks, G., Hooghe, L. (2004). Contrasting Visions of Multi-level Governance, In: Bache, I. / Flinders, M. (Eds.). Multi-level Governance, Oxford, UK.

-   Schalk, J., Reijnders, M.A.W., Vielvoye, R., Kouijzer, I., Jong, M. de (2014). Decentralization in the Netherlands: from blueprints to tailor-made services?, http://www.governancequarterly.org/ issue2-main-en.html (Accessed on August 7, 2014).

C101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART5
Is the propensity of local government to reform dependent on its local autonomy? Evidences from Switzerland Nicolas Keuffer

Facing a growing complexity of tasks and a decrease in the resources at their disposal to provide them, as well as the trend of globalization and the increasing level of citizens’ demands, many European local governments have had in the past decades the propensity to launch governance reforms. Considering the fact that leading managerial and political actors of local government must possess a certain degree of legal discretion, decision-making power, scope of tasks to perform and personal and financial resources in order to launch modernization reforms, this paper aims to examine the relations between local autonomy and local government reforms, which have rarely been examined.

Drawing upon the literature, I suggest a multidimensional concept of local autonomy making the distinction between seven dimensions. Local governance reforms are divided according to the objectives they pursue: internal reorganizations increasing local democracy, the supply of services by local governments based on the guidelines of the New Public Management or of Governance (both vertical and horizontal networks), and territorial reorganisations such as inter-local governments’ collaborations and mergers, whose aim is to improve both input and output legitimacy.

The analyses are conducted in Switzerland, aggregating on the cantonal (regional) level the results of a huge set of data stemming from the conducted 5th National Survey of Secretaries of every Swiss local government. Swiss municipalities offer an excellent context to test the relations between local autonomy and local government reforms. Indeed, being a federalist country with considerable differences as far as the size and importance of municipalities in the 26 constituent units (cantons), as well as where its perception and the cultural and politico-administrative setting are concerned, the analysis provides good understanding to comprehend local governance reforms’ predispositions, strategies and issues.

 

Key Words

Local Governance, local government reforms, local autonomy, comparative analysis, Switzerland

References

BOURS, Adriaan (1993): Management, tiers, size and amalgamations of local government. In: Robert J. Bennett (Eds.). Local Government in the New Europe. London and New York: Belhaven Press, 109-129.

CLARK, Gordon L. (1984): A Theory of Local Autonomy. In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers 74(2): 195-208.

FIECHTER Julien (2010): Politische Gemeinden und lokale Autonomie in der Schweiz. Eine Studie zur normativen Bedeutung und empirischen Erfassung der Gemeindeautonomie und ihrer Ausprägung im kantonalen und lokalen Vergleich. In: Cahier de l’IDHEAP, 251.

FLEURKE, Frederik and R. WILLEMSE (2004): Approaches to Decentralization and Local Autonomy: A Critical Appraisal. In: Administrative Theory & Praxis 26(4): 523-544.

GESER, Hans (1997): Zwischen Aufgabenzuwachs und Autonomieverlust: Neue selbstbehauptungsstrategien der Gemeinden im Zeitalter “vertikaler Politikverflechtung”. In Hans Geser: Online Publikationen: Gemeinde und Verwaltung. Zürich, 1997.

GOLDSMITH, Michael (1990): Local Autonomy: Theory and Practice. In: Desmond S. King and Jon Pierre (Eds). Challenges to Local Government. London: Sage, 15-36.

GURR, Ted Robert and Desmond S. KING (1987): The State and the City. London: Macmillan.

KUHLMANN, Sabine (2010): New Public management for the classical continental European administration: modernization at the local level in Germany, France and Italy. In: Public Administration 88 (4): 1116–1130.

LADNER, Andreas and Julien FIECHTER (2012): The Influence of Direct Democracy on Political Interest, Electoral Turnout and Other Forms of Citizens’ Participation in Swiss Municipalities. In: Local Government Studies 38(4): 437-459.

LADNER, Andreas (2010): Switzerland. In: Michael Goldsmith and Edward C. Page (Eds). Changing government relations in Europe: from localism to intergovernmentalism. London: Routledge, 210-227.

LADNER, Andreas (2002): Size and direct democracy at the local level: the case of Switzerland. In: Environment and Planning C: government and Policy 20: 813-828.

ROLLA, Giancarlo (1998): Autonomy: a guiding criterion for decentralizing public administration. In: International Review of Administrative Sciences 64(1), 27-39.

RÜHLI, Lukas (2012): Gemeindeautonomie zwischen Illusion und Realität. Kantonsmonitoring 4: Gemeindestrukturen und Gemeindestrukturpolitik der Kantone. Zürich: Avenir Suisse

SCHEDLER Kuno and Isabella PROELLER (2009): New Public Management. 4 Aufl. Bern: Haupt.

STEINER, Reto (2003): The Causes, Spread and Effects of Intermunicipal Cooperation and Municipal Mergers in Switzerland. In: Public management Review 5(4), 551-571.

STEINER, Reto (2000): New Public Management in Swiss Municipalities. In: International Public Management Journal 3: 169-189.

STOCKER, Gerry (2010): The comparative study of local governance: towards a global approach.  Symposium on Chinese Social Capacity Building in International and Comparative Perspective, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

WOLMAN, Harold (2008): Comparing local government systems across countries: conceptual and methodological challenges to building a field of comparative local government studies. In: Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 26: 87-103.

WOLLMANN, Helmut (2001): Zwischen management- und Politiksystem: Die Kommunalverwaltung der 90er Jahre auf einer Modernisierungswelle. In: Thomas Edeling, Wenner Jann and Dieter Wagner (Hrsg.).Reorganisationsstrategien in Wirtschaft und Verwaltung. Wiesbaden: Springer, 15-57.

C101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART5
Projects of Public Governance to Regional Development and Social Innovation in a Brazilian Local Government: true or false? Taisa Dias, Maria Carolina Martinez Andion, Alketa Peci In this paper the concept about Public Governance considers the complementarity of Bureaucratic Public Administration and New Public Management, associating democratic elements for considering the different interests and rationalities, and to contribute to effective social participation. The central objective is advance about the praxis of public governance, analyzing the management of public projects and its relation with the elements of public governance. We adopted an ideal-typical model of public governance in order to verify the existence of the genesis of governance on the elaboration and management of projects in the decentralized management units of a central government in Brazil. Thus, this exploratory and descriptive study investigated two decentralized units of this local government and its management of projects during 2008-2014. The results confirmed that two cases can be considered as "Project of Public Governance" because it was possible to identify the array of elements that characterizes the genesis of this movement, i.e., Coproduction of the development by the cooperation between State, market and civil society; Cooperative process coordinated by the State, which acts as a mediator of the relationships; State authority delegated down, up and out, promoting the sociopolitical networks; Attention to outcomes and its processes, ensuring that mechanisms of deliberative democracy and direct democracy are used together; and Planning for the development of regions, considering their diversity (Dias, 2012; 2014).  The results suggest it is a reality that deserves further investigation, expanding the sample and sharing best practices about regional development and social innovation among other decentralized units, for example, to improve their results and get better indicators for all territories. C101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART5
Stakeholder Accountability of Austrian and German Statutory Health Insurances Dorothea Greiling, Eveline Haeusler

In Austria and Germany statutory health insurances have complex mandates and governance structures. In both countries they are financially independent but are bound in their activities to legally mandated tasks under their own authority. With respect to public accountability this leads to a high level of complexity as the accountability should not be restricted to financial aspects but should also ask how efficiently, effectively and equitably statutory health insurances have carried out the mandated tasks. In the past decade Austrian and German statutory health insurances went through an era of reforms aiming at transforming them to more entrepreneurial public service providers. Nowadays statutory health insurances play a much more active role in managing health care and can therefore move from a payer to a strategic player within the selective contracting programs. In the German case, the financial risk for statutory health insurances has increased as they are no longer protected against bankruptcy. In this context financial accountability evolved gradually: financial accounting standards were drawn near to standards of the Commercial Code. An audit of the financial statements by chartered accountants is now obligatory.

The general reform agenda of the statutory health insurances is reflected in a substantial body of literature. So far the issue of accountability has been widely ignored, if one excludes legal commentaries and manuals for practicing experts. This is surprising as accountability is one of the cornerstones of New Public Management (NPM) and an element of good governance.

The lack of research on accountability practices serves in this paper as a motivation to take a closer look at the accountability reports of statutory health insurances. In the past decades health insurance funds have been active to push forward a tight monitoring of the performance of health care providers. Therefore, it is time to examine how the statutory health insurances perform with respect to their own accountability.

In order to get a deeper insight in the accountability practices of Austrian and German health insurance funds we perform a documentary analysis of information offered in the annual reports of all nine regional health insurance funds in Austria and the nine biggest ones in Germany. It is interesting to compare these two countries, as both countries have a strong Bismarck tradition but differ in the way they compete for members.

E102 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Arts Building ART9
Evidence-based policy and the regulation of e-cigarettes in Canada and Australia Joshua Newman

E-cigarettes are substitutes for traditional cigarettes that allow a user to inhale water vapour as an alternative to smoking. Their replaceable cartridges can contain nicotine but sometimes do not, and the scientific and clinical evidence on the health consequences of e-cigarettes as well as their effectiveness as a tool for smoking cessation are currently inconclusive and much debated. As a consequence, e-cigarettes represent a unique opportunity to study a regulatory regime as it emerges. In particular, the regulation of e-cigarettes is fertile ground for examining the kind of impact that the availability and trustworthiness of scientific evidence can have on the development of regulation. While scientific evidence is still being produced and the debate on which policy instruments to use is wide open, governments and regulatory bodies have many options ahead of them, ranging from a close following of the precautionary principle to complete inaction. This paper looks at the different approaches to regulating e-cigarettes taken by two jurisdictions, Canada and Australia, that traditionally have been at the forefront of aggressive and effective regulation of tobacco products. In addition, in both Canada and Australia there has been a dialogue surrounding how the regulation of smoking can be based on scientific evidence. The nascent e-cigarette regulatory regime in these countries is therefore an ideal case for examining how evidence can contribute to the formulation of a regulatory regime in its early stages.

F101 March 30, 2015 15:45 17:45 Nuffield Building NUF3
Civic Reception This is content March 30, 2015 19:00 21:00 N/A N/A
Exhibition and Information Desk Open This is content March 31, 2015 08:00 17:00 N/A N/A
Rationalities and Success in Public Private Innovation Anne Abildgaard

Keywords: Public-private innovation, public procurement, welfare solutions, discources, innovation competencies.

This paper argues that the success of public-private innovation partnerships as a way to face future demographic and financial challenges is to some extend depending on the discourses and rationalities that governments and practitioners articulate this form of collaboration within.

In recent years, governments in the Nordic Region have encouraged the use of mutual public-private collaborations as a strategic tool for new business development for welfare solutions. In Denmark, a type of collaboration called public-private innovation is – as an emerging field – challenging traditional demand-supply agreements. The overall objective is to develop new products or solutions that increase the quality of public services and create new business opportunities for the companies involved. A public-private innovation partnership may result in a public tender but there is no guarantee that the collaboration will lead to a public procurement.

The key elements in public-private innovation are user involvement and a continuous transfer of ideas and knowledge between the parties involved. In other words, the core of public-private innovation is close collaboration and dialogue.

The Danish government has published several reports to support the spread of public-private innovation. The reports focus on cultural barriers, expected potentials, and on existing legal framework of public procurement as a constraint for innovative collaborations. The focus on drivers for success is limited, and is mostly about general issues such as the importance of clear goals and organizational entrepreneurs with strong commitment.

Based on document analyses and semi-structured interviews with public and private actors this paper examines the discourses, rationalities and subject positions in public-private innovation, and suggests a new approach to the field. Instead of focusing on barriers and potentials, it might be fruitful to explore how alternative discourses could underpin the parties’ competencies and ‘sense of community’. If cooperation is the answer to innovation, it is not valuable to hold on to a fear of difference. Transformations of knowledge require the will of being disturbed and include the questioning and transformation of the knower.

H102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Law Building LAW2
Measuring effects of public procurement of innovation Max Rolfstam

Underway for quite some time now has been the discussion on using public procurement as a means to stimulate private sector innovation. However - with some exceptions this has been mainly a conceptual discussion vastly surpassed a corresponding development of appropriate monitoring tools. Also, even if both qualitative and quantitative studies have been made, they tend to lack connection to the underlying mechanisms envisaged in the conceptual and/or case based literature.

A central construct in this paper is the public procurement of innovation system. It has been proposed that a procurement system is good or sound if two conditions are satisfied (OECD, 2012, p.)

• Existence of decision centres setting possible multiple and non-contradictory objectives, and periodically assessing whether the system works coherently with those objectives.

• The system is built on a set of processes that maximize the likelihood of reaching the system’s objectives while minimizing the use of resources.

Examples of entities included in a procurement system for a country would be public agencies involved in monitoring procurement activity and international developments in law or in best practice; the court system, and public procurement departments on different levels and sectors; and public agencies responsible for a policy domain where public procurement is envisaged as a useful tool for policy implementation. Viewed in the framework applied here becomes public procurement a system where achieving value for money in procurement processes is not the only aspect that should be considered in evaluations. To the extent a certain public procurement system is performing according to set expectations relates both to efficiency and to other policies or strategies that go beyond mere efficiency. The central secondary policy taken into account here is the one that concerns innovation.

A challenge in this endeavour prevails in the nature of how public procurement of innovation works. Some of the effects rendered may not always manifest in ways that are easily quantified. Other effects may emerge over time, as results of multi-causal effects, which may yet further impose measuring difficulties. Yet a further challenge consists of the uncertainties regarding to what extent the sometimes bold claims about the usefulness of public procurement of innovation are at all realistic and feasible in practice.

The purpose with this paper is therefore to explore the possibilities for measuring the effects of public procurement of innovation and based on such an analysis develop a set of indicators to be used for monitoring public procurement of innovation outcomes. The research question addressed is formulated as follows. How can the effects of public procurement of innovation be measured?

H102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Law Building LAW2
Would the Externalisation to Private enterprise of aspects of the Fire and Rescue Service sacrifice Quality for Austerity? Clive Stanbrook

The privatisation of the British Fire and Rescue Service has been an intensely debated topic since the Ridley Report (1977), and recently exacerbated by the predilection by areas of the Fire and Rescue Service to externalise essential operational fields to private enterprise, and the concomitant contemporary concepts proposed by some Services and emboldened by current Government financial and political assistance.

However, these deliberations have not adequately addressed the issues surrounding the externalisation to private enterprise of facets of the Fire and Rescue Service. Moreover, there is also a scarcity of objective and conciliatory literature regarding the issue.

My paper addresses the issue of the effects of private externalisation, with special attention to the paradigm of quality of service to stakeholders, and also the barriers to implementation of any externalisation to private enterprise.

Specifically in my paper, I will be looking at current and proposed government initiatives of mutualisation together with the prima facie evidence available from recent significant private externalisations and how cogently these have been explained to, and accepted by the wider Fire and Rescue Service. I will then juxtapose these arguments against the traditional and long established view that any externalisation to a private entity would be to the detriment of the Fire and Rescue Service, a view that has the potential to be upheld by some regardless of any potentially contrary evidence.

I argue that the concept of externalisation has not been objectively explored within a Fire and Rescue Service framework, and that arguments submitted are often paradoxical due to a traditionally held view.

In conclusion, this paper by closely examining the empirical evidence from both aspects and sheds light on the rarely acknowledged part that private externalisation within the Fire and Rescue Service could play in decreasing costs and increasing quality to stakeholders, and the subsequent barriers to this transpiring.

In summary, is the British Fire and Rescue Service between and ideological rock and an organisational hard place?

H102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Law Building LAW2
EXPLORING VFM AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LOGICS Warren J Staples

The goals of public procurement frequently comprise multiple and conflicting goals (Erridge and McIlroy 2002; McCrudden 2004, 2008; Erridge 2007; Murray, 2009b; McCabe et al., 2011; Murray et al., 2012) adding complexity to the commissioning and delivery roles for public managers (Bovaird, 2006; Dickinson and Glasby, 2013; Dickinson 2014). Value for money (VfM) underpins public procurement and commissioning policy in many jurisdictions, including Australia. It is the claimed objective of those spending public money within public organizations (Murray, 2001; Love et al., 2008; Staples 2014). Two fields where VfM has received considerable interest are human/social service commissioning (Dickinson et al 2010; Prowle and Prowle 2011; Dickinson and Glasby 2013) and construction procurement (Love et al, 2008; Love et al., 2010; Staples 2014; Staples and Dalrymple 2015). But, despite this inquiry, VfM is not well understood in practice and there is often confusion about what it means (Demirag and Khadaroo, 2010; Prowle and Prowle, 2011).

This research employs institutional logics (IL) as a theoretical framework for conceptualizing the multiple logics that underpin VfM in public procurement (Friedland and Alford 1991; Thornton and Ocasio 1999; 2008; Thornton, Ocasio and Lounsbury 2012). Further, the aim is to understand how the multiple logics in public procurement in Australian public sector organizations clash, blend, or co-exist (Besharov and Smith 2014).  The primary research questions to be addressed are first, how, and under what conditions do procurers within Australian public sector organizations make VfM assessments? And second, how do procurers manage competing institutional logics?

An interpretive qualitative approach is proposed in order to understand procurers perceptions of VfM within public organizations. Interviews with forty public managers from two fields of practice where interest in VfM is well established: commissioning of human/health/social services and construction/infrastructure procurement will be presented. These managers are involved in the preparation, evaluation and awarding of contracts through a tender process. A deductive-inductive approach recommended by Miles and Huberman (1994) will be used to analyze the transcripts.

H102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Law Building LAW2
The values of top civil servants and cutback management Eduard Schmidt

The current crisis, the deepest recession since the 1930s, brings new challenges to top civil servants. One important challenge is the implementation of cutbacks within their own organization. Their role is important because they may smooth the process of implementing cutbacks (Levine, 1978).

 

When referring to the implementation of cutbacks, a commonly used distinction is between across-the-board cuts and targeted cuts. How top civil servants choose between the different types of cutback management strategies remains unclear. It has been argued that the duration and severity of the crisis plays a role in the decision making process (Raudla et al., forthcoming), while leadership is also expected to make a difference (Levine, 1978; Higgs & Rowland, 2011). Another way of explaining how cutbacks are implemented, is by looking at values. Earlier research already suggested a link between organizational change (such as cutbacks) and values  (Ritz et al., 2011)

 

Research on values showed that there are differences between organizations (Rainey, 2005) and managers (Antonsen & Beck Jorgensen, 1997) in the public versus the private sector. Research on sector switchers also showed that managers with and without private sector experience have different values (De Graaf & Van der Wal, 2008) and that work-experience may be regarded as an important influencer (Boardman, Bozeman & Ponomariov, 2010). Hence, it is expected that top civil servants with and without private sector experience use different cutback management strategies.

 

This paper uses the 1.1 billion euros of cutbacks in the Dutch central administration as a case. Therefore, top civil servants (with and without experience in the private sector) from Dutch ministries will be interviewed and literature on public values and cutback management will be combined to answer the question: What role do values of top civil servants play in their choice for cutback management strategies?

 

Literature

Antonsen, M. & Beck Jorgensen, T. (1997). The Publicness of Public Organizations. Public Administration, 75(2), 337 – 357.

 

Boardman, C., Bozeman, B. & Ponomariov, B. (2010). Private Sector Imprinting: An Examination of the Impacts of Private Sector Job Experience on Public Managers’ Work Attitudes. Public Adminstration Review, 70(1), 50 – 59.

 

De Graaf, G. & Van der Wal, Z. (2008). On Value Differences Experienced by Sector Switchers. Administration and Society, 40(1), 79 – 103.

 

Higgs, M.J. & Rowland, D. (2011). What does it take to implement change successfully? A study of the Behaviors of Successful Change Leaders. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 20(10), 1 – 17.

 

Levine, C.H. (1978). Organizational Decline and Cutback Management. Public Administration Review, 38(4), 316 - 325.

 

Rainey, H.G. (2005). Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Raudla, R., Savi R. & Randma-Liiv, T. (forthcoming). Cutback management literature in the 1970s and 1980s: Taking stock. International Review of Administrative Sciences: accepted for publication.

 

Ritz, A., Shantz, A., Alfes, K. & Arshoff (2012). Who Needs Leaders the Most? The Interactive Effect of Leadership and Core Self-Evaluations on Commitment to Change in the Public Sector. International Public Management Journal, 15(2), 160–185.

A101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART2
On the Complexity of Being a Principal - Emerging identities and performance in a new work reality Sören Augustinsson, Ulf Ericsson, Marie-Louise Österlind, Carin Linander, Daniella Argento, Maria Melen, Eva Lövstål

The aim of this research project is to approach and understand how the work of principals are being constructed and interpreted and who/what enables and prevents principals (or both) in doing a good job. Further on, we want to see if there are any differences regarding these issues between private (profit-driven) or public schools.

During the past decades the character of work and work organization have changed for many people. There has been a shift from clear and defined work tasks to more ambiguous responsibilities. Moreover, the possibility of preplanning and controlling the organization in a rational and authoritarian way are today questioned by many scholars. One profession that is highly affected of these working life changes are principals. Our assumption is that the principals work is being constructed through an ongoing negotiation with several significant actors (including objects). The formal control and regulation of principals in Sweden comes from different levels: legislation, national policy documents, nationally and locally designed quality control measurements. Furthermore the principals are constantly affected by and are in several cases negotiating with teachers, teachers union, parents, pupils, national and local politicians, economy, and a variety of control and performance methods. This work reality will be understood using different theoretical lenses.

The study will be executed using a mixed method approach. Approximately 300 principals will participate in the study. A pilot study carried out by focus group interviews will form the basis of the questionnaire. After the data of the questionnaire has been analyzed a new set of focus groups will be carried out.

Expected outcomes will be related to the understanding of the interpretation of the principals work and various assignments, who the most significant actors are in constructing their work, who the principals regard as their allies in their profession and who they regard as their “foe” (including objects). Furthermore we expect findings that will explain the identity work of principals, how they interpret their work conditions and of course if there are any differences between private (profit-driven) or public schools.

G102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Aston Webb AST2
Public and private in collision? Measuring and managing hybrid forms of governance in Finnish health care policy Päivi Marjukka Husman, Jarmo Vakkuri, Jan-Erik Johanson

Interplay between public and private forms of institutional action is rapidly changing public service delivery. New institutional spaces have emerged, spaces, which cannot be reduced to only “public”, or “private”. Instead these evolving entities seem to incorporate elements from both institutional spheres. However, it is evident that the current research discussion requires further understanding of how such hybrid forms of governance ought to be theoretically conceptualized, and, respectively, how measurement and management systems therein should be developed. Hitherto, the research tradition has excessively emphasized comparisons of private and public organizations and their efficiencies at the expense of trying to understand the inherent institutional logics of hybrid forms of governance.

The objective of this paper is to analyze hybrid forms of governance in the context of Finnish health care policies from two perspectives, first, as a form of institutional system situated between public and private action, and second, as a tension between things that hybrid systems want to achieve (strategic action) and instruments that they use to demonstrate achievements (performance metrics of hybrid governance).

The paper provides a tentative theoretical synthesis for understanding institutional logics of hybrid governance though competitive dynamics, through embeddedness, as shadows of both public and private activity, which serve as competing attractors of attention. The paper utilizes case data from two hybrid contexts in the Finnish health care system. First, we discuss institutional logics of municipal corporation in adapting to public regulation and market competition. Second, we illustrate implementation of innovative customer management system in another municipal corporation. In conclusion, it is evident that the success of public – private activity depends upon the favourable regulatory environment and suitable competitive landscape.

G102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Aston Webb AST2
Unsettling professional boundaries? The role of boundary infrastructures in inter- professional collaboration Lieke Oldenhof

Given increasing specialization of professional domains, clients with multiple problems pose a serious challenge for public service organizations. Policymakers emphasize the need for inter-professional collaboration and integration of different services in health, social work, education and housing. Yet, despite collaboration, duplication and fragmentation of services still exists (Sullivan and Williams 2012). This paper aims to open-up the debate on inter- professional collaboration by investigating the role of professional boundaries (Martin et al. 2009; Hernes 2003; Carlile 2002) and boundary infrastructures (Bowker and Star 1999; Sullivan and Williams 2012). Conventionally, professional boundaries are viewed as roadblocks to collaboration and service integration. In line with Hernes (2004), we however assume that boundaries are not necessarily barriers to collaboration, but can be conducive to the very process of organizing and innovating.

For this paper, we investigated a neighbourhood based network that included professionals and managers from GP-practices, housing, education, social work, youth care, psychiatric care, insurance and the local government. By conducting an organizational ethnography (2011-2014), we were able to demonstrate how this cross-sector network incrementally developed as a boundary infrastructure over time by connecting various objects (buildings, maps, diagrams), actors (professionals, managers, citizens, policymakers) and professional communities of practice. Our research provides new insights into 1) the mundane maintenance work that comes with creating and sustaining a boundary infrastructure, 2) the implications of boundary infrastructures for unsettling professional boundaries. An important conclusion from our study is that boundary infrastructures are crucial for inter-professional collaboration: not because they eliminate professional boundaries altogether, but precisely because they create new notions of holistic professionalism as well as new professional boundaries. In addition to the state and universities, cross-sector networks have an important future role to play in revolutionizing professionalism from within.

References

 

Bowker, G. and Star, S.L. (1999), Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

 

Carlile, Paul R. (2002): 'A Pragmatic View of Knowledge and Boundaries: Boundary Objects in New product Development.' Organization Science, 13, pp. 442–455.

 

Hernes, T. (2003). ‘Enabling and constraining properties of boundaries’, in: N. Paulsen and T. Hernes ed. Managing boundaries in organizations. Multiple perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan.

 

Martin, G.P., G. Currie, R. Finn (2009). Reconfiguring or reproducing intra-professional boundaries? Specialist expertise, generalist knowledge and the ‘modernization’ of the medical workforce, Social Science & Medicine, 68, 1191-1198.

 

Sullivan, H. and P. Williams (2012). Whose kettle? Exploring the role of objects in managing and mediating the boundaries of integration in health and social care, Journal of Health Organization and Management, 26 (2), 697-712.

 

 

 

B104 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART3
“Wiring in” New Professional Roles in Hospital Care: A Comparative Study of the Introduction of New Professional Roles in Europe Iris Wallenburg, Antoinette de Bont

Hospitals are staffed by an increasing variation of occupational groups, each with their own cultures, career structures, and hierarchies. This paper focuses upon the development and evolvement of new professional roles in health care in Europe – such as new technical roles, new advanced roles, and new occupations. We present the results of a comparative study in which we analyzed 16 case studies in eight European countries.

Resonating with the panel’s central themes, we analyze how vested professionals and new professional roles co-operate and connect to each other as well as to the organizations they are part of. Theoretically, we explore what this means for the professionalization of new healthcare occupations. We use the notions of institutional logics (Thorton et al. 2012) and institutional work (Lawrence and Suddaby 2006) to examine the impact of new professional roles on vested healthcare practices, as well as the positions - status, tasks, responsibilities, role in the team - new occupations take in.

In the paper, we distinguish three institutional logics: the state logic, the professional logic and the business logic. The paper demonstrates that the business logic has rapidly gained importance within hospital organizations. The conflicting and overlapping pressures stemming from the interactions of the three institutional logics have created institutional complexities that provide room for the introduction and development of new professional roles within hospital organizations.

We demonstrate how in all countries hospital organizations play a central role in defining competence levels and creating applied training programs. The new occupations, in their turn, particularly focus on their daily work and the co-operation within the medical team. They omit to ‘wire in’ the hospital organization and do not establish clear connections with colleague practitioners, the organization as well as with governing bodies. As a consequence, new professional roles face difficulties in being accepted as a new professional group.

 

B104 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART3
The forgotten professional. Roles of professionals in creating public value in collaborative networks Karin Geuijen

The literature on public value focuses on the organizational level (Moore 1995) and somewhat on the network level especially on the issue of coproduction of organizations with clients and citizens (e.g. Moore 2013). It stresses a central role for public managers especially at the apexes of organizations and in realizing strategic management. What seems underdeveloped is a perspective on the role of professionals in creating public value in networks.

This paper will focus first on how professionals define public value and how they do that together with other professionals, while they are actually engaged in collaborations in networks. We analyze how differences in expertise and power affect what definitions of public value will become accepted. Secondly, this paper addresses how those professionals subsequently organize sufficient legitimacy and support for these particular definitions of public value, with a distinctive eye on their respective ‘home’-organizations. What exactly are they held accountable for, how much budget and time do they receive for their tasks? And thirdly, this paper focusses on how those professionals deal with issues of inter-professional differences in expertise as well as inter-professional differences in power and status in the collaborations they are engaged in. This, we argue, affects network dynamics.

Empirically, we focus on a specific case, namely collaborative networks on safety in the Netherlands (the so-called ‘safety houses’, or ‘veiligheidshuizen’ in Dutch) . In these networks, professionals coming from multiple organizations that work either on safety or on care, cooperate: the police, the public prosecution, the Child Care and Protection Board, social work organizations, mental healthcare organizations, and so on. We conclude that professional roles seem forgotten and that understanding how they cope with and contribute to network situations adds a lot to the public value literature.

B104 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART3
Public and private sector performance management: commonalities and differences. Results from a literature review Christoph Reichard, Gerrit Jan Helden, van

In the last two decades, performance management has become increasingly relevant both in public and private sector management. In both sectors concepts and tools of performance management have been and still are widely used, e.g. in financial or human resource management. Interestingly, the research studying the specific features and developments of performance management (PM) has so far been concentrating on either the private business sector or the public administration sector. Research studying the specifics of PM concepts, tools and practices in both sectors from a comparative perspective is quite limited. It is the aim of the proposed paper to identify major issues, concepts, applications and utilizations of PM in the public and the private sector management in comparison over the last 20 years.

 

Based on theoretical considerations (mainly from organization theories, economics and political sciences) which explain existing differences between public and private organisations (see e.g. Rainey and Bozeman, 2000; Boyne, 2002, Andrews et al. 2011; Meier and O’Toole 2011; Hvidman and Andersen 2013), it can be assumed that the concepts and practices in PM will differ too. The following analytical dimensions will be of specific relevance for the study of private and public sector (performance) management (partly based on Perry and Rainey 1988):

  • ownership
  • types of goals (in relation with the types of goods produced)
  • type of funding
  • kind and actors of control

In the proposed paper we want to analyse the implications of the basic public/private differences for PM. The analysis will concentrate on two major stages of the PM lifecycle: the design of a PM-system and the use of performance information (van Helden and Reichard, 2013). Furthermore, the authors will explore key issues of Otley’s performance management framework (Otley 1999), particularly the links of a PM-system to strategies, the role of targeting and the relevance of incentives.

 

The paper is based on an extensive literature review of about 100 articles identified in international peer-reviewed journals (50 from each sector) published between 1995 and 2014. The articles will be identified according to their relevance (measured in quotation numbers) via Google Scholar, Web of Science and various data banks of scientific journals. Only articles with appropriate empirical evidence and with a focus on organizational performance will be selected. The proposed paper builds on two papers which the authors presented in 2014 at two conferences (EIASM and EGPA). These papers informed about the theoretical concept and the analytical framework of the research project. Additionally, they presented results from an exploratory stage, where 30 articles (15 of each sector) were evaluated. The findings of the first stage resulted in some adjustments of the research design. They also indicated that PM-differences among the two sectors are less stringent as theoretically assumed.

 

Our review will at first describe observed tendencies of PM practices in both sectors, e.g. with regard to particularities of the design of a PM-system and to experiences with the use of performance data. Differences of PM in different types of organisations in the two sectors (e.g. between ministries, agencies, municipalities and state-owned enterprises in the public sector) will be described and analysed. Specific features of hybrid organisations, e.g. of public-privately owned corporations, will be illustrated. Changes and developments of PM over time (longitudinal view) will also be discussed. Furthermore, identified patterns of the Otley-framework in both sectors will be illustrated. From a theoretical view we will explain the identified differences, e.g. by referring to fundamental discrepancies of public and private organisations (i.e. the four dimensions mentioned above). Generally, it is the aim of the proposed paper to bridge the so far quite separated research fields of “private PM” and “public PM” and to connect to some extent the research circles in the domain of performance management.

 

References

 

Andrews, R., G.A. Boyne and R.M. Walker (2011), Dimensions of publicness and organizational performance: a review of the evidence, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 21, pp. i301-i319.

Boyne, G.A. (2002), Public and private management: what’s the difference? Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 97-122.

Helden, G.J. van, C. Reichard (2013): A meta-review of public sector performance management research. TÉKHNE - Review of Applied Management Studies, 2013, Vol. 11, pp. 10---20.

Hvidman, U., S. C. Andersen (2013), The Impact of Performance Management in Public and Private Organizations. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory (early access 5.4.13).

Meier, K.J. and L.J. O’Toole Jr. (2011), Comparing public and private management: theoretical expectations, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 21, pp. i283-i299.

Otley, D. (1999), Performance management; a framework for management control systems research, Management Accounting Research, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 363-382.

Perry, J.L. and H.G. Rainey (1988), The Public-Private Distinction in Organization Theory: A Critique and Research Strategy, The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 182-201.

Rainey, H.G. and B. Bozeman (2000), Comparing Public and Private Organizations: Empirical Research and the Power of the A Priori, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 447-469.

 

G102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Aston Webb AST2
Key dilemmas of performance measurement in the context of Finnish higher education – an empirical case study Kirsi-Mari Kallio, Päivikki Kuoppakangas

Recently, the general trend seems to be inevitably taking the public organizations that provide knowledge-intensive services towards adopting private sector. The adoption and imitation of private sector practices make knowledge-intensive public organizations become ‘hybrid’ organizations (Grossi & Thomasson 2015), e.g., organizations that borrow components and logics from the public, private, and non-profit sectors.

Universities have been modernizing their management systems and moving towards private operating logics, thus they are becoming hybrid. As a result, most academic institutions have introduced some sort of performance measurement tools in their management and control systems. According to recent studies, the current measurement systems in European universities seem to have problems. According to ter Bogt and Scapens (2012), the performance measurements currently applied are judgmental. Kallio and Kallio (2012) report that Finnish university employees are highly critical of the way in which performance is measured.

This study is based on thematic interviews of administrative managers of twelve university faculties in Finland and consequently, four faculties in each. As a theoretical framework, we use the dilemma theory by Hampden-Turner (1990) and define dilemmas as two equally desirable managerial and/or organisational values and goals. Given that these goals are put together as pairs and aimed at simultaneously they are determined to create tensions, contradictions and potential paradoxical outcomes. The current performance measurement system in Finland has brought up these kinds of tensions.

In our preliminary analysis we have identified two core dilemma pairs in the higher education performance measurement context, which are:

1.1. The idea of rewarding good performance versus intrinsically motivated work

1.2. Performance measurement versus academic freedom

Our consequent data analysis we will analyze more in detail the dilemmas associated with individual performance measurement in a university setting in hybrid times.


References:

Grossi, G. – Thomasson, A. (2015) Facing the challenges of obtaining accountability in hybrid organizations. The transnational case of Malmö Copenhagen Port. International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 81(3), (forthcoming).

Hampden-Turner, C. (1990) Charting the Corporate Mind. From Dilemma to Strategy. Blackwell Publisher: Oxford.

Kallio, Kirsi-Mari & Kallio, Tomi J. (2012a) Management-by-results and performance measurement in universities – Implications for work motivation. Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 39 (4), 574-589.

ter Bogt, Henk J. & Scapens, Robert W. (2012) Performance Management in Universities: Effects of the Transition to More Quantitative Measurement Systems. European Accounting Review, Vol. 21 (3), 451-497.

G102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Aston Webb AST2
What is the Role of Leader in Organizational Effectiveness? Luiz Henrique Machado

This paper discusses the role of leader and the exercising of leadership and its possible correlation with the effectiveness of the implementation of management tools that involve a profound change in organizational paradigm, such as the Balanced Scorecard. The Brazilian Federal Executive Branch employs significant amount of human and material resources in the implementation of robust and tasted management tools, and even then, the outcome is unsatisfactory. The lack of leaders exercising leadership at the top and middle management of public organizations could explain part of this under performance.

From a theoretical survey and data collection, the researcher left for fieldwork with the objective of understanding the implementation of a strategic management model based on the Balanced Scorecard in two ministries of the federal government and what impact the profile of respective leaders - ministers - in greater or lesser effectiveness of such deployment.

The results achieved - in particular direct correlation between leadership profile and effectiveness of implementation of model-are very important for the guidance of similar processes in the future. The Brazil is a country with great potential for growth but still mismanaged public funds and shortage of secure data bases for decision making. Established that some leadership traits are fundamental to the leader responsible for the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard as a tool, it becomes possible to establish a diagnosis prior success rate ex ante.Furthermore, in the field of the macro theme, the results may contribute to the establishment of guidelines and protocols for maximizing the effectiveness of the deployment of tools such as the Balanced Scorecard, have strong relationship with the role of the leader and his team support.

The presentation aims to examine aspects of public governance in Brazilian public administration and its recent relationship with modern management tools - public or private - in use in the developed world. Cultural and behavioral issues will be addressed as well as significant traces of colonization of the country still present in caring for the public good.

A101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART2
Athens ‘new poverty’ paradigm during the recent crisis Maria Petraki

During the recession, a new wave of poverty struck urban areas in Greece. Slower economic growth both at national and local level, as well as the retrenchment of the Welfare State, have contributed to this poverty surge. Moreover, there is a widespread perception that this poverty has become increasingly concentrated in certain neighborhoods, known as "inner city" or "poverty zone", and that such neighborhoods have mostly become the dwelling/domicile of homeless, unemployed, immigrants groups and others. This is of course, the one side of reality in Athens, as the “old poor” have become poorer and stayed in poverty for extended periods of time, but at the same time, below poverty line also fall people who had never been there before.

The objective of this paper is to investigate life quality and related characteristics of/within an urban population (Athens municipality) in Greece, using data from a survey conducted in 2012 with a sample of 800 households. More precisely, statistical data and the results of the qualitative research conducted with key informants and stakeholders will be discussed, with a view to focusing on the multiple effects of instability on the labour market: part-time jobs, unemployment, time-limited contracts, job changes, downward mobility, income loss and proposing new social interventions at local level.

Our analysis suggests that the urban “new poor - materially deprived” groups should be recognised as a new target group. Thus meaning that active social policy should place emphasis on addressing the needs of this new group.

A101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART2
Convergence versus divergence: Doctrinal foundations of Central and Eastern European public management reforms in the view of the administrative elites György Hajnal, Miklós Rosta

The development paths characterizing the politico-administrative systems of Central and Eastern European (CEE) transition counties – both those already having acceded and those being in some earlier stage of accession to the EU – are frequently subject to controversial views. While some expect a gradual consolidation, stabilization and convergence to (Western) European patterns (Goetz and Zubek 2010), others detect tendencies, or at least threats, of an ‘illiberal turn’ or ‘populist backlash’ (Rupnik 2007). In addition to the intellectual challenge appearing in this debate recent developments in several countries of the region, including Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Serbia, highlight the grave practical relevance of this question.

This debate has so far largely focused on the upper echelons of constitutional frameworks and political institutions. In this paper we wish to examine the same question on the more ‘mundane’ level of administrative / governance reforms. In particular we focus on the extent to, and the patterns in, which different ‘mainstream’ administrative reform paradigms informing international / Western European public management reforms (such as New Public Management, Neo-Weberian State or New Public Governance; see Osborne 2006, 2010a, 2010b; Pollitt-Bouckaert 2011) appear in CEE reforms of the recent years. In other words, we ask whether, and if yes which, CEE countries stand out markedly, from a broader European comparative perspective, in terms of the doctrinal ‘composition’ of their recent public management reforms. We also ask in what ways such idiosyncratic reform patterns differ from the established reform doctrines, and to what extent they can be seen as constituting a different and coherent paradigm.

The empirical basis of the study is a recent, large questionnaire survey of European administrative elites, having been conducted in 16 European countries between 2012 and 2013. The temporal scope is the 2007 to 2012 period. Four CEE countries are in the sample, limiting the geographical scope of the study to Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania and Serbia. Multivariate statistical methods are used to construct proxy measures of different reform doctrines’ presence in the different countries, and to locate / group countries in the ‘doctrinal space’ defined by these measures.

 

Goetz, Klaus H. and Radoslaw Zubek (2010a): Special Issue: Performing to Type? Institutional Performance in New EU Member States, Journal of Public Policy 30:1

Osborne, S. P. (2006). The New Public Governance? Public Management Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 377-387.

Osborne, S. P. (2010b). Introduction. The (New) Public Governance: a suitable case for treatment? In. Osborne, S. P. (Ed.). (2010). The new public governance? Emerging perspectives on the theory and practice of public governance. Routledge, New York

Osborne, S. P. (Ed.). (2010). The new public governance? Emerging perspectives on the theory and practice of public governance. Routledge, New York

Pollitt, C. - Bouckaert, G. (2011). Public Management Reform: A comparative analysis-new public management, governance, and the Neo-Weberian state. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Rupnik, Jacques (2012): How things went wrong, Journal of Democracy 23:3 pp. 132-137

Rupnik, Jacques (2007): From Democracy Fatigue to Populist Backlash, Journal of Democracy 18:4 pp. 17-25
L101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
(UN)CONSCIOUS APPLICATION OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES-DOMINANT APPROACH: INSIGHTS FROM COMMISSIONING ALCOHOL AND DRUG MISUSE SERVICES Pawel Abramik

Osborne et al. (AROPA, 2013) suggested a new theory of the public service-dominant approach to public sector management based on four propositions for strategy, marketing, coproduction and operations management. First of all, both citizens and users should become central stakeholders of public policy and service delivery, since their engagement adds value to both processes. Secondly, the aim of marketing should be creation of ‘service promise’, which leads to development of trust between providers and users. Next, the coproduction is an undeniable component of services delivery, therefore service users’ knowledge and experience need to be taken into consideration for the purpose of effective design and delivery of service. Finally, operations management can only lead to more efficient, but not more effective services. Nonetheless, operations management is still important, since inefficient services cannot deliver a ‘service promise’.

In 2013, the Addicton City Council (name changed) re-commissioned substance misuse services. The commissioners adapted a new recovery model, which focuses on freedom from problematic substance misuse and re-integration with society through meaningful activities, such as training, education, volunteering and employment. This new commissioning strategy was widely consulted with various stakeholders, and the users’ representatives were part of the Tendering Evaluation Panel. The commissioning body also changed the way they work aiming to introduce outcome-based commissioning.

Based on the above case study, this paper evaluates to what extent the commissioning bodies (un)consciously adapt the public service-dominant approach and its potential implications for management control mechanisms. The main research techniques are documentary analysis and interviews with representatives of the commissioning body (Addicton City Council) and a network of providers (the NHS and charities).

L101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
Towards a model of public management reforms in developing countries: The case of health sector reforms in Punjab, Pakistan. Yaamina Salman

Public sector reforms are increasingly being advocated and implemented in developing countries in association with global development agendas like United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This paper analyses reforms in health sector in Punjab, Pakistan by looking at the reform drivers, strategies and how they are adopted and implemented by elites in a developing country context. In doing so, it addresses the debate on insights on reform experiences in developing countries and moves the discourse further by recommending a political economy analysis in addition to an analysis of the reform process to help us gain a better understanding of reform in developing countries. The main research questions asked in this paper are: How do governments adopt health sector reforms in Punjab? How important or salient are the various reform drivers in determining the reforms to be adopted?

The conceptual framework draws on the works of Pollitt and Bouckaert's (2011) model of public management reforms and Christensen and Lægreid (2007) transformative approach to studying reforms, to answer the research questions about reform drivers, strategies and implementation in health sector reforms in Punjab. Moreover, it adds further insights into the reform process by using an explanation of political and elite motivation to reform which draws upon the works of Batley et al. (2012); (Batley and Larbi, 2004; Batley, 2004), McLoughlin and Batley (2012) and (Cheung, 2005). Evidence used to answer the research questions has been collected through a case study of health sector reforms in Punjab from 2004 till 2011. Interviews were conducted with administrative elites, health care managers, district health administration and service users. The central argument of the paper highlights the importance of elite motivation and influences in determining the reform trajectory in health sector in Punjab and recommends a more detailed political economy analysis to understand the reform process in developing countries. Administrative elites, central to the design and implementation of reform in developing countries are influenced by factors like incentive structures, donor pressure, and conformance to global agendas to determine the design and implementation of reform programmes in the health sector. The research paper will contribute to the research on developing countries’ reform experiences by determining the reasons behind reform trajectories adopted by the political and administrative elites.

 

References

Batley, R. 2004. The Politics of Service Delivery Reform. Development and Change, 35, 31-56.

Batley, R. & Larbi, G. A. 2004. The Changing Role of Government: The Reform of Public Services in Developing Countries, London, Palgrave Macmillan.

Batley, R., McCourt, W. & Mcloughlin, C. 2012. Editorial: The Politics and Governance of Public Services in Developing Countries. Public Management Review, 14, 131-144.

Cheung, A. B. L. 2005. The Politics of Administrative Reforms in Asia: Paradigms and Legacies, Paths and Diversities. Governance, 18, 257-282.

Christensen, T. & Lægreid, P. 2007. Transcending New Public Management: The Transformation of Public Sector Reforms, Ashgate Pub Co.

Mcloughlin, C. & Batley, R. 2012. The Politics of What Works in Service Provision: An Evidence-Based Review. Effective states and inclusive development. Manchester: University of Manchester.

Pollitt, C. & Bouckaert, G. 2011. Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis - New Public Management, Governance, and the Neo-Weberian State, UK, Oxford University Press.

L101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
J103 The craft and graft of collaboration This is content March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 N/A N/A
J104 Network studies 2.0 Panel Discussion This is content March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 N/A N/A
Whistleblowing and the NHS: The Institutional Dynamics of Blame and the Escalation of an Alternative Strategy? Sarah Geraldine Louise Cooper

In June 2010, a public inquiry was launched into the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust in response to claims of poor levels of care and high mortality rates among patients in two of its hospitals. Increasingly frustrated at her complaints being overlooked by managers, a nurse employed at the hospital turned whistleblower and became a key witness in the investigation. Since that time, in recognition of a series of submissions in the report concerning the need for candor, several mechanisms have been in put place, such as a national helpline and mandatory training, to encourage staff to speak out to reduce ‘avoidable harm’ in the NHS. A tribunal in January 2014, however, heavily criticized the Chief Executive of Torbay Hospital for her treatment of such employees, and an independent inquiry into the handling of those raising concerns at work within the NHS, chaired once again by Sir Robert Francis, is currently underway. Future recommendations from that document will no doubt have a vast impact on healthcare management and it thus becomes a pertinent juncture at which to explore the behaviour of key actors in such times of crisis. Therefore utilizing Hood’s seminal theory, and engaging the examples of Mid-Staffordshire Trust and Torbay Hospital as critical case studies, this article traces three possible strategies of blame avoidance in the NHS: presentational, agency and policy. The research proposes that, in an era of increasing transparency, the efficacy of such tactics to avoid culpability in this domain are limited, and this is now readily recognized by managers and high-ranking employees alike. The article suggests that this has attributed to the recently exposed treatment of whistleblowers, and postulates that institutional players have been reluctant to entirely quash the culture of fear around coming forward as an alternative protective strategy.

L101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Aston Webb AST1
Word-of-mouth in the healthcare sector – a comprehensive literature analysis of the current state of research and future perspectives Sebastian Martin

Objectives:

The decision to purchase a product or service is often influenced by “any positive or negative statement made by potential, actual, or former customer about a product or company“(Hennig-Thurau et al. 2004, p. 39). This concept is called word-of-mouth (WOM) and frequently allows people to gain somehow authentic and reliable information provided by other consumers who have already experienced the focused product or service. For most consumers WOM might be the only chance to get also informed about the negative aspects of a purchase. The growing importance of WOM has been proved by a variety of researchers (e.g. Lis/Neßler 2014; Siems/Gestandl 2009; Silverman 2001). Due to the growing prevalence of internet blogs or social networks WOM even gains importance as people may easily spread their recommendations or concerns to a multiplicity of potential consumers (Lis/Korchmar 2013). Several studies emphasize the importance of WOM especially in the case of complex products and services with a high level of risk involved, as they can be found for example in the health care sector (e.g. Hennig-Thurau et al. 2004).

Actors in the healthcare sector have to cope with an increasing competition. It becomes crucial to adequately address the relevant stakeholders including patients, practitioners and employees. In this regard brand management and communication can be seen as essential (Schulz/Roeder/Franz 2011). WOM allows an authentic communication process with a high affinity to the target audience (e.g. Esch/Krieger/Strödter 2009; Radic/Posselt 2009). A large amount of literature can be found with respect to private enterprises using online and offline WOM. A research gap exists, when it comes to the analysis of the current state of WOM research in the health care sector. Based on a comprehensive literature review this paper shall systematically identify the existing studies of WOM in the field of health care services. A special focus is on public organizations. Existing studies may be classified in one of the following category:

  • Preconditions of WOM in the health care sector (e.g. WOM as a multidimensional construct)

  • Spread of WOM in the health care sector (e.g. targeted persons, used communication channels, information content)

  • Impact of WOM in the health care sector (e.g. impact towards the diverse stakeholders, costs of WOM, impact towards the efficiency of the public organizations)

In addition the literature review shall indicate gaps for further research in this field.

Data and Methods: This paper investigates existing WOM studies based on a comprehensive literature review of the leading A and B journals in the health care sector. The research focuses WOM aspects in the title of the journals as well as in the journals’ keywords and abstract. Journals including WOM aspects are analysed and afterwards categorised.


Results: The paper is in conceptual stage

Conclusions: Contribution to Public Management: Due to e.g. increasing competition and new forms of online communication the WOM concept will gain importance in the health care sector. This study will contribute a systematic overview of the existing WOM research in the health care sector with a special focus is on public organizations. Based on the results research gaps as well as concrete suggestions for further research will be determined.


Progress to date: The literature review is conducted between July to October 2014.

 

Track: Micro

New researcher Doctoral Student*: No
New researcher within 3 years of PhD*: No

 

L101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
Quantum of Solace: Using Q methodology to expose and explore alternative positions and perceptions of the importance of board pay in the hybrid governance of housing associations Bruce Moore

Housing associations are hybrid organisations, positioned at the intersection of the public, private and charity domains.    Tensions arise between the competing perspectives as housing policy and provision is shaped and shifted by the prevailing winds and tides of the social, economic and political environment.   The global financial crisis is yet another challenge and influence on the direction and nature of the development of housing associations and how they are governed.

There are concerns about the adequacy and effectiveness of the mechanisms for ensuring control and accountability in the commercial sector and also doubts about the applicability of these models of governance to not-for-profit organisations.  Yet as Sandel (2013) notes, there still appears to be an inexorable trend towards “markets and market oriented thinking” and a “growing use of monetary incentives to solve social problems”.

As the role played by housing associations became more significant, so concerns increased about the standards and quality of their governance (Housing Corporation, 2001).   The response was to establish a power to remunerate their board members (Housing Corporation, 2003).    The question “To pay or not to pay?” (Ashby and Ferman, 2003) had previously been highly controversial and hotly contested, but the debate soon came to an end and payment of boards has now become the norm.

Hirshmann (1982) noted the oscillation in prevalence between perspectives of “public purpose” and “private concern”, but little room is currently being left for consideration of alternative points of view and approaches to governance.   There is no absolute right approach to housing association governance and what is appropriate will be a product of the particular time, place and context.

In response to calls for the adoption of more “innovative perspectives and approaches” (Cornforth, 2014) I have used Q methodology to explore and expose the alternative conceptions and understanding of governance and attitudes to payment of board members of housing associations.

 

Ashby, J. and Ferman, L., 2003. To Pay or Not To Pay? The principles and practicalities of board member payment, National Housing Federation, London

Cornforth, C., 2014. Nonprofit governance research: The need for innovative perspectives and approaches, In Cornforth, C. and Brown W.A. (eds.), Nonprofit Governance: innovative perspectives and approaches, Abingdon, Routledge pp1-15

Hirschman, A.O., 1982. Rival Interpretations of Market Society: Civilizing, Destructive, or Feeble?, Journal of Economic Literature, pp1463-1484

Housing Corporation, 2001. Modernising Governance: Reporting the Debate (Research Report to the Housing Corporation by the Compass Partnership), Housing Corporation, London

Housing Corporation, 2003. Board Member Remuneration: Regulatory Code Good Practice Note 5, Housing Corporation, London

Sandel, M.J., 2013, What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets, Penguin, London.

D102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Law Building LAW3
The industry of crisis management: deconstructing the role of the policy expert in Australia’s Indigenous domain Thomas Michel

In Australia, public management's engagement with the country's Indigenous peoples appears to be in a state of perpetual crisis. In 2007 the federal government initiated the (in)famous Northern Territory Emergency Response, or 'Intervention', a policy package which invoked emergency powers to urgently target social dysfunction and child sexual abuse in remote Indigenous communities. Subsequently, a large-scale remote Indigenous housing program was exigently rolled out, aimed at alleviating acute overcrowding. Other examples abound. More recently, the newly elected Prime Minister Tony Abbott has labelled Indigenous affairs as the one great failure in the nation's life, and has again demanded urgent policy action; he has called specifically for results to be prioritised over process.

In the Northern Territory proper, recent policy developments in the local government sector have similarly reflected a crisis mentality. In July 2008, 53 community councils - of predominantly rural and majority Indigenous communities - were forcibly amalgamated into eight regional shires. When he announced the reform, Minister for Local Government Eliot McAdam highlighted that systemic weaknesses in the sector were worsening, and deemed fifty per cent of councils to be dysfunctional or high-risk. He concluded with a call for drastic change: 'It's time to take action... to fix these structural problems'.

This presentation uses the empirical case of the Northern Territory's 2008 local government reform to critically explore how a sense of crisis serves to shape policymaking culture. I argue that in this environment of 'results over process', action is commonly favoured over reflection, and policy takes on a linearilty of purpose and scheduling. The agents of policymaking carry a distinctly privileged role: firstly they claim authority to define accountability, and hence to define the crisis; consequently they are able to assume the self-perpetuating role of crisis-solver and reform-builder. Rather than aim to better solve 'crises', this presentation suggests that policy experts should aim to better understand how 'crisis' is constructed.

A101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART2
Boards of directors and managerial compensations in non-profit organization: open issues Sonia Moi, Fabio Monteduro

A recent literature review on non-profit boards (Moi et al., 2014) has shown that research on governance has increased during the last twenty years, with the aims to know, understand, and interpret governance mechanisms, particularly those of the board of directors, as one of the most important part of the governance structure.

Research on non-profit boards is mostly focused on the identification of the connection between board effectiveness and organizational performance the variables - in terms of behavior, functions, and processes - that affect board effectiveness (see Herman and Renz, 2004; Cornforth, 2001; Holland and Jackson, 1998) and on the  behavioural characteristics and boards’ relationships -in terms of functions, internal processes, and internal and external boards’ relationships – (see Mordaunt and Cornforth, 2004; Parker, 2003).

Among the characteristics of non-profit boards, such as behaviours, decision-making process, relationships within and outside the boards, exist a great number of variables less analysed in non-profit sector such as the relationship between board of directors and managerial compensation (consistent with agency theory).

The theme of the non-profit CEO compensation, in fact, represent an issue that only recently is attracting the attention of researchers (Jobome, 2006; Malliaris and Pappas, 2009; Brickley et al., 2010) especially related to healthcare organizations.

Using data from the new form 990, the aim of this research is to analyse links between three macro variables: board characteristics (such as board size, percentage of independent boards, CEO duality, etc.) compensation (such as wage, benefits, etc.) and performance.

In doing so, we take into account agency theory problems and moral hazard problems, that can affect those relations.

D102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Law Building LAW3
AN EMPIRICAL TAXONOMY OF THE GOVERNANCE OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Joaquim Rubens Fontes-Filho, Conrado Parreiras Leal

This paper aims to propose a taxonomy for the structures and governance practices adopted by non-profit organizations in Brazil that allows properly understand the key similarities and distinctions in organizational governance solutions. Brazil had in 2010, according to the census bureau, 290,700 officially registered non-profit organizations, with 18.66% working in the areas of health, education, research and social assistance, taken as focus of this study. We collected the statutes of 376 entities registered simultaneously in two systems witch present data related to governance and relationship aspectos of the of organizations (SICONV and CensusSUAS). Conceptual dimensions were developed based on the theoretical framework of organizational governance and previous studies on cooperatives (Central Bank of Brazil, 2008): representativeness and participation, strategic guidelines, executive management, supervision and control. These dimensions were operationalized in a set of 58 variables related to aspects arranged in the statutes of the organizations and collected. These variables were filtered and subjected to cluster analysis in two stages (two-step cluster), to deal simultaneously with continuous and categorical variables. The analysis reveals two main clusters that have segmented the sample appropriately, in terms of representation and participation strategic direction. The most discriminant variables were associated with the categories of voting powers and authorized to exercise elective office, and with the existence of a deliberative and/or consultative board. The study contributes to theory by providing a better understanding of the governance arrangements, based on preferences for solution in the relationships between board, management and other internal and external stakeholders.  Also, proposing a description of the various possibilities of governance arrangements, allows other non-profit organizations to conduct a self-assessment and eventually improve their models.

D102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Law Building LAW3
Traditional Institutional Networks for Downward Accountability of NGOs: “Weapons of the weak” unexplored? Justice Nyigmah Bawole, Farhad Hossain

Panel: D102 - Reinventing Public and Non-Profit Governance

Traditional Institutional Networks for Downward Accountability of NGOs:    “Weapons of the weak” unexplored?

This paper investigates the role of local traditional institutions such as chiefs, queen mothers and youth groups (Asafo companies) play in holding NGOs accountable to local communities in which they operate in Ghana. NGOs have a tendency to be downwardly unaccountable to their local constituencies. This breeds corruption suspicion either rightly or otherwise and negatively affect the legitimacy of NGOs, their work and their donors. The reasons include that many of their beneficiaries are weakened by their particular circumstances and on their own are unable to exact accountability from them (Andrews, 2014);and that their donors who are empowered to exact accountability are remotely located making it difficult to effectively demand accountability (Dupuy, Ron, & Prakash, 2014). Although upward accountability of NGOs remains a challenge, it is the downward accountability to their beneficiaries and local partners which remains more problematic, because as Andrews (2014) has argued, the factors that promote downward accountability [of NGOs] remain unclear”. A priori assumption can be made that a network of local traditional institutions can yield significant power but they remain weak because their collective action power remains unexplored. However, the role of traditional institutional is holding NGOs accountable remains less researched. This paper seeks to: Investigate the extent to which traditional networks of local institutions contribute to downward NGO accountability. Adopting the collective action theory enables the analysis to investigate the extent to which individual stakeholders are willing to contribute efforts into holding NGOs accountable.  A qualitative research paradigm will be adopted with its appropriate research instruments including semi-structured interviews. The actors this research targets include the Regional House of Chiefs, Chiefs and other traditional institutions, the assembly members, farmers associations and women’s associations. A total of 25 interviews is planned for this project.

D102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Law Building LAW3
Replacing Care; Carving out New Professional Roles in Hospital Care Maarten Janssen, Antoinette De Bont

Relevance to the panel topic: Our paper is about the development of new professionals roles in healthcare and creates an understanding of reconfigurations between occupational roles and discusses its implications for how public healthcare services are provided. It fits best with theme 3 because it discusses the daily practice of reconfigurations of public professionalism.

 

Abstract: Occupational roles are rapidly changing in healthcare due to the introduction of new healthcare services and the introduction of new professional roles. New professionals fit within a more general trend of the replacement of care from clear-cut and well-defined professions (doctors, pharmacists, nurses) to ‘professional roles’ which encompass loosely coupled elements of education, training, skills, knowledge, experience, competences, tasks and responsibilities (Dubois and Singh 2009). In the paper we explore how individual new professionals act upon, and give shape and meaning to their new professional role. We adopt a dynamic approach towards professional role development by using the theoretical notions of ‘place’ (Creswell, 2004), instead of the often used concept of ‘professional jurisdictions’ (Abbott, 1988), and ‘job-crafting’ to examine how PAs carve out their occupational ‘place’ within the everyday context of healthcare. The notion of job-crafting allows us to analyze how the work of new professionals and the everyday interactions with other professionals, changes both the individual jobs and the place for new professionals in general. The paper builds on two ethnographic studies (observations and interviews) conducted at two different hospitals in the Netherlands; i.e. a neonatology and an emergency ward. Results will show how the PAs carve out a place in the provision of care services. We make two arguments: (1) First, we show how PAs give shape and meaning to their job through their work and how that strongly depends on the situated context of the hospital ward. (2) Second, we show that the boundaries of new professional roles are implicit and even permeable. Sometimes, these can become rather explicit when seemingly invisible medical boundaries are crossed. The paper therefore demonstrates that individuals matter in developing new professional roles; a new place for new professions is not only about shifting jurisdictions and boundaries between occupational domains.

References

Abbott, A. (1988) The system of professions: An essay on the division of expert labor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Creswell, T. (2004). Place: A short introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing

Dubois, C. A., & Singh, D. (2009). From staff-mix to skill-mix and beyond: towards a systemic approach to health workforce management. Human Resources for Health7(87), 1-19.

B104 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART3
Robust routines. The routinization of standardized work procedures in health care Marlot Kuiper

Professional organizations like hospitals face many challenges. In order to reduce complexity and improve clinical action, they focus on evidence based medicine and standardized protocols. Medical professionals hardly comply with these standards. Professionalism literature often states that professionals are ‘recalcitrant’ when it comes to change. However, the adaptation of professional work increasingly occurs from within medical practices. Professionals are aware of an organizational logic and are ‘willing to change’. Still, the profession struggles with linking new standards into work processes. Instead of focussing on well-known mechanisms that ‘hinder’ professional adaptation (e.g. socialization, specialization) that are far removed from professional agency, we focus on routinization processes to explain how medical action adapts (or not) when new standards are set. Through recurring action patterns, routines generate stability to carry out complex work, which both hinders and enables change. In an earlier study we found that besides ‘classic’ mechanisms, other factors play a crucial role in routinizing new work practices. As medical professionals face time pressures and unexpected situations when they treat individual cases in multiple and varying teams, routines are not about complying with standards in a narrow sense, but more about the competency to deviate from standards when necessary. Especially when routines are able to match situational requirements, they enact ‘institutional competency’. This is often overlooked in studies on the ‘implementation’ of standards. We build on these findings by examining the hypothesis that as work practices become more contingent, it becomes more difficult to interweave new standards into existing work processes. We present the outcomes of a comparative case study of different types of clinical practices, which include ‘time out’ and briefing standards. We analyse practices in different contexts, varying along three axes: task complexity, time pressure, and team composition. We show what ‘robust routines’ mean in each of these situations.

Key words: Professionalism, health care, clinical work, standardization, routines

 

B104 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART3
Between substitutes of leadership and leadership on demand: First results from case studies in local government organizations in Germany and Lithuania Irma Rybnikova, Rita Toleikienė, Diana Šaparnienė, Rainhart Lang

Introduction and theoretical underpinnings

Although leadership in public sector has gained some attention among researchers, previous empirical studies mainly focus on the health care system (e.g. Knies and Leising 2014), the building and research sector (e.g. Jacobsen and Andersen 2014) or police organizations, with empirical studies in local government institutions remaining quite seldom (e.g. Vermeeren et al. 2014; Vanderbeele et al. 2014: 79). Furthermore, literature on leadership in the public sector shows quite contradictory tendencies. On the one hand, there is an assumption of public administration institutions providing strong substitutes for leadership, such as formal prescriptions, procedures and hierarchical structures (e.g. Bourantas/ Papalexandris 1993). Here prevails the assumption that effects of leadership behavior on employees in local governance institutions are significantly limited. At the same time, the concept of transformational leadership has heavily attracted interest among scholars of public administration (e.g. Gabris et al. 1998, Ritz et al. 2014) and, together with it, the postulate of a high impact of leadership on employees because of visionary and transforming capacities of leaders.

Given limited research evidence and contradicting theoretical assumptions, the aim of our study is twofold. First, we will provide an empirical contribution by describing and reflecting everyday leadership practices in local government institutions; special attention will be given to the leadership practices from two different countries, Germany and Lithuania, which research participants perceived as "good" or "ethical" as well as potentially "unethical” and “bad". The second aim of the study is to explore the role of leadership substitutes in the context of local governance organizations more thoroughly (Kerr and Jermier 1978) and, at the same time, to question the relevance of substitutes by drawing on the current concept of leadership on demand proposed by Blom and Alvesson (2014).

Method

We used the theoretically informed case study approach. One case is represented by one department of local government institutions in Germany or in Lithuania. There are considerable similarities as well as differences between both countries, which make an international comparison reasonable. Since the research in Germany takes place in the region which formerly belonged to Eastern Germany, both countries represent two post-communist contexts. Despite this, in the last 25 years local government systems in both countries have undergone highly idiosyncratic transformational processes which resulted in quite different structures. Whereas there is a centralized power structure in German local government institutions with the governing mayor being the chief head of the complete institution, there is a dual power structure in communal organizations in Lithuania with the governing mayor representing the holder of the political power and the head of administration being the leader of personnel. Empirical material is based on personal interviews with heads of departments as well as their employees. Since the project team consists of persons who are native speakers of Lithuanian and German, interviews took place in the native language of participants. The following results are based on six cases in both countries.

First results

Everyday leadership practices in the local government departments studied entail both tendencies: substitutes for leadership as well as leadership on demand. The substitutes of leadership observed in interviews are quite similar in both countries; they range from high competency and professionalism of employees, autonomy on the workplace enabled by the heads of department or routines, plans and regular procedures, to the technological solutions, such as a system called “beehive”, used in the Lithuanian case studies (lt.: avilys), enabling a nearly automatic delivery of the tasks to the employees.

At the same time, there is a range of leadership practices beyond substitutes, such as information, consultation and advice provided by the heads of departments to their employees. Characteristically, such leadership behaviors are often demanded by employees or initiated by the leaders. Especially situations with ambivalent or fuzzy information, publicly relevant issues or unpredictable and new tasks requiring creative way of dealing which cannot be absorbed by the plan, routine or usual procedure, are eliciting employees’ demand for leadership. Then, employees explicitly come back to their leaders not only in order to get their advice but, in fact, to ensure political “rear cover” by the leader. Even performance controls made by the leader can be used by employees as a feedback and assertion of the rightness of their recommendations prepared. Additionally, in case of a complex task, leaders actively omit technological substitutes and assign the new task to the employees verbally instead.

First results of our study show that the implicit heroism enclosed in the concept of transformational leadership as well as the prevalence of leadership substitutes should be questioned if it comes to leadership in local government institutions. Coexistence or even dialectics between substituted and demanded leadership should be explored further by focusing on contextual, country-based as well as situational frames of everyday leadership activities.

References

Blom, M., Alvesson, M. (2014): Leadership On Demand: Followers as initiators and inhibitors of managerial leadership. In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, 30, 344-357.

Bourantas D., Papalexandris, N. (1993): Differences in leadership behaviour and influence between public and private organizacion in Greece. In: The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 4 (4), 859-871.

Gabris, G. T., Ihrke, D. M., Maclin, S. (1998): The Leadership Enigma: Toward a Model of Organizational Optimism. In: Journal of Management History, 4 (4), 334-349.

Jacobsen, C.B., Andersen, L.B. (2014): Performance Management for Academic Researchers: How Publication Command Systems Affect Individual Behavior. In: Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34 (2), 84-107.

Kerr, S., Jermier, J. M. (1978): Substitutes for Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement. In: Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 22, 375-403.

Knies, E., Leisink, P. (2014): Leadership Behavior in Public Organization: A Study of Supervisory Support by Police and Medical Center Middle Managers. In: Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34 (2), 108- 127.

Ritz, A., Giauque, D., Varone, F., Anderfuhren-Biget, S. (2014): From Leadership to Citizenship Behavior in Public Organizations: When Values Matter. In: Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34 (2), 128-152.

Vandenabeele, W., Andersen, L., B., Leisink, P. (2014): Leadership in the Public Sector: A Tale of General Principles and Particular Features. In: Review of Public Administration, 34 (2), 79- 83.

Vermeeren, B., Kuipers, B., Stein, B. (2014): Does Leadership Style Make a Difference? Linking HRM, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Performance. In: Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34 (2), 174-195.

B102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART1
Antecedents of leadership behavior in the public sector - The impact of supervisors' interest and expectations as well as co-workers' leadership behavior Dominik Vogel The proposed paper investigates the impact of supervisors' interest and expectations as well as co-workers' leadership behavior on front-line managers' leadership behavior. It uses multilevel data collected in three German public administrations.
B102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART1
Ethical leadership and unethical behavior in the Chinese public sector Gary Schwarz, Alexander Newman, Belinda Allen

One important influence that has been shown to reduce the propensity of public sector employees to resort to unethical behavior is the ethical leadership of supervisory-level employees. However, most work looking at ethical leadership has examined whether it reduces unethcial behavior among followers that has a self-serving advantage, not that which seeks to protect or promote organizational interests. The latter is known as unethical pro-organizatioanl behavior (UPB) in the literature.

As well as testing the salience of social learning theory through analyzing the influence of ethical leadership on followers' UP , the present stduy build on previous work b y examining whether followers' psychological resources attenuate the extent to which they act on the ethical guidance provided by tehir leader. We argue that although ethical leadership will reduce the propensity of followers to engage in UPB as they learn what is appropriate behavior from their leaders (a social learning process), this relationship will be conditional on the psychological capital (PsyCap) exhibted by the followers, defined as an indiviudal's positive psychological state of development which is comprising four resources or capabilities: self-efficacy, hipe, optimism and resilience. More specifically, we expect ethical leadership to have a weaker influence on UPB for follwers high in PsyCap, as such followers will be less likely to head and act upon the ethical advice given to them by their leader.

346 Chinese employees from a large Chines public sector organization comprised our sample. Data were collected in January 2014 at two time periods separated by two weeks to maintain temporal separation between our independent and dependent variables and to reduce respondent fatiuge. Data on follower job perfromance were also collected from supervisors in each work team to control for its effects on UPB. Confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression analysis shows that PsyCap did not influence an individual's UPB directly. However, ethichal leadership had an attenuating effect on UPB for public sector employees with low PsyCap.

The main contribution of our study is that it uncoverd an important boundary condition of the effect of ethical leadershp on followre's UPB. Our findings suggest that the public secto employee's PsyCap resources influence the extend to which they heed and act upon the advice proivded by an ethical leader in terms of what is approrpriate behavior int he workplace, providing support for a person-situation interactionist perspective to explain UPB.

Our findings have a number of important managerial implications. For example, for public sector employees high in Psycap, organizations might introduce incenttives for employees that do not just focus on goal achievement but also recognize the processes or mechanisms individuals use in achieving goals. This would help ensure that in their unrelenting pursuit of goal accomplishment, individuals high in PsyCap do not resort to unethical behavior.

B102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART1
Co-Production: Towards a More Precise Definition for Research Taco Brandsen, Marlies Honingh

The concept of co-production is at the crossroads between several academic disciplines, which makes it an increasingly targeted object of study. Following previous work in this field, co-production can be defined as ‘the mix of activities that both public service agents and citizens contribute to the provision of public services. The former are involved as professionals, or ‘regular producers’, while ‘citizen production’ is based on voluntary efforts by individuals and groups to enhance the quality and/or quantity of the services they use’ (Parks e.a., 1999).

 

Citizen involvement in the production of public services is an element of an emerging paradigm of public governance: services are no longer only delivered by professional and managerial staff in public agencies, but co-produced by users and communities.

 

While the research on this topic has advanced the debate considerably, there is still conceptual confusion, as well as a lack a comprehensive theoretical and systematic empirical understanding of what happens when citizens are drawn into public service provision. This results in research that is often nationally oriented or focused on one policy domain, mono-methodological and descriptive. Furthermore, current research is often scattered over different disciplinary and thematic networks. Hence the importance of developing a concerted international research agenda that is comparative, interdisciplinary, multi-methodological and explanatory.

 

This paper will argue that research cannot truly advance until it works with more precise definitions. Drawing on the literature on professionalism, volunteering and public management, it analyses different elements of the definition and works towards realising the following aims:

-       To identify the distinctive nature of co-production, as compared to voluntary and professional types of relationships:

-       On this basis, to identify different types of co-production.

-       In so doing, to lay the foundations of future comparative research.

 

D107 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART4
Public services as services: Implications for co-production Owen E Hughes <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-520092929 1073786111 9 0 415 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-AU;} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-size:11.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-AU;} @page WordSection1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} -->

Some of the discussion around co-production has involved the management of services as opposed to goods. Osborne et al (2012) argue that ‘current public management theory and practice is flawed in its over-reliance upon empirical and theoretical insights from product-dominant management theory derived primarily from the manufacturing sector;’ and that this represented a ‘fatal flaw within the NPM paradigm’ (p. 149). They argue instead for ‘an alternative approach that is drawn from service-dominant management theory’. They argue that public management has considerable gains to make by a consideration instead of the services management literature with its focus upon on-going relationships and service outcomes and an application of this to co-production.

However, Alford argues that ‘the dominance of services in co-production does not exclude the possibility that some organizations also co-produce ‘products’ (albeit to lesser extent) and raises a potential problem: to the extent that agencies co-produce both services and products, they may be caught between two facets: a service ‘logic’ and a product ‘logic’ (2013). As Alford notes further ‘Most services entail co-production, but not all of them. And most co-production is of services, but not all’ (2013). Clearly, co-production is not necessarily reserved for services only, even if it is mostly used there.

An immediate problem is that attaching co-production to services and the services literature is that this occurs at the tail-end of a time in which any kind of distinction could be made between goods and services. It is argued here that making a clear distinction between goods and services is now largely irrelevant; as services dominate economies the standard distinctions fall away and there is little to choose between them.

If what was once a clear-cut boundary between goods and services is now actually a continuum or even non-existent, there are major implications for government and public management In general. There are also implications for co-production which is a useful enough concept to stand by itself. Co-production can occur for both goods and services (to the extent there is any use in distinguishing the two) in both private and public sectors and for all kinds of reasons.

References:

Alford, John (2013) ‘The Multiple facets of co-production: Building on the work of Elinor Ostrom’ Public Management Review

Osborne, S., Radnor, Z. and Nasi, G. (2012) ‘A New Theory for Public Service Management? Toward a Public Service-Dominant Approach’ American Review of Public Administration, 43:2 pp. 135–58.

D107 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART4
The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Internal Communication – Identifying Contextual Conditions Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen, Christian Bøtcher Jacobsen

Although communication is a crucial aspect of transformational leadership (Bass and Riggio 2006:112) empirical research on this topic is relatively limited. Related to the communicative performance of the individual leader we know that transformational leaders produce stronger visions compared to their transactional peers (Berson, Shamir, Avolioa and Popper 2001). On the organizational level previous research has identified that transformational leadership has an indirect effect upon perceptions of red tape through the relationship between transformational leadership and an organization’s internal communication climate (Moynihan, Wright and Pandey 2012).

The ambition of this paper is to contribute to this impeding literature on transformational leadership and communication on the organizational level by investigating whether the relationship between transformational leadership and internal communication differs across contexts? And if so which contextual factors condition this relationship? The leadership literature has suggested that the mode of governance can be important for the effectiveness of transformational leadership (e.g. Bass, 1997) and Shamir and Howell suggested that transformational leadership effects are more likely in clan modes of governance than in bureaucratic modes of governance (Shamir and Howell, 1999: 271). However, this proposition remains largely unexplored, why we first investigate whether the strength of the relationship between transformational leadership and internal communication differs across modes of governance. Second, the effect of transformational leadership on internal communication is likely to depend on the leader’s position in the hierarchy, meaning that higher order leaders may have a broader but weaker impact on organizational outcomes (Avolio, 2004). Finally, many have contended on the potential heterogeneous effects of sector, but there is actually remarkably little evidence on the effects of leadership in private and public settings respectively (Moynihan et al., 2012). We will therefore third investigate whether the effect on transformational leadership on internal communication differs across the two sectors.

The empirical analysis is based upon survey data from 575 public and private managers and 2,288 of their employees as part of a larger experimental study investigating the effect of leadership and performance (the LEAP project). Preliminary findings support our expectations, and thereby contribute to our understanding of how transformational leadership works, and how its effectiveness varies across settings.

Bass, B.M. (1997). Does the transactional–transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American Psychologist 52 (2): 130-39.

Bass, B. M. and Riggio, R. E. (2006) Transformational Leadership, 2. Eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Berson, Y, Shamir, B., Avolioa, B. J. and Popper; M. (2001) The relationship between vision strength, leadership style and context, The Leadership Quarterly 2:53-73.

Katz, D. and Kahn, L. (1966) The Social Psychology of Organizations. New York:Wiley.

Moynihan, D. P., Wright, B. E. and Pandey, S. K. (2012)) Working Within Constraints: Can Transformational Leaders Alter the Experience of Red Tape, International Public Management Journal, 15(3): 315-336.

Pandey, S. K. and Garnette, J. L. (2006) Exploring Public Sector Communication Performance: Testing a Model and Drawing Implications. Public Administration Review 66(1): 37-52.

Shamir, B. and J. M. Howell (1999), Organizational and contextual influences on the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leadership, The Leadership Quarterly 10 (2): 257-283.

B102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART1
Taking Leader and Employee Reports Seriously: Exploring the Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Job Satisfaction with Polynomial Regression and Response Surface Analysis Ulrich Thy Jensen, Christian Bøtcher Jacobsen

Research on public leadership draws extensively on studies from related disciplines like business administration and psychology. An important observation in these studies is that leaders’ self-ratings of leadership oftentimes differ from those of their employees (e.g., Atwater et al. 2005; Bass and Yammarino 2008) and that these discrepancies are meaningfully related to employee attitudes and organizational outcomes (e.g., Takleab et al. 2008; Ostroff et al. 2004). Yet, research on public leadership has largely ignored this observation drawing only on leader or employee reports or including statistical means to control for one or the other. In this paper, we argue that we nuance our understanding of the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction when we include both leader and employee reports and consider their joint effects.

Transformational leadership entails behaviors seeking to develop, share, and sustain a vision with the intention to facilitate that employees transcend their own self-interest and achieve organizational goals. While the vision is the key lever for transformational leaders to stimulate job satisfaction, providing a set of goals that are meaningful to employees is crucial for their success. Employees adopting organizational goals as their own are more likely to see their work as significant and as a contribution to the achievement of desired outcomes, finding greater satisfaction from their work in general. We therefore expect an additive relationship implying that job satisfaction increases as leader and employee transformational leadership ratings are in agreement and increase. On the other hand, we expect job satisfaction to be lower as leader and employee reports differ. In particular, it may be detrimental to employee job satisfaction if leaders perceive themselves to enact transformational leadership behaviors, but the employees do not.

Combining survey responses from 143 school principals and their 3,126 teachers, we use polynomial regression with surface response analysis. This method, which is largely overlooked in public management research, enables us to examine how combinations of leader and employee ratings of transformational leadership relate to employee job satisfaction in a three-dimensional graph (Shanock et al. 2010). We find that employee job satisfaction increases as both leader and employee perceptions of transformational leadership increase. Our results also show a sharper decrease in job satisfaction as discrepancy between leader and employee perceptions of transformational leadership increase. Importantly, the direction reveals that the more the leaders’ perception of their own level of transformational leadership exceeds that of their employees, the lower job satisfaction is.

Our study has implications for practice and research. First, our results indicate that transformational leadership can be a lever for increasing employee job satisfaction, but that it is very important for leaders not to overestimate their own use of these behaviors. Second, we believe that the approach adopted in our study holds great potential for many research questions in public leadership and public management research.

 

Note: If accepted for presentation, the authors wish to be included in the methodology track and to be considered for the ’best paper’ award.

 

References:

Atwater, L. E., Waldman, D., Ostroff, C., Robie, C., & Johnson, K. M. 2005. “Self-other agreement: Comparing its relationship with performance in the U.S and Europe”. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13: 25-40

Bass, B. M, & Yammarino, F. J. 2008. “Congruence of Self and Others' Leadership Ratings of Naval Officers for Understanding Successful Performance”. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 40: 437-54.

Ostroff, C., Atwater, L. E., & Feinberg, B. J. 2004. “Understanding self-other agreement: A look at rater and ratee characteristics, context, and outcomes”. Personnel Psychology, 57: 333-75.

Shanock, L. R., Baran, B. E., Gentry, W. A., Pattison, S. C., & Heggestad, E. D. 2010. “Polynomial Regression with Response Surface Analysis: A Powerful Approach for Examining Moderation and Overcoming Limitations of Difference Scores”. Journal of Business Psychology, 25: 543-54.

Tekleab, A. M., Sims, Jr., H. P., Yun, S., Tesluk, P. E., & Cox, J. 2008. “Are We On the Same Page? Effects of Self-Awareness of Empowering and Transformational Leadership”. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14 (3): 185-201.
B102 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART1
Who Guards the Guardians?: Governance and Regulation of NGOs in Bangladesh Noore Alam Siddiquee Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Bangladesh have witnessed extensive growth in size and influence. With growing involvement in poverty alleviation and social development   coupled with their advocacy for the weak and marginalised, NGOs have effectively become ‘guardians’ of the poor and other disadvantaged groups in the society. Having witnessed its role gradually being diminished in such areas, the government of Bangladesh has not only supported NGO operations, in many cases it has forged partnerships with them in pursuit of common goals. This, together with liberal policy framework in place, has facilitated further expansion of NGOs enabling them to get involved in numerous non-traditional activities. While NGOs are lauded for their contribution to poverty alleviation, social development and women’s empowerment, among others, they have  hardly escaped criticisms and controversies.  This is due mainly to the fact that on the one hand, they are not subject to same provisions of checks as public bureaucracies and the market, on the other hand, they handle increased volume of funds -both from local and international sources. Second, in recent times NGOs have emerged as a powerful actor in the political scene. Besides assuming increasingly political roles shaping public policies and life of communities, they have also earned prominence for strong voices in support of democratisation, fighting corruption, advancing human rights and establishing good governance. Such prominence and power of NGOs has given rise to a plethora of questions: who guards the guardians? Do NGOs practice what they preach? To what extent are they subject to governmental control and oversight?  Such questions have assumed an added significance in the context of widespread allegations against the majority of NGOs for poor internal management, financial irregularities, lack of accountability and transparency in operations, to name a few. Also, there are instances of marginalized people falling victim to fraud and deceit by dubious NGOs. It is against this backdrop that the present paper aims to examine the current state of NGO governance and regulation in Bangladesh. In particular, it seeks to show the extent to which current system of regulation and oversight, especially from the state, is adequate. It argues that while significant progress has been made towards the development of regulatory framework and institutional measures, yet the current approach suffers from significant inadequacies and pitfalls.  The legal framework has failed to keep pace with the developments and emerging realities of NGOs, the institutional mechanisms developed are far from robust failing to effectively monitor and control the ever-expanding NGO sector. I101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART8
State – third sector partnerships: a short overview of key issues in the debate Ingo Bode, Taco Brandsen

The theme of partnership with the third sector has been on the agenda of public management research for a long time now. As an introduction to a planned special issue on this topic, the paper discusses two issues crucial to further study of this phenomenon. The first on the types or categories that can be distinguished when comparing these partnerships between countries or policy fields; the second how recent public management reforms (especially of the New Public Management variety) have affected the nature of third sector organisations and their role in relation to the state.

D101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Nuffield Building NUF2
AUTONOMY AND GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS: An investigation in a Taiwan sample Kuo-Tai Cheng

1. Introduction

The prediction of autonomy and others governance mechanisms related to regulatory performance are of interest for the regulation and regulatory governance researchers and many regulatory decision-makings are based on measures of constructs such as accountability, transparency (Lodge, 2004), clarity of roles, participation, independence (Stern, 1997), and autonomy (Berg, 2000; K. T. Cheng, 2013; L. H. Gutierrez & Berg, 2000; L.H. Gutierrez, 2003; Stern, 2007; Stern & Holder, 1999). However, the predictive validity of these governance mechanisms showed important differences. For example, Gilardi (2002) develops an independence index to measure agency independence, divided in five dimensions (status of agency head and board members, relationship with government and parliament, financial and organisational autonomy and regulatory competencies). Starting with the study of Gilardi, Johannsen (2003) measures the formal independence of the members of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER). Moreover, Maggetti (2006) studies on control and autonomy and develops a framework to conceptualize and assess the de facto independence of IRAs through two dimensions: the relationship between the agency and the political decision-makers and the relationship between the agency and the regulatees. On the other hand, there are currently many cumulative summaries that allow concluding that some governance mechanisms are relevant variables for predicting and explaining the institutional and legal design of the regulatory governance and the framework within which decision are made (Berg, 2000; K. T. Cheng, 2013; L. H. Gutierrez & Berg, 2000; L.H. Gutierrez, 2003; Stern, 2007; Stern & Holder, 1999). For example, Correa, Pereia, Mueller, and Melo (2006) provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of regulatory governance infrastructure industries in Brazil. Moreover, by adopting almost the same GMs as Stern and Holder, Gutierrez (2003) constructs a regulatory framework index to assess the evolution of regulatory governance in the Latin American Telecommunications sector. Meanwhile, according to the National Economic Research Associates (1998) and Stern and Holder (1999), to achieve more effective regulatory governance, the main features of a regulatory agency should be autonomy, accountability, clarity of roles and objectives, transparency, and participation. However, the predictive validity of these governance mechanisms showed important differences(K. T. Cheng, 2013). Using the different aspects mentioned, these previous studies explain how governance mechanisms of regulatory agencies have been assessed in different sectors and in different countries. Research on the regulatory governance mechanism has been evolved and changed. Therefore, several questions arise when we examine this literature, there is clear overlap amongst the concepts of governance mechanisms or autonomy discussed above, but some of the classifications differ with respect to their focus on the most relevant aspect of autonomy or governance mechanisms.

Regulatory studies have now empirical evidence about the criterion validity of accountability, independence, clarity of roles and objectives, transparency, and participation. We also know the multivariate validity of the combinations of governance mechanisms with regulation, such as accountability, clarity of roles and objectives, transparency, independence, and participation. Moreover, autonomy refers not only to the design and implementation of policy but also to the personnel management (Pollitt, Talbot, Caulfield, & Smullen, 2005). While Stern and Holder (1999) argued that autonomy from political intervention (which will be easier to achieve if there is a clear statement of regulators’ objectives) will help to ensure that regulators are free to carry out their functions in the way they consider best satisfies their stated objectives, and their performance should be judged solely on this basis. Autonomy, and consequently the reduced likelihood of regulatory decisions being politically motivated, should certainly enhance the predictability of regulated industries, as well as promoting accountability and transparency (as regulators alone will be answerable for their decisions) (Stern & Holder, 1999). The adoption of a more autonomous agency model by regulatory agencies reduces the need for control from central ministries (Christensen & Laegreid, 2004, 2007), as they increase the credibility of their policies (Majone, 1999). At the same token, Levy and Spiller (1996) offer an effective institutional design of regulatory agency: the degree of independence of the judiciary; the long-term credibility of legislation and the ease with which primary laws can be enacted; the scope for flexibility without arbitrariness in the regulatory process; and the level of administrative competence. The focus of the Levy and Spiller paper is the risks from and the need to avoid having a regulatory agency who is too independent and has too much autonomy. In sum, it can be argued that IRAs with autonomy raise the complex trade-off between political control and agency autonomy in the dual process of deregulation and reregulation. However, independence or/and autonomy has been always considered as one of the key assessing governance mechanism (GM) of regulatory governance in an independent regulatory agency (IRA). At present, the relationship between autonomy and governance mechanisms in Taiwan remains unexplored. This is a relevant issue because many regulatory decision-makings are based on three or more governance mechanisms and, therefore, it is necessary to know the correlation amongst these governance mechanisms. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine the relationship amongst autonomy and governance mechanisms.

2. Method

2.1 Sample

The study adopted a cross-sectional approach using a large-scale questionnaire survey in Taiwan (N = 2678). The survey was administered to a random sample of the entire organization. Participants from seven utility sectors in two infrastructure relevant ministries (Ministry of transportation and communications, MOTC, and Ministry of Economic Affairs, MOEA), heterogeneous sectors are recruited, including: Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA), Chunghwa Post (CHP), Taiwan Power Company (TPC), CPC Corporation, Taiwan(CPC), Taiwan Sugar Corporation (TSC), Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC), Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC). Participants were contacted through their line managers accordingly. Questionnaires were distributed in booklet form, along with a cover-letter assuring anonymity and voluntary participation.

The commonly used standard of 3 percent sampling error and 95 percent confidence level requires a sample of 1067 units (O'Sulivan & Rassel, 1989). The sample consisted of 2678 utility employees (1186 from MOTC and 1492 from MOEA), 1106 males and 1572 females from seven service utilities. Data were obtained during a concurrent test validation project. Prior to testing, all participants were given a letter containing a brief explanation of the purpose of the study (i.e., test validation) and a research statement ensuring the confidentiality of their individual test results. Immediately after testing, participants completed a regulatory governance mechanism questionnaire, a short demographic form requesting background information.

I101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART8
Volunteering through governments as a governmental technique: capturing its social-political significance Els De Waele, Lesley Hustinx

Recently, new developments regarding volunteering have been signaled in the academic literature. One of these developments concerns a growing trend of government intervention in the field of volunteering6,1,5,3,2. In one expression of this trend, volunteer work is increasingly being used by government institutions as an instrument to develop active citizenship in socially excluded individuals2. In practice, then, public benefit agencies refer welfare recipients to volunteer in organizations in the public or the third sector in an attempt to re-integrate them. The volunteering which results from this practice can be considered to be ‘volunteering through governments’ (VtG). The emergence of VtG is predominantly framed in the academic debate as an answer to the widely held conviction of increasing individualization and declining civic-mindedness3,2. Yet, when VtG is placed against the background of the wider social-political tendencies which are currently at play in modern welfare regimes, it becomes clear that this phenomenon is part of fundamental changes in the present day social-political relations. We argue that under these changing social-political conditions, VtG presents itself as a governmental technique4 aimed at the creation of active/affective citizens.
In our paper, then, we aim to answer following research questions: (1) What does VtG entail as a governmental technique?; and (2) What is the social-political significance of VtG as a governmental technique?
We study VtG in the case of the Belgian Public Centers for Social Welfare (PCSW); a public benefit agency which has as its core task the realization of the right to social integration of welfare recipients. Based on an analysis of the way VTG is framed in internal documents and in interviews with key figures of the PCSW, we aim to make a critical evaluation of the specific state – third sector partnership VtG fosters.

References

1 Haski-Leventhal, D., Meijs, L.C.P.M., & Hustinx, L. (2009). The third-party model: enhancing volunteering through governments, corporations and educational institutes. Journal of Social Policy, 39(1): 139-158).

2 Hustinx, L. & Meijs, L. (2011). Re-embedding volunteering: in search of a new collective ground. Voluntary Sector Review, 2(1): 5-21.

3 Hustinx, L. (2010). Institutionally individualized volunteering: towards a late modern re-construction. Journal of Civil Society, 6(2): 165-179.

4 Rose, N. & Miller, P. (2010). Political power beyond the state: problematics of government. The British Journal of Sociology, 61(s1): 271-303.

5 Strickland, A. (2010). Recent developments in volunteering and citizenship. Voluntary Sector Review, 1(2): 253-258.

6 van Hal, T., Meijs, L., & Steenbergen, M. (2004). Volunteering and participation on the agenda: Survey on volunteering policies and partnerships in the European Union. Utrecht: CIVIQ.

D101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Nuffield Building NUF2
After Big Society: changing state and third sector relations in the UK Peter Alcock

 

The first decade of the new century saw a major shift in state and third sector relations in the UK – described  by Kendall as ‘hyperactive mainstreaming’ it included much close links between the state and major sector agencies and unprecedented levels of public investment in third sector organisations. Since 2010, in a changed political and economic context, this closer engagement has been largely reversed. Support for the sector has been cutback and replaced by an expectation that that third sector organisations will operate as alternative to public support rather than a partner in it – referred to by the Prime Minister as the creation of a Big Society. However, the Big Society has not proved successful either in political or policy terms, and has more recently been largely abandoned by the UK government. And, although state support for the sector has been cut back, there has been policy support for new forms of investment in organisations and for their increased involvement in the market-based delivery of public services. This has had contradictory implications for third sector organisations who, on the one hand have been expected to reject past partnership relations with the state, and yet on the other hand have been encouraged to become more active players in the marketization of public services.  Since 2000, however, third sector policy in the UK has been devolved to the separate administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland; and here state and third relations have not always followed the English model being promoted at Westminster.

D101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Nuffield Building NUF2
How do learning moments influence the organizational socialization of Dutch veterinarian inspectors? A qualitative longitudinal study Daphne van Kleef, Carina Schott, Trui Steen

Entering a new organization or job is always surrounded by feelings of uncertainty for the individual. The need to reduce these feelings of uncertainty and become part of the organization stimulates employees to look for information that can answer their questions regarding organizational expectations. This process is referred to as organizational socialization which is defined as “the process through which individuals acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors required to adapt to a new work role” (Wanberg, 2012). An positive outcome of this process can make the collaboration between colleagues more efficient and effective, thereby guaranteeing the organization’s continuity and performance. As can be deduced, both the organization and individual have an interest in effective organizational socialization. Therefore, we see in the literature that organizational socialization can be instigated from both the side of the organization and the individual.

However this raises the question how this process develops, in other words where do organization and individual meet? Phase models of organizational socialization are criticized for among other things neglecting how transitions take place and depicting the socialization process as linear. Although these models still provide useful insights, not much attention has been paid to address these criticisms (Ashforth et al, 2007; Bauer, Morrison, & Callister, 1998; Morrison, 1993; Van Maanen & Schein, 1979). In this paper, we will try to match the What, Where, How, Who of learning moments taking place during the socialization process with these different phases (anticipation, encounter, adjustment, and stabilization) of organizational socialization. Next, we seek if there is a link between the learning moments and their characteristics, and changes in the attitude and perceptions of professionals regarding their job and the organization as these are indicators of adjustment and stabilization.

In this research, we use a longitudinal design. A cohort of 14 newly appointed Dutch veterinarian inspectors was interviewed a first time just before they started working for the Dutch Food safety services, and interviewed a second time after they had been working as veterinarian inspectors for half a year. From this group we analyze the circa 30 learning moments identified, and the changes in their perceptions and attitudes. This case is especially interesting for different reasons. First, veterinarian inspectors have a strong professional identity as veterinarians. However, since veterinarian principles at times contrast with principles of the Dutch food safety services, effective socialization is of great importance to the organization. Second, most research in the socialization literature is focused on employees that work within the actual ‘physical’ organization for which they work. Recent changes in society have caused a shift from working at the office to working at other more flexible places. As veterinarian inspectors work outside the physical organization on a daily basis, this case can help provide insight in how encounters with external actors influence socialization, positively or negatively.

B107 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART9
Learning From Culture: Exploring the Socialization Process in Public Sector Organisation in Pakistan Sammar Abbas, Manuela Nocker, Zeeshan Zaib Khattak

This is an exploratory study, which aims at uncovering the patterns of socialization process in a large public sector organisation.  This study has been carried out in four different cities (Dera Ismail Khan, Peshawar, Lahore, and Islamabad) of Pakistan. These four cities are different from each other in terms of their local culture and local gender practices. This is quite significant for this study. The empirical findings of the study are very much grounded in the local cultural practices.  The fieldwork was spread over a period of eight months and data was collected through fifty unstructured interviews (with both male and female employees), filed observation, filed notes, and filed memos. For the purpose of analysis constant comparison method, along with coding scheme, was used. Data collection and data analysis were carried out simultaneously, as recommended for grounded theorists.  This procedure helped to reveal the patterns of socialization process of both male and female employees in a public sector organisation. The empirical findings revealed that local culture is very much important to inform the socialization process in public sector organisation. Employees get themselves engage in their organisation roles without distancing themselves from the norms and values of their local culture. It was also explored that it is the local culture which defines patterns of organizational lives of employees. Also, there are not defined procedures and policies, aiming to socialize the employees with organizational life, but employees learn many of the organizational practices and values through their culture. This study is important in understanding the socialization process in public sector organizations in Pakistan. Along with this, the study can be helpful in devising the strategies to build conducive workplace environment and also in identifying the grey areas, which need attention, for better socialization of employees.

 

Key Words: Organisational Socialization; Gendered Practices, Culture

B107 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART9
Local Public Enterprises and Debt Limitations: Evidence from the Italian Context Silvia Pazzi

This paper investigates whether local governments use  local public enterprises to circumvent debt limitation. Over the last decades local governments has externalised public services through different modes, namely from contracting out to the creation of local enterprises in order to improve public services efficiency and cope with constrains in financial resources (Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2011, Pina and Torres, 2002; Crediop, 2004). However, empirical evidence in Europe and in other parts of the world, such the USA, demonstrated that the creation of local enterprises was triggered by overcoming debt limits (von Hagen and Wolff, 2006; Bourdeaux, 2005; Bunch, 1991). This research tests the “circumvent hypothesis” in the Italian context. To this end, a five-year panel data from Italian municipalities with population above 50,000 is used. Control variables include geographical location and political orientation.

G101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART6
Fighting Corruption Inside the Public Administration: The Results of Training Servants to Conduct Disciplinary Investigations Temístocles Murilo Oliveira Júnior, Joel de Lima Pereira Castro Júnior, Francisco Belmiro Werneck Magalhães

Since 2004 the Brazilian Government has implemented an anticorruption policy based on the increment of punishment actions on bureaucracy agents[1]. One of these actions refers to a program of training servants to realize disciplinary investigations. The Brazilian Law determines that the administrative punishments only can be applied after investigations conducted by commissions composed by servants appointed by a correctional authority. For the application of expulsive punishments, the Law also determines that such must be decided by Ministers after analysis of the Office of the Attorney General (AGU)[2]. According to official information, this program has reached its goals: 11.565 servants were trained between 2004 and 2013 and the amount of expulsive punishments increased 97.02% in this same period[3].  These data seem to be insufficient to demonstrate the effectiveness[4]. Is there another way? In Brazil, the punished servants can request the Judiciary to examine the regularity of a punishment. So the Judiciary can annul punishments that are unreasonable or applied after improper investigations[5]. If there are more well-trained servants to compose commissions, it may have been a decrease in proportion between the amount of expulsive punishments annulled by the Judiciary caused by errors of commissions and the amount of requests of servants to the Judiciary to examine their punishments. This paper investigates the performance of this program from the data of Judiciary decisions related to these requests. The results demonstrate an average decrease of 2% per year to the annulments caused by errors of commissions, but also show that there was no improvement related to the amount of annulments caused by errors of correctional authorities, AGU or Ministers.


[1] Oliveira Júnior, T. M., & Mendes, A. P. (2014). Corrupção e Combate à Corrupção no Brasil: Abordagens e Limitações. Anais do XXXVIII EnANPAD. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Anpad.

[2] Controladoria-Geral da União. (2014a). Manual de Processo Administrativo Disciplinar. Accessed on Sep. 1st 2014, available at CGU Website: http://www.cgu.gov.br/Publicacoes/atividade-disciplinar/arquivos/manualpad.pdf.

[3] Controladoria-Geral da União. (2014b). Formação de membros de Comissão e demais Agentes que Atuam na Área. Accessed on Sep. 1st 2014, available at CGU Website: http://www.cgu.gov.br/Publicacoes/atividade-disciplinar/arquivos/slides.pdf; Controladoria-Geral da União. (2014c). Relatório de Gestão Exercício 2013. Acesso em 1 de Sep. de 2014, disponível em CGUWebsite: http://www.cgu.gov.br/sobre/auditorias/arquivos/2013/relatorio_gestao_cgu_2013.pdf.

[4] Lustosa da Costa, F. J., & Castanhar, J. C. (2003). Avaliação de programas públicos: desafios conceituais e metodológicos. Revista de Administração Pública, 37(5), pp. 969-992; Oliveira Júnior, T. M., Jordão, C. S., & Castro Júnior, J. P. (2014). Transparência, monitoramento e avaliação de programas no Brasil: em busca de opacidades que podem restringir o exercício do controle social. Revista do Serviço Público, 65(1), 25-47.

[5] Controladoria-Geral da União. (2014a). Manual de Processo Administrativo Disciplinar. Accessed on Sep. 1st 2014, available at CGU Website: http://www.cgu.gov.br/Publicacoes/atividade-disciplinar/arquivos/manualpad.pdf.

G101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART6
Transparency lost? Full cost accounting reporting in the Swedish municipal solid waste business Mattias Haraldsson

The aim of this study is to explore if major public sector institutional and management reforms (corporatization, externalization, cooperation and deregulation) influence public sector financial accounting and disclosure practices. This focus is motivated by the claim that recent reforms have made municipal service delivery more diversified and fragmented with possibly a negative effect on transparency and accountability. The aim was empirically explored within the context of the Swedish municipal waste management sector. The results indicates that, at least in the Swedish municipal waste management sector, some major institutional and management reforms (regionalization and deregulation) negatively influence the possibility of an accountability mechanism, since the reform measures are associated with lower probability of observing an account for the execution of the public waste management mission in accordance with the cost price principle. However, the reforms investigated seem not to influence the overall transparency; it was rather influenced by the external pressure from stakeholders. The implication of the study is that reforms introduce complexity, conflict and different institutional influences and the challenge is to develop accountability models which enable and preserve the benefits of reform initiatives without losing transparency and accountability.

G101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART6
TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY REFORMS IN TURKISH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Süleyman Sözen

In the first decade of the new millennium, in line with democratization process Turkey has introduced significant reforms aiming at improving transparency and accountability of public administration. Among them, the introduction of the Law on the Right to Information in 2003, the establishment of the Ethics Committee for Civil Servants in 2004, the establishment of Ombudsman institution in 2012 and the establishment of the Human Rights Institution of Turkey in 2012 can be mentioned.

The main purpose of this paper is to explain such reform experiments and then discuss their implications for Turkish public administration.

I101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART8
Oil and Development in Developing Countries: Promoting Social Accountability in Ghana's Oil Sector Frank Ohemeng, Augustina Adusah-Karikari

The discovery and production of oil in Ghana has raised, and perhaps continues to raise, the hopes of many Ghanaians for national development. In addition to opportunities, however, the production of oil presents a number of challenges that, if not skilfully addressed, may turn hope into despair. Illustrative examples abound on the African continent, as well as in other developing countries. In fact, it was the failure of natural resource development to benefit citizens in those countries that produced the now notorious expression, “the resource curse”.

It has been amply acknowledged that the Government of Ghana (GoG) is keenly aware of the potential “curse or blessing” that oil reserves represent. It has also been acknowledged that while proven reserves of oil and gas place Ghana well below the production potential of Nigeria, Angola, or Equatorial Guinea, revenues to the GoG could be as much as 10% of its national budget by the end of the 2013-2017 period: which could help in Ghana’s development. In short, if this sector is properly -- and transparently -- developed, it could be a transformational moment in Ghana’s history. Failure, conversely, could generate a scenario with the potential to unravel the tremendous political, economic, and social gains made so far. The decisions being made now regarding how to manage the development of oil and, perhaps, other natural resources will shape Ghana’s future in the world community.

In the past couple of years, and since the discovery of oil, attention has consistently been paid to such issues as the development of a framework for the management of oil revenue, short-term workforce development and training for key staff in the ministries and national companies, assistance in managing oil and gas expectations to realistic levels, and support to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Western Region that provide goods and services to an industry with some of the highest international standards. The fundamental idea is to avoid the resource curse that continues to afflict many natural resource-rich countries in the developing world.

To avoid that curse, and manage oil revenue for the overall development of the country, since 2010 various laws and regulations have been passed. They include the Petroleum Revenue Management Act (PRMA) 2010, the Petroleum Exploration and Production Bill 2010, Petroleum Income Tax PNDC Law 188, Environmental Assessment Regulation 1999, and the Ghana Model Petroleum Agreement. These Acts and regulations evidence the fact that the main policy for managing oil revenue is the PRMA. The Act provides the framework for effective collection, allocation, and management of petroleum revenue in a responsible, transparent, and accountable manner for the benefit of all Ghanaians. It also sets up the various institutions to manage the revenue accruing from oil, and oversight bodies for effective monitoring and accountability.

While the Act was prepared with significant input from civil society groups, in our opinion it neglects the involvement of communities and other local civil society groups in ensuring accountability in the utilization of revenue for development. How can the government ensure accountability in the disbursement and use of oil revenue for development in the country? Drawing on social accountability theory, we argue that the lack of involvement of local civil society groups in ensuring accountability of revenues to the various communities for developments in this important sector is a serious oversight. This is especially so when the discovery of oil has been hailed as the end of poverty and of the lack of development in poor communities, especially those in the catchment areas.

 

 

 

 

I101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART8
School Business: the Academies Programme Anne Stafford, Pamela Stapleton

This paper identifies the scale of the English Academies programme, examines the changes it brings to the funding, management, control and organisation of schools and investigates the impact on public accountability. It uses a political economy perspective, drawing on a blend of agency and stakeholder theory, to show how monitoring, governance and accountability processes have changed as schools have become quasi-businesses. The role of key individuals has become substantially redefined as head teachers become accounting officers directly responsible to parliament and school governors become non-executive directors. The loss of control over revenue spending in schools by local government means that the traditionally close and personalised monitoring of schools has disappeared. This shift from schools as education providers to schools as businesses indicates a loss of public accountability, a failure of governance in some schools – especially those in areas of socio-economic deprivation, schools with serious deficits, or even scandal. But most significantly these reforms pave the way for more private sector involvement in education. Internationally there is growing private involvement in the delivery of state-funded education, raising concerns about public accountability of taxpayers’ money. This paper provides evidence of how changes in the English school system fit into this global trend.

Key words: public accountability, agency, stakeholders, Academies, schools, education, governance, privatization

G101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART6
PPP equity sales – accounting for profiteering? Dexter Whitfield, Stewart Smyth

There is an extensive, although not exhaustive, literature that analyzes accounting issues related to the use of private finance in delivering public infrastructure assets. Variously known as PFI, PPP, PF2 or P3, these projects have been assessed and critiqued for a lack of transparency; poor value for money for the taxpayer; inappropriate and/or limited risk transfer; a reduction in public accountability, and excessive gain-making on debt refinancing.

To this point very little attention has been focused on the role or accounting for equity transactions in PPP projects. When a PPP is created a special purpose company (SPC) is set up to deliver the asset and any related soft services (e.g. maintenance). Traditionally this SPC is highly geared with 85 – 90 per cent of the total finance in the form of debt. The remainder (10-15 per cent) is equity from the private sector partners to the PPP project. In the past decade, there has been an increased amount of activity in the form of sales of this equity.

This paper builds on the earlier work of the European Services Strategy Unit (ESSU) and using data from a freely available database, collated by the ESSU, on PPP equity transactions between 1998 and 2012, calculates an accounting rate of return that averages over 25 per cent per annum. This is significant for a number of reasons.

First, a variety of accounting-based rates of return have been calculated with the main aim to show that private sector partners are not profiteering from the sale of equity in PPP special purpose companies (e.g. the National Audit Office report in 2012).

Second, the issue of profiteering brings into question the original value for money calculations that were used as the basis on which to favour PPP over the more traditional public sector procurement route.

Third, in times of an endless austerity agenda any excessive profitmaking on PPP equity transactions is ultimately paid for from the public purse, as the SPCs have no other source of income. This is a further example of money leaking from taxpayers through PPPs to the shareholders of private companies.

The relevance of this paper is that it shows how accounting has been used to obfuscate the nature of PPP projects; first through a lack of transparency and second by the careful manipulation of PPP accounting returns by state oversight and bodies to give the impression that profiteering is not occurring. More broadly, the paper raises questions about the most appropriate method to use when calculating annual rates of return on equity transactions.
G101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART6
Resocialization of Managers: A Social Network Study of Managerial Role Transitions Hyun Hee Park, Deneen Hatmaker

Previous literature on socialization has focused on newcomers to an organization but has paid little attention to individuals newly promoted to management (Chao, O’Leary-Kelly, Wolf, Klein, & Gardner, 1994). However, since new managers assume greater responsibilities than individual contributors, the stress caused by a promotion can be higher than when joining a new organization in a lateral position (Hill & Somers, 1988). The managerial transition may involve a complex and demanding process. Then, how are new managers socialized to their new roles? What role do their interpersonal relationships with existing organizational members play in making a smooth transition to their new position and crafting their role and competencies as a “good” manager? This paper is to examine the challenges that new managers undergo as they transition to their new position.

 

To examine the process of managers’ role transition over time, we have constructed a longitudinal dataset using multiple methods. The sample consists of 22 managers across 8 regional offices of a state agency who were newly promoted to supervisory or management positions. Six waves of egocentric social network survey data and five waves of semi-structured interview data were collected between October 2006 and May 2010. For each wave we collected egocentric network data for four types of networks offering instrumental and social support. The paper will begin with a review of the relevant literature and a discussion ofour research methods. We present findings based on our analysis of the social network data, supplemented by findings from the qualitative interview data. We conclude the paper with implications for research and for public organizations and new public managers.

B107 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART9
Bridging the Interface between Globalization and Local Strategic Management: Bridging the Interface between Globalization and Local Strategic Management: Mid-Sized Cities and the Crisis of Industrial Restructuring Charles Conteh

The main objective of the proposed paper is to investigate the economic resilience and adaptability of mid-sized cities in the face of structural changes in the global economy. Focusing on Canada and the United States for comparative analysis, the study will argue that the imperatives of the twenty-first century’s knowledge-driven economy require a rethinking of local economic development policy governance in multilevel governance systems. First, it makes a case for policy alignment across levels of government through the development of frameworks of policy governance that give a central importance to “local spaces,” not only as a geographic but also as an institutional construct. Second, it makes the proposition that local policy governance mechanisms need to emphasize building strategic alliances among a wide range of public and non-governmental actors in implementing policies in highly politicized environments.

The paper will advance these arguments by integrating the distinct but parallel literature on strategic management, multilevel governance, organization theory, and the new public governance. The central concern shared by these four research traditions is about how government organizations interact with their external environments in the development and implementation of policies.  A critical ingredient of this integrated approach is its emphasis on locally embedded and integrated processes of strategic visioning, planning, and implementation aimed at local economic resilience and adaptation.

This integrated framework will provide a rich conceptual toolkit for addressing the central objectives of this research, namely, analysing the strategies and programs of municipal agencies and their network of policy partners tasked with managing local economic development in Canadian and US cities. The implications of the discussion extend far beyond North America as cities around the world are mobilizing their key assets to confront the challenges and exploit the opportunities of global economic restructuring.

C101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART5
Planning reforms, valuation cultures and the changing practices of local governance Emma Street

This paper considers the effects of recent reforms to the UK planning system on the governance of highly controversial and politically-sensitive issues such as the provision of local infrastructure, services and goods (including affordable housing), and the quality and nature (including heights and massing) of new development schemes. Planning reforms have been operationalised in and through a wider process of financialisation that, for Lilley and Papadopolous (2014: 974), has installed a powerful logic or 'culture of (financial) valuation' where 'the worth of goods, things, activities and spaces can be essentially translated into financial evaluations'. This paper considers 1) how this valuation culture maps on to the political articulation of planning reforms as part of a local empowerment (localism) agenda that, since the downturn of 2009, has been rooted in a wider 'crisis politics' (Dowling and Harvie, 2014); and 2) explores the implication of the culture(s) of valuation as governed at the local (urban) scale. The discussion is based upon an on-going detailed case study of development in the South Bank in London that has been conducted by the researcher since 2007 and involves stakeholder interviews, documentary analysis and observation. The empirical focus of this paper is on recent legal challenges to planning permissions granted for new development schemes. Appeals have been made by actors, including local residents, in response to perceived weaknesses in the governance of public interest matters such as the provision of social goods and local infrastructure (collected through development profits) and the protection of heritage buildings. These provisions and protections are set by planning policy but appear vulnerable to the culture of valuation that now pervades the planning system. The paper concludes by reflecting on the practices of local governance as seen through the lens of planning practices at the local level.

References:

Dowling, E. and Harvie, D. (2014), ‘Harnessing the Social: State, Crisis and (Big) Society’, Sociology, 48(5) 869–886

Lilley, S. and Papadopoulos, D. (2014), ‘Material Returns: Cultures of Valuation, Biofinancialisation and the Autonomy of Politics’, Sociology 2014 48: 972

 

C101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART5
Austerity management strategies in Italian metropolitan cities Lucio Dicorato, Denita Cepiku, Filippo Giordano

The economic crisis that hit rich countries in 2007 produced a sensible rise in governmental debts and deficit ratios, stemming from collapsing revenues, stimulus measures and banking assistance. The role of the public sector is essential to overcome the crisis, foster sustainable development and manage the equilibrium between public services supply and demand.

 

When it comes to challenges for organisations emerging from economic crises, there are three streams of literature:

1) Public administration literature on cutback management of the late 1970s and 1980s, concerned about the passive role of management in the conduct of cutback management (e.g. Behn, 1978, 1980; 1985; Glassberg, 1978; Levine, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1984; Bozeman and Slusher, 1979);

2) The more general management literature on organisational decline, focusing on how firms cope with environmental shocks, considered as part of the organisational life cycle rather than exceptional events (e.g. Whetten, 1980; Weitzel and Johnson, 1989; Van Witteeloostuijn, 1998; Mellahi and Wilkinson, 2004; Lorhke et al., 2004; Abatecola, 2013; Trahms et al., 2013);

3) And contemporary literature on “crisis management” (e.g. Bozeman, 2010; Pandey, 2010; Mellahi and Wilkinson, 2010; Pollitt, 2010; Abatecola, 2012; Cepiku & Bonomi Savignon 2012; Cepiku and Grossi 2014).

The first stream of literature emphasises the difficulty in predicting the effects of cutbacks and raises human resources concerns. One of the perceived risks of cutback is that it will disproportionately compromise organisational capacity in the future. Key challenges include the organisational goal ambiguity that, in presence of short-term political calculations, will drive opportunistic behaviours and may determine trading short-term goals at the expense of long-term goals. This stream of literature has been incapable of assuming a longitudinal and strategic focus, which is one of the reasons of its decline.

The strengths of the general management literature on organisational decline lay in its continuous development, even after the 1970s crisis and in embracing a holistic and long-term perspective. Viewing decline as part

characteristics of crisis management strategies that can produce a positive and sustainable economic and social impact. We compare the evolution of crisis management strategies of all the fourteen Italian metropolitan areas, during a multiyear timeframe (2008-2014), and their economic/social impact.

 

Focusing on metropolitan cities, we:

1) Identify, compare and classify the strategies implemented at the local level – during the timeframe 2008-2014 – in terms of contents, tools, sectors and dynamics. A possible categorization refers to cutback, decline, downsizing and retrenchment.

2) Assess the impact both in financial and economic terms and in terms of social and extra-financial performance.

3) Draw policy and operational implications for local public managers across Europe.

 

Our units of analysis are fourteen Italian metropolitan cities and selected European cities. In Italy, these represent the 16% of the population and 35% of the national GDP (Cittalia-ANCI 2014). The main sources of information include official documents such as strategic planning documents, urban renewal plans, annual budgets, among others. In addition, interviews with key informants will be undertaken.

Object of the desk analysis will be local governments’ expenditure, both current and capital, and revenues. The analysis on the revenues side will highlight the more or less severe impact of the crisis on the local economies (capacity of firms and citizens to pay taxes and fees) and the degree of financial and fiscal dependency from upper levels of government (fiscal transfers and impact of austerity policies).

On the expenditure side, a first results will derive from comparing cuts to current expenditure with cuts of investments, significant to understand the impact of the crisis on longer term capacity. An analysis of expenditure trends and strategies for different policy sectors – cultural heritage, transport, environment, tourism, etc. – will be carried out.

 

Expected results of the research project will be the identification of the key elements of an effective crisis management strategy, in terms of both contents and approach. This research result has relevant implications for both policy makers at the EU and national level and for local governments (mayors and city managers).

 

Keywords: Crisis management, local governance, austerity, metropolitan areas.

 

References

 

Bozeman, B. (2010), Hard Lessons from Hard Times: Reconsidering and Reorienting the “Managing Decline” Literature, Public Administration Review, 70, 4, pp. 557-563.

Pandey, S.K. (2010), Cutback Management and the Paradox of Publicness, Public Adiministration Review, 70, 4, pp. 564-571.

Cepiku, D., Bonomi Savignon, A., (2012), Governing cutback management: is there a global strategy for public administrations?, International Journal of Public Sector Management, 25, 6, pp. 428-436.

C101 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Arts Building ART5
Organizational socialization in public administration research: A systematic review and directions for future research Stéphane MOYSON B107 March 31, 2015 09:00 10:30 Nuffield Building NUF1
Uncovering Relationships between Management Innovation and Service Innovation, Time Lags and Performance Chan Su Jung, Richard M. Walker, Maria Cucciniello

The study focuses on public service innovation because it is a critically important area of investigation that scholars, policy makers and public administrators maintain delivers economic, political and social benefits (Borins, 1998; Tidd, Bessant and Pavitt 2009). Public organizations have put in place a range of innovative practices that bring societal benefits, but more needs to be known about public service innovation, and in particular its performance consequences (Damanpour, Walker and Avellaneda 2009; Walker and Damanpour 2008). Innovations come in different guises. In this study we focus on management innovation (MI) and service innovation (SI). Theoretical expectations suggest that the complementary adoption of MI and SI have (1) a positive, direct and immediate, (2) moderated and (3) mediated impact on organizational performance. Yet these expectations are largely unexplored in the public sector, which arises from the pro-innovation bias—the assumption that innovation is only a force for good.

This study tests these propositions by examining the lagged, moderated and mediated relationship between MI and SI and organizational performance. The study is undertaken on a balanced archival 4-year panel of 192 English local governments from the early 2000s. Data are drawn from archival and perceptual sources. The dependent variable, core service performance, is a performance index drawing upon a range of performance indicators and the judgments of service inspectors. Archival measures from the UK Census provide a range of control variables. Measures of innovation are taken from a multiple informant survey that tapped the view of senior managers, service heads and front-line supervisors. With the balanced panel, we test the direct, moderated and mediated relationships by the feasible generalized least squares estimator.

The findings of the multivariate analyses largely support the propositions, but with some unexpected turns. First, SI has a positive immediate impact on performance, however MI does not. Second, there is an interactive effect of MI and SI on organizational performance. Third, MI has a positive effect on performance when mediated by SI, when MI lags SI by one year. These findings suggest that MI has a more complex relationship with SI and performance than hitherto theorized. Furthermore, sensitivity tests indicate that the MI sub-types of administrative innovation (AI) and technological innovation (TI) work in different ways: the AI performance relationship is mediated by SI while TI and SI have a moderated-mediated relationship with performance. In conclusion we discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these somewhat unanticipated findings.

J101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
Institutional Innovations for Public Service Performance: A Comparative Qualitative Analysis of Police Service in OECD Countries Heungsuk Choi J101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
INNOVATION AND PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SERVICES ORGANIZATIONS Maria de Lurdes Barroso, Maria do Céu Alves, Agostinha Patrícia Gomes

Public organizations innovate in response to environmental changes and demands for new/better services that meet the social needs of citizens/users. The introduction of new management practices is underway in the public sector, on the assumption that, if successful, this innovative activity will result in improved organizational performance. Knowledge of the processes of adoption of innovations and the characteristics of innovative organizations has grown in the context of public services, but the literature on the consequences of innovation is still in its infancy. Empirical evidence for the public sector is scarce and the results of the studies are mixed, but suggest, in general, a substantial and positive relationship.

There are more studies on the determinants of a single type of innovation than on its consequences and much less on the combinative effects of various types of innovations. Among the types of innovations, administrative innovations (including accounting innovations) have been less studied than technical innovations. The theories of innovation have been developed mainly by studying firms in the goods industries and within the private sector, so there is a lack of innovation models for the services industries, especially within the public sector. The New Public Management movement has questioned the functioning and performance of public organizations, arguing that they had become too costly and self-serving and should be transformed and managed according to market mechanisms and private sector principles of economy, efficiency and effectiveness - accounting has played a central role in this reforming process. Consequently, public organizations should seek to develop their innovative capacity and use the various types of innovation to achieve higher levels of organizational performance, making them a fertile setting for studying the influence of innovation on performance. Finally, most studies of organizational innovation are cross-sectional and not suitable to explain the impact of innovation on organizational performance over time. Thus, instead of studying the adoption of a single type of innovative at a point in time or multiple innovations of the same type over time, it is necessary (i) to conduct longitudinal analysis of the (un)success of adopting combinations of different types of innovations over time, and (ii) to analyze their complementary relations.

This paper aims to discuss these theoretical and methodological issues as well as the need for a multidimensional analysis. The main purpose of this study is focused on the consequences of the adoption of three types of innovation (services, technical and administrative), that will be encompassed in the broader construct of organizational innovativeness, and are applicable to public service organizations.

This paper will be organized as follows. Section 2 discusses some conceptual issues on innovation and proposes a typology of innovations (emphasizing management accounting innovations) suitable to public services organizations. Section 3 is devoted to the innovation and organizational performance relationship, and reviews the main theoretical approaches and the most relevant results of the empirical studies. Section 4 proposes a conceptual model on the innovation and organizational performance relationship. Section 5 presents the main conclusions and several lines of future research.

Key-words: organizational innovativeness, organizational performance, management accounting innovations, performance management, public services organizations

J101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
Lessons in international diffusion: transferring innovation from one country to another Louise Brown

This paper will draw upon reviews of the literature, theoretical and empirical developments around international patterns of diffusion to identify the main barriers and opportunities that arise in moving an innovation across international borders to a new country. Building upon the work of Rogers (1962) and Van de Ven (1999) it will discuss the differences in the implementation process that arise when the diffusion is between countries. Two empirical examples will be presented from the health and wellbeing field to illustrate two very different approaches to implementation. Both help to identify the issues that face innovators wishing to see their model adopted in a new cultural context. The paper will address the following themes of the panel; Are there routines and patterns of innovation implementation; Is the implementation of innovation associated with particular organizational capabilities, cultures and resources?

J101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF3
Building Fortress Britain – who’s watching within the walls? An investigation into the ‘Insider’ Threat and the role of Personnel Security Rona S Beattie, David Bamaung

This paper addresses a significant gap in both the fields of public policy and HRM research and practice; personnel security.  The current global environment of insecurity and external physical threats e.g. from the IS, and cyber threats from unfriendly powers or economic competitors has resulted in considerable focus on physical and cyber-security.  However, ultimately physical and cyber security is breached by people, and some of these may be within i.e. employees who pose an ‘insider threat’.

 

Acts such as: fraud; embezzlement; industrial espionage; sabotage,; information leakage; and ,most recently, misuse of social media may not have been intended by the employee when they joined the organisation.  However, life events such as: an abusive partner blackmailing a previously loyal employee; dissatisfaction with the employer, following a perceived breach of the psychological contract; or, conversion to a cause may contribute to an employee/s becoming an ‘insider threat’.

 

Whilst many organisations take reasonable, albeit not foolproof, care at the initial recruitment stage there is often little in place in terns of HRM and management systems and practices to detect potential future problems or tell-tale signs during the employee’s service:

 

  • What additional steps are taken for promotion?
  • How are ‘exits’ managed?
  • What steps do managers take when they observe changes in employees working patterns or behaviours? None of these in themselves means something is wrong in terms of personnel security, however they suggest the need for some investigation, at the very least from a performance management and duty of care perspective.

 

This paper presents and discusses findings from two public sector, and two financial sector organisations, both sectors critical for UK plc.  Through analysis of the findings the paper assesses their readiness for preventing, mitigating and addressing insider threats.  It is hoped that the lessons learned here will benefit other key infrastructure organisations.

B106 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART2
PUBLIC SERVANTS AT WORK ROUNDTABLE: RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE PERSPECTIVES ON PUBLIC SECTOR HRM Rona S Beattie, Linda Colley, Jennifer Waterhouse

Given that it will be 12 years in 2015 since the first HRM panel in Hong Kong, the recognition of this panel as a SIG at the Ottawa Conference and the amount of change during this period in HRM and Public Management research, policy and practice; now seems an appropriate time to reflect on the recent history of public sector HRM, and to consider its future direction/s.  This Roundtable also builds on a highly successful impromptu ‘roundtable’ that took place in Ottawa, and at which we agreed we should build such an element formally into future IRSPM conferences.  The participants in and emergent themes from the roundtable, facilitated by the SIG chairs, will feature in a special issue of Public Policy and Administration[1].  All participants in the SIG will be encouraged to participate in this research and policy agenda-setting discussion around key public workforce challenges; will it be re-invention or revolution?

 

The Roundtable discussion will serve as an introduction to the Special Issue, and all papers within the SIG will be considered for review.  More details will be communicated once the SIG’s composition has been finalised.


[1] The SIG Chairs are grateful to the editors and publisher of Policy and Public Administration for their support of the 2015 SIG and associated special issue.

B106 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART2
Design of Performance Measurement Systems in Austrian Non-profit Healthcare and Social Service Providers - Fruitful collaboration or uncoordinated imposition? Sandra Stoetzer

Resource providers of non-profit organizations (NPOs) increasingly expect that they demonstrate how they perform and whether they are managed both efficiently and effectively (LeRoux and Wright 2010). Thus we can observe an increase in institutional pressures to introduce performance measurement (PM) systems in the non-profit sector (Greiling 2009; Murray 2010). From an instrumental perspective, PM systems can have a diagnostic focus, one of organizational directing and thirdly, they are used as an external accountability tool (Moxham 2009; Ebrahim 2010). This last application suggests that external accountability is a key driver for non-profit PM systems. New Public Management (NPM) reforms particularly increased the external accountability obligations of NPOs. Traditional bureaucratic controls are replaced by a new type of performance reporting. Accordingly PM in NPOs is often reduced to selective aspects of accountability (Moxham 2010).

This trend can be observed also in Austria, a country with a strong corporatist tradition where NPOs (still) have strong ties with the political sphere. There is a high financial dependency on the public sector, esp. in the area of healthcare and social services (Heitzmann and Simsa 2004). Therein NPOs produce core services on behalf of public administrations at the federal, regional, and local level (Rymsza and Zimmer 2004). Their role as service providers reliant on public funding is associated with PM and reporting duties, usually regulated in (short-term) contracts.

Studies concentrating on the design and use of PM systems within NPOs are still in a nascent state, esp. concerning the influence of contracting entities in terms of externally-imposed performance accountability demands. Thus this paper poses the following research questions:

  1. What consequences do NPM-driven changes of accountability obligations have on NPOs and the development of their PM systems?
  2. How do Austrian non-profit providers of social and healthcare services design their PM systems? Can they develop them independently or do (public) funders impinge on the PM systems´ design?
  3. What specific types of PM obligations are encountered by Austrian NPOs and how do their leaders assess them?
  4. Do the identified PM obligations imposed by public (contracting) authorities show differences between different institutional levels (central, provincial and local government)?

In order to address these questions the paper builds on the current debate on public and nonprofit accountability. Based on contingency theory, resource dependence theory and stakeholder theory possible contingency factors are discussed. In order to gain an empirical insight on accountability trends and their effects on the design of PM systems an exploratory study was conducted in Austrian NPOs providing health care and social services. A qualitative research design was chosen as it allows a more in-depth insight in a field where we lack empirical evidence. As part of a case study approach 20 expert interviews with senior executives from large and small NPOs were conducted. The sample includes two NPOs of the animal protection area for comparison. In addition the study builds on supplemental documentary analysis of performance reports.

G102 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST2
Who Delivers the Service? Gender, Education and Ethnicity at Australia’s Employment Services Frontline Siobhan O'Sullivan, Mark Considine, Phuc Nguyen

We have collected demographic data on Australian frontline employment services staff since 1998. At that time all employment services in Australia were delivered by public servants working for the Australian Employment Service (CES). Australian employment services were partially, and then fully, privatised throughout the 2000s. At present all Australian employment services are delivered by case managers working for one of 80 contracted, private for-profit, or not-for-profit, employment services agencies.

This trend towards service delivery privatisation, closely associate with New Public Management (NPM), is expected to generate multiple benefits, for example, efficiency, diversity, enhanced service quality, innovation, and flexibility. In this paper we empirically investigate the impact of NPM on the frontline workforce using survey data collected from Australian employment services staff in 1998, 2008 and 2012. We do so to uncover whether service privatisation has had unintended negative impact, in particular on frontline working conditions.

We find that as NPM reforms have progressed in Australia, working conditions at the frontline appear to have deteriorated. Overtime, the system has become increasingly compliance-focused. As a result the work frontline staff perform has become admin-focused, routinized and simpler. Simultaneously the frontline workforce has become highly feminization and education levels have dropped, along with union membership. We conclude that the feminization of the workforce is closely linked to deteriorating working conditions and is an unintended negative consequence of service privatisation.

Relevance to the panel topic:

This paper examines the changes to workplace demographics when social services move from the public to private sphere. As many social services have undergone, or will undergo, this process, this papers will make a timely contribution to understanding workplace composition, particularly among client-facing service delivery staff.

 

B106 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART2
New funding reforms, but what about the workforce! The challenges of staffing the community sector Linda Colley

The community sector has faced myriad workforce challenges related to the nature of the jobs (such as low pay, low job security and difficult work, which contribute to stress, absences and turnover) and the nature of the sector (such as resourcing constraints and limited training and career paths in small organiations (Dollard et al 2007; Ozanne and Rose 2013). The shortage of skilled labour is the most significant threat to the future viability of the sector and the success of programs (Productivity Commission, 2010).

These workforce challenges are compounded by dramatic institutional and organisational reforms. Funding models have shifted from direct government funding and service delivery to complex contested funding arrangements and the proposed direct funding  to end users for Australia's National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). This has resulted in new and hybridised organisational structures allowing for various combinations of collaboration between public agencies, private firms, citizens and service-recipients (Keast, Brown and Mandell 2007).

But stakeholders are so focused on funding mechanisms and structural issues that they overlook the effects on the highly labour intensive community sector workforce. Our paper steps back to consider the workforce implications of these reforms. It asks whether efforts to achieve greater financial value will actually drive the current workforce into other sectors and lead to a deterioration of services. The issue is critical because governments may be able to distance themselves from direct service provison but they cannot distance themselves from accountability for the quality of services and outcomes for Australia's most vulnerable citizens.

Our paper is highly relevant to this panel, considering effects of institutional reforms on an already stretched workforce, and speculating on the capacity of the sector to address issues of workforce supply and working arrangements.

B106 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART2
Public sector international project work as an environment of diversity construction: Addressing workforce challenges Ville Kivivirta, Antti Syväjärvi, Jaana Leinonen

Relevance to the panel topic: The proposed paper reflexively draws theory from both mainstream and more critical management literature to address the issues of diversity originating from and constructed in  the international project operations of the public sector. Arguing that internationalising of work that often takes a project form has diversity management implications; this paper focuses on the associated workforce challenges and implications that shape the nature of public employment.

Significance of the research: Diversity management is a perspective that recognises diversity as a mixture of various differences between human actors and the value of how managing these differences contributes to organisational goals. However, the current research has not fully acknowledged the workforce challenges and possibilities the internationalisation of project work poses for the public sector and its HRM.

Aim and research questions: The aim of this paper is to analyse how the international project work as an environment produces diversity and diversity management challenges for the public sector. What is the capacity of the public sector to manage these challenges? What new ways should be developed to respond to these aforementioned workforce challenges?

Methodology: The paper draws both on a critical review of the literature and an exploratory research conducted in the Finnish public sector. Empirical material has been produced by interviewing Finnish public sector professionals who have been working in European Union funded Twinning projects.

Main implications: This paper seeks to address the need to develop conceptual representations of diversity related to the internationalisation of projectified work in the Finnish public sector, while contributing to a broad debate on diversity, equality and inequality in organizing, public management and HRM. Our preliminary results indicate that the public sector has failed to integrate diversity management perspective into is human resources processes.

References:

Ahonen, P. & J. Tienari (2009). United in diversity? Disciplinary normalization in an EU project. Organization, 16(5).

Beattie, R. & S. Osborne (eds.) (2008). Human Resource Management in the Public Sector. London: Routledge.

Delbridge, R., M. Hauptmeier & S. Sengupta (2011). Beyond the enterprise: Broadening the horizons of international HRM. Human Relations, 64(4).

Janssens, M. & P. Zanoni (2014). Alternative diversity management: Organizational practices fostering ethnic equality at work. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 30(3).

Nishii, L. & M. Özbilgin (2007). Global diversity management: Towards a conceptual framework. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(11).

Sippola, A. & A. Smale (2007). The global integration of diversity management: A longitudinal case study. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(11).

 

 

 

B106 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART2
Enterprising municipalities: a historical perspective on corporate forms in English municipalities Chris Skelcher

A historical perspective can provide both perspective and insights into current debates about municipalities’ use of arm’s length companies, contracting-out of back office services, and strategic partnerships with private providers.  These debates have been evident since the mid-nineteenth century creation of the modern form of local government in English cities.  This paper traces the motivation for creating and/or contracting with extra-municipal corporate structures to deliver public services and develops a typology of forms, motivations and contexts.  The paper also identifies the political and managerial consequences of such developments.  The analysis reveals complex patterns including licensing risky activities to private companies, municipalisation of private enterprise, creation of public enterprises to enter both competitive and monopoly markets, contracting-in of specialist expertise into key functions, contracting-out, and other approaches.  It will show that the political, professional and legal resources available to city governments facilitated the use of corporate forms to deliver wider public purpose, and that such forms enabled the political vision of the English city government to be realised despite being located in what is conventionally regarded as a constrained statutory and fiscal local government system.  The empirical focus of the paper is Birmingham City Council, in part because of its reputation for enterprising and creative use of corporate forms, dating back to the mid nineteenth century; however the paper will also draw on other examples from English city governments.  The paper will draw mainly on secondary sources, and especially the two series of histories of Birmingham Corporation/City Council, and of Birmingham itself.

H103 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART7
INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION AND CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION INNOVATION PROCESSES IN THE JUSTICE SECTOR. Andrea Emanuele Mazzillo

The paper provides an interesting point of view on how new forms of collaboration between governmental administrations and public companies can enhance institutional networks and in the same time foster the innovation process of central public administration. In particular, this study wants to explore how inter-institutional cooperation can be enhanced by letting public corporations manage, in a shared service view, some business processes that are usually run inside public offices. Therefore the study takes in to account a specific case of the Italian “panorama” that can be considered, according to the results that have been registered, a good practice of effective network management in public sector where services and quality have increased significantly, in spite of the continuous cuts on public expenditures and lack of state resources. The study is about Equitalia Giustizia S.p.A (EqG)., a public company wholly owned by Equitalia SpA (a licensee of the Italian Tax Authority), that since 2009, in collaboration with the Ministry of Justice, pursues the objective to streamline and speed up all processes related to claim management in the justice sector (court costs, penalties, fines) without causing any additional burden for contracting authorities (as required by the National law n. 244/2007). At the same time EqG ensures both integration of information flows and dematerialization process. Therefore, the Italian government by giving birth to EqG has concentrated in the hands of a single public entity the challenging task of managing claims of all Italian courts (about 1400) originated by civil and criminal laws, by standardizing operational processes and ensuring consistency in the application of sector regulations. The ongoing process started in 2009 has connected 19 of the 26 Court of Appeal districts in the system and the network will be completed by the end of 2014. With EqG, finally, the State has been able to ensure, along with its institutional tasks, savings and disengage personnel from administrative work to high performing institutional activities.

The study has been done using a mixed methods research, firstly with the case study research technique it has been described in detail, also through questionnaires and interviews, the production model adopted by EqG and then with a multidimensional approach technique all the processes have been analyzed and therefore highlighted benefits and weaknesses of the production model adopted rather than other ones.

The result of the research shows, specifically in the area of recovery of claims of justice, how a strong collaboration between institutions and public companies, in a logic of network cooperation, can encourage the adoption of innovative management models that can also be easily replicated in other public sectors.

 

H103 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART7
Doctoral Project on the Open Budget Approach: can social development results be achieved through transparency, participation and accountability? Welles Matias de Abreu, Ricardo Correa Gomes, Claudia Nancy Avellaneda Increased budgetary transparency, participation and accountability appear to relate positively with better development results, which leads us to inquire as to existence and nature of a dependent relation between transparency, participation and accountability and development (Ling & Roberts, 2014). Gaventa and McGee (2013) note that development results can be grouped by efficient, outcome and effectiveness, as – for example –social and fiscal policies, probity and democracy results, respectively.

Considering what Khagram et al. (2013) said that careful studies of the consequences of fiscal transparency are still surprisingly scarce, the present doctoral project focuses on the question: can social development results be achieved through transparency, participation and accountability?  To this end, the main aim of this project is to identify new evidence that can explain the relationship between transparency, participation and accountability and social development results based on the open budget approach and using institutional theory and stakeholder theory.

The specific aims are: to confirm whether or not a relationship exists between transparency, participation and accountability and social development; to explore how the theories associate transparency, participation and accountability with social development results; to seek evidence related to the open budget theoretical framework; and to describe how the stakeholders and the institution function in the open budget process.

According to Khagram (2013), the open budget institutional framework has three moments: transparency; participation; and accountability. The stakeholder is who has power, urgency and legitimacy in its demands and expectations, then the open budget development results are the consensus possible of multi stakeholders’ unlimited desires  (Mitchell et al., 1997). The complexity of stakeholders’ political and social networks can explain why it is hard to calculate the development results that comes from the transparency, participation and accountability (Abreu & Gomes, 2013).

The proposal of methodological framework is based on qualitative and quantitative approach, promoting scientific validity results by triangulations. Firstly, we will do the biographic research – searching the theoretical framework – focus on the expressions open budget, institutions and stakeholders, and after categorizing by the terms transparency, participation, accountability and development results, and following doing a prioritization by the mentioned terms citations, number of scientific research citations and ranking papers by the journal factor impact.

Secondly, using – mainly – primary data from Open Budget Survey (IBP, 2014) and Social Progress Index (SPI, 2014), we will produce statistics analysis to test if social development results are related with transparency, participation and accountability. Thirdly, we will do fifteen interviews – with the budget stakeholders in the Brazilian Republic Presidency, Federal Budget Secretariat, Ministry of Social Development, National Congress and Civil Society represents – to understand how social development results can or not be achieved by the transparency, participation and accountability.

Finally, it is important to highlight that documental data it will be always fundamental to be consider during the analysis. Although this is just a preliminary study, it is expected that the research contributions can reduce de lack of knowledge on open budget approach and it also can be a stimulus to produce other news researches on open budget approach.

 


References:

 

Abreu, W. M. and R. C. Gomes (2013), 'O orçamento público brasileiro e a perspectiva emancipatória: Existem evidências empíricas que sustentam esta aproximação?'. Revista de Administração Pública, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 515-540.

Ibp (2014), Http://internationalbudget.Org/what-we-do/open-budget-survey/. Available online  (accessed 03/08/2014).

Khagram, S., A. Fung and  P. De Renzio (2013), Open budgets: The political economy of transparency, participation, and accountability, (Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC).

Ling, C. and D. K. Roberts (2014), Evidence of development impact from institutional change: A review of the evidence on open budgeting. Report for WB (Washington, DC).

Mitchell, R. K., B. R. Agle and  D. J. Wood (1997), 'Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts'. Academy of management review, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 853-886.

Spi (2014), Http://www.Socialprogressimperative.Org/data/spi. Available online  (accessed 03/08/2014).

 

 

DOCTORAL AGENDA

2014 October

  • Developing Studies since 2014 March:

ü  Theoretical essays on Open Budget Approach, utilizing the of stakeholder theory and institutional theory, using qualitative techniques to consolidate a theoretical framework related with transparency, participation, accountability and its development results.

ü  Quantitative and qualitative comparative analysis of the relationship between development results and transparency, participation and accountability.

  • Career Aspirations 2015 on:

ü  Doctoral project, which the research question is focus on how development results can or not be achieved by the transparency, participation and accountability.

  • Main aim: to identify new evidences that can explain the relationship between transparency, participation and accountability and social development results based on open budget approach, using institutions and stakeholders theories.
  • Specific aims:
  1. to confirm the existence of relation between transparency, participation and accountability and social development results;
  2. to know how the Stakeholders and Institutional theories associate transparency, participation and accountability with social development results;
  3. to seek evidences related with the open budget theoretical framework; and
  4. to describe how the stakeholders and the institution works on the open budget process.

SHORT BIOGRAPHY

 

Welles Matias de Abreu

 

SQS 204 Bloco B Apartamento nº 504, Brasília – DF, Brazil, CEP 70234-020 Phone +55 (61) 3264 7667       Mobile + 55 (61) 9281 5050 wellesmatias@hotmail.com

 

 

2014 October

 

Welles Matias de Abreu is a Brazilian senior civil servant of the career Planning and Budgeting Annalist (APO), with more than fifteen years of experience and has, for the last five years, been dedicated to initiatives to improve transparency and participation in budgetary processes. He represented Brazil in the Global Initiative for Fiscal Transparency (GIFT) and taught Public Budgeting to civil servants and society members. He graduated in Business Management and Agronomy and has post-graduated degrees in Public Planning, Budgeting and Management and in Public Administration. Currently, he is in his first year of doctoral studies at University of Brasilia (UnB), Brazil, in Public Administration, where he focuses on the Open Budget approach and how transparency, participation and accountability match with development results. Abreu’s doctoral advisor is Dr. Ricardo Correa Gomes, UnB Associate Professor and IRSPM member.


L101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF1
The environment of accountability and its role on organizational performance - The case of the Swiss public employment service Raphael Zumofen

In contemporary society, accountability and performance have obtained a new status of golden concepts. While accountability has expanded and diversified, performance worries have become more prevalent guiding policies towards the reinforcement of the first concept to stimulate the latter.

Today we often assume that more accountability means better results. Accountability is regarded as conveying only benefits such as greater transparency, reduction of authority abuses or more importantly, improvements in the quality of government services. Various NPM initiatives were based on the assumption that enhanced accountability would improve performance (Christensen and Laegreid 2013). But the empirical evidence that this has happened is inconclusive (Laegreid and Verhoest 2010). By looking at specific forms of accountability, several researchers noticed that some of them can be detrimental to the organization. For example when accountability is used as a set of unconnected binary relationships rather than as a system of relations or as short-term and rule-following behavior rather than as a means to longer-term social change (Ebrahim 2005). Too much accountability seems to hinder organizations in achieving their missions and could chill learning and innovation. Accountability is even reported to decrease rather than increase performance (Politt 2003). Hence, accountability should not be equated with always being good (Lindberg 2013).

It is worth questioning the normative assumption that more accountability is necessarily “good” by asking whether there is a danger of too much accountability or too many accountability relationships. Despite the centrality of accountability in public administrative practice and debate, the specific reasons for these heterogeneous effects remain in the dark (Ossege 2012). It seems appropriate to look closer at this presupposed positive relation between accountability and performance. The objective here are to analyze the accountability environment with which a public organization has to deal with and to determine what effects different kinds of accountability can have on organizational performance.

In the case of the case of the Swiss public employment service (SPE), diverse organizations are mandated to find an occupation for unemployed people and processes of accountability are put in place in order to control and monitor the results they obtain. The aim of my work is to investigate the accountability relationships between the organizations and the various stakeholders to which they are accountable and determine how these relationships affect their organizational performance.

This paper will first present a theoretical overview of the various concepts involved. It will then present the actors concerned and details the methodology considered to guide the study. Finally it will introduce the preliminary results based on the survey developed and sent to the various stakeholders and the first interviews completed.

 

Bibliography

Christensen, T., Lægreid P. (2013) Performance and accountability – a theoretical discussion and an empirical assessment.  Working paper presented at the 2013 ASPA Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 15-19 March 2013.

Ebrahim, A. (2005) Accountability myopia: Losing sight of organizational learning. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 34, 56-87.

Lægreid, P., Verhoest K. (2010) Governance of Public Sector Organizations. Proliferation, Autonomy and Performance. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lindberg , S. I. (2013) Mapping accountability : core concept and subtypes. International Review of Administrative Sciences,  Vol. 79, p. 202-226.

Ossege, C. (2012). Accountability–are We Better off Without It? An empirical study on the effects of accountability on public managers' work behaviour. Public Management Review, 14(5), 585-607.

Pollitt, C. (2003). Joined‐up Government: a Survey. Political studies review, 1(1), 34-49.

 

L101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF1
D108 Panel Debate on Choice and Competition This is content March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 N/A N/A
A101 New Researcher Development Workshop This is content March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 N/A N/A
Public Service Motivation and Participation in Distributed Leadership - A panel study during organizational change processes Anne Mette Kjeldsen

In these years, many public sector organizations go through profound organizational changes including mergers, cutbacks, and general restructuring to become more effective at delivering welfare services and keep costs down (Kuipers et al. 2014). Such change processes have substantive consequences for the employees in terms of not only affecting their work processes but also because they risk losing their jobs. The literature on organizational change points to that regardless of the specific content of any given change process, a key element in determining its success is employee support for change (Bordia et al. 2004; Fernandez and Rainey 2006; Kelman 2005). But the question is whether some employees are better at coping with and engage in managing the organization towards successful change than others?

The distributed leadership (DL) literature emphasizes the importance of involving employee resources in leadership tasks to facilitate organizational support and performance (Bennett et al. 2003; Bolden 2011; Gronn 2000). Generally, DL can be defined as the sharing of generic leadership tasks to influence resource availability, decision making, and goal setting within an organizational perspective (Gronn 2000). This means that it includes many of the de facto managerial functions that employees (without formal management responsibilities) perform on a day-to-day basis – functions that are essential for a successful reform outcome. Compared with transformational and transactional leadership, looking towards DL might thus be the future in an increasingly complex public sector during times of organizational change.

However, not all employees can be expected to actively engage in DL. Employees with high public service motivation (PSM), which is motivation to do good for others and society through public service delivery (Perry and Hondeghem 2008), have been shown to engage more in pro-social citizenship behavior and the same might go for pro-social intra-organizational behavior in organizational change processes (Wright, Christensen, and Isett 2013). High PSM employees are thus expected to participate more in DL compared with low PSM employees. Still, this positive PSM-DL association is only likely to come about if the employees agree with the goals of the change process. This paper thus investigates how PSM is related to employee participation in DL during times of organizational change and depending on management-employee agreement about the organizational goals.

This is empirically examined using panel data from two surveys among more than 1,500 employees working at one of Scandinavia’s largest public hospitals. The hospital went through a major organizational change process during 2012-2014, where four smaller hospitals were merged into one large hospital unit – the new “Hospitalsenhed Midt” in Denmark. The first survey to the hospital staff was conducted in the autumn 2012 right after the first mergers took place, and this survey will be repeated in early 2015. Both surveys contain measures of employee motivation, participation in DL, and organizational goal agreement linked to the change process. Based on preliminary analysis on the first survey, high PSM employees do indeed participate more actively in DL at their hospital units during these times of organizational change. This may be considered an organizational strongpoint by public managers striving to obtain a successful reform outcome.

References:

Bennett, N., C. Wise, P. A. Woods, and J. A. Harvey. 2003. “Distributed Leadership: A Review of Literature.” Open Research Online: http://oro.open.ac.uk/8534/1/bennett-distributed-leadership-full.pdf.

Bolden, R. 2011. “Distributed Leadership in Organizations: A Review of Theory and Research.” International Journal of Management Reviews 13 (3): 251–69.

Bordia, P., E. Hobman, E. Jones, C. Gallois, and V. J. Callan. 2004. “Uncertainty during Organizational Change: Types, Consequences, and Management Strategies.” Journal of Business and Psychology 18 (4): 507–32.

Fernandez, S., and H. G. Rainey. 2006. “Managing Successful Organizational Change in the Public Sector.” Public Administration Review 66 (2): 168–76.

Gronn, P. 2000. “Distributed Properties a New Architecture for Leadership.” Educational Management Administration & Leadership 28 (3): 317–38.

Kelman, S. 2005. Unleashing Change: A Study of Organizational Renewal in Government. Brookings Institution Press.

Kuipers, B. S., M. Higgs, W. Kickert, L. Tummers, J. Grandia, and J. Van Der Voet. 2014. “The Management of Change in Public Organizations: A Literature Review.” Public Administration 92 (1): 1–20.

Perry, J. L., and A. Hondeghem. 2008. Motivation in Public Management: The Call of Public Service. New York: Oxford University Press, USA.

Wright, B. E., R. K. Christensen, and K. R. Isett. 2013. “Motivated to Adapt? The Role of Public Service Motivation as Employees Face Organizational Change.” Public Administration Review.

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In the Face of Failure: The Persistence of Pro-Social Motivations under Conditions of Negative Feedback William G Resh, John D Marvel

As performance management arrangements in the public sector proliferate, we see a coinciding increase in debates over what metrics constitute “performance,” where the threshold of minimally acceptable performance should be, and varied interpretations of policy “success” across policy domains and jurisdictions. In a pluralist and polarized political environment, those tasked with policy implementation responsibilities produce outcomes that one party or interest interprets as successes and others view simultaneously as failures. As a result, negative feedback in policy implementation is inevitable. Our primary research question is whether this negative feedback diminishes employee effort.

Advancements in public management research have identified PSM as a common characteristic of individuals who choose to enter careers in public or nonprofit service (versus the private sector), separable from narrow policy advocacy or self-interested work motivations (Andersen et al, 2013; Perry, 1996; Perry & Hondeghem, 2008; Perry, Hondeghem, & Wise, 2010; Perry & Wise, 1990; Wright, Christensen, & Pandey, 2013). We test the notion that individuals who are more pro-socially oriented and who identify more highly with the missions of the organizations for which they perform are more likely to persist in their work efforts in the face of “failure.” In other words, we are interested in whether PSM is a durable trait—one that leads to persistent effort in an environment of negative feedback. Moreover, we test a second set of hypotheses on whether negative feedback creates conditions in which self-interest is more likely to crowd out altruistic work motivations. The findings from this research have implications for understanding how to better shape public and nonprofit sector recruitment, retention, and personnel policies. Moreover, it offers a set of propositions that have not been tested and does so using a novel platform for running natural field experiments in studies of work motivation and economic behavior (Chandler & Kapelner, 2013; Levitt & List, 2007, 2009).

For this natural experiment, we recruit workers from the United States from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). MTurk is an online labor market where people complete short, “one-shot” tasks for pay. Chandler and Kapelner (2013) (among others) have established the MTurk environment as an ideal platform for natural experiments, in that…

“the MTurk environment is a spot market for labor characterized by relative anonymity and a lack of strong reputational mechanisms. As a result, it is well-suited for an experiment involving the meaningfulness of a task since the variation… regarding a task’s meaningfulness is less affected by desires to exhibit pro-social behavior or an anticipation of future work (career concerns)” (p. 124).

We use a “real-effort” experiment—an experimental approach that is common in economics (e.g., Tonin & Vlassopoulos, 2010)—to test these propositions: First, we have subjects complete a battery of survey questions that measure prosocial motivations, self-determination, and various demographic and ideological characteristics. Second, we provide a battery of organizational missions for nationally prominent nonprofit organizations and ask subjects to rank the missions by salience and valence. Third, subjects perform my real-effort task for a set amount of time. The real-effort task is a Simple Reaction Time Task (SRTT). The subject performs the task and is then given feedback on their performance for the task (i.e., average response time). Fourth, we randomly assign one of the previously ranked organizations and inform the subjects that they can either exit the survey or do the SRTT again to earn $10 for that randomly assigned charity, if they can improve their average response time to a rate that is set to be in the 99th percentile of performance for the task generally. Subjects are told the expected rate, but not that the rate is the 99th percentile of performance. Fifth, if the subject fails to meet the expected performance, they are offered the choice to exit the survey or "play again" on behalf of the charity. This is repeated to infinity, or until the subject chooses to exit. However, if the subject exceeds the expected rate of performance, then they are congratulated on their performance and informed that a donation of $10 will be made to the charity by the research team conducting the study.

We are interested in the interactive effect of PSM and mission-match on effort and persistence. I test the hypothesis that mission-match is less important for high-PSM people (i.e., they'll work hard no matter for which charity they work). Low-PSM people, on the other hand, will persist (i.e., repeat the SRTT more than once) in the face of negative feedback only when they identify narrowly with the mission of the charity they're playing for.

In using the MTurk platform for sample and subject selection, this study is able to establish causal validity without a substantial loss in ecological validity. By conducting a natural field experiment, we provide a simple template for future research to build upon. We hope to use the results from this study as the basis for research set in real world policy settings. Moreover, we believe that research in this area will provide a rich, empirically-validated theory of how context and feedback affect the motivation and efforts of the people who implement policy.  
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Corporate Governance vs. New Public Governance: a case study of Board and Governor interactions within the English National Health Service Ross Millar, Tim Freeman, Russell Mannion

In England, NHS hospital foundation trusts (FTs) have been created as “novel corporate entities” that possess unique governance arrangements compared to other NHS hospitals. One such development associated with FTs has been the implementation of Governors as tier of governance to ensure that these hospitals, and the executive boards overseeing them, are locally accountable to the interests of patients, staff and the public. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a national study that examines the interactions between Executive Boards and Governors within Foundation Trusts. The paper analyses a number of complementary and competing governance arrangements and dynamics between these groups as they look to deliver high quality patient care. In doing so, the paper also identifies a number of tensions within these governance arrangements as Boards and Governors often “talk past each other” in their efforts to successfully deliver the aims and objectives often associated with high quality patient care.

The paper hopes to make an original contribution to the panel through its examination of the role, behaviour and effectiveness of the board of directors and the relationship between boards and its internal and external stakeholders.

D102 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Law Building LAW3
Just Talking about Culture Change while Creating a Customer Contact Centre Does Not Lead to Higher Citizen Ratings of Service Performance Marianne E. Gravesteijn, Celeste P.M. Wilderom

Significance of the research; the research questions and method, theoretical foundations for the research, and results to be reported

This study is significant in three ways: First, it increases the changing public-culture knowledge by focusing on culture dimensions in a specific Dutch municipality front-office context. Second, our empirical case design demonstrates the relative meaningfulness employees see in attempts at changing their organization’s cultural values (Cardador and Rupp, 2010). The results show not only that municipality employees desire a more supportive/innovative culture frame, they also give insight into the foci for managerial sense-making and/or interventions. The management of this municipality is advised to engage in a discussion with the service employees on the found differences between the current and desired culture; it is also advised to initiate a sense-making dialogue on the values and assumptions underlying each culture dimension (Hannevik et al., 2014; Lavine, 2014). Third, the results of this study suggest a significant relationship between the Competing Value Framework’s six dimensions (Quinn and Rohrbraugh, 1983) within the organization and its service performance, as measured by the citizens. Previous organizational culture research has produced little evidence of a direct relationship between organizations’ competing cultural values, its dimensions and the level of publicly experienced service performance (Sackmann, 2011; Hartnell et al., 2011). The specific research questions addressed in this study are:

1. To what extent did the afore mentioned cultural change happen, and was it indeed seen as desirable by the employees of this public service organization?

2. What is the relationship between the municipality culture and the service-performance level perceived by its citizens?

The employed research design is a quantitative case study. Using the organizational culture assessment tool (OCAI, Cameron and Quinn, 2005), and citizens’ performance ratings, we combine employee and citizen data. The theoretical foundations for the research pertain to the relevant literature around the following constructs: organizational culture (e.g. Cameron and Quinn, 2005); meaningful work (e.g. Cardador and Rupp, 2010); public service culture (e.g. Cordella and Bonina, 2012), and service performance (e.g. Andrews and Entwistle, 2013). The main empirical results:

· The current municipality culture continues to be bureaucratic even though the employees clearly desire a more meaningful supportive/innovative culture

· The citizens value the bureaucratic ways of the service work processes

· A lower level of service performance may arise due to market-culture type of leadership behaviours

The Discussion section of the paper includes three practical suggestions on how management could start behaving, more from a paradoxical perspective, and embrace additional innovative/supportive cultural values within a seemingly unchangeable bureaucratic culture.

References

Andrews, R. and Entwistle, T. (2013) Four Faces of Public Service Efficiency. Public Management Review, 15:2 pp246--64.

Cameron, K. S. and Quinn, R. E. (2005) Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cardador, M. T. and Rupp, D. E. (2010) ‘Organizational Culture, Multiple Needs, and the Meaningfulness of Work’ in N. M. Ashkanasy, C. P. M. Wilderom and M. F. Peterson (eds) The Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage. pp158--80.

Cordella, A. and Bonina, C. M. (2012) A Public Value Perspective for ICT Enabled Public Sector Reforms: A Theoretical Reflection. Government Information Quarterly, 29:4 pp512--20.

Hannevik, M.B., Lone, J.A., Bjorkland, R., Bjorkli, C.A. and Hoff, T. (2014) Organizational Climate in Large-Scale Projects in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Competing Value Perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 32:4 pp687--97.

Hartnell, C. A., Ou, A. Y. and Kinicki, A. (2011) Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework’s Theoretical Suppositions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96:4 pp677--94.

Kim, Y. (2010) Stimulating Entrepreneurial Practices in the Public Sector: The Roles of Organizational Characteristics, Administration & Society, 42:7 pp780--814.

Laurent, A. (2000) Entrepreneurial Government: Bureaucrats as Businesspeople. Arlington, VA: The PricewaterhouseCoopers Endowment for the Business of Government.

Lavine, M. (2014) Paradoxical Leadership and the Competing Values Framework. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 50:2 pp189--205.

Quinn, R. E. and Rohrbaugh, J. (1983) A Spatial Model of Effectiveness Criteria: Toward a Competing Values Approach to Organizational Analysis. Management Science, 29:3 pp. 363--77.

Sackmann, S. A. (2011) ‘Culture and Performance’ in N. M. Ashkanasy, C. P. M. Wilderom and M. F. Peterson (eds) The Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage. pp188--224.

Seddon, J. (2005) Freedom from Command & Control: A Better Way to Make the Work Work. Buckingham: Vanguard Press.

Tat-Kei Ho, A. (2002) Reinventing Local Government and the E-Government Initiative. Public Administration Review, 62:4 pp434--44.

D102 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Law Building LAW3
Behavioral dynamics in public governance: the point of view of Italian public managers Andrea Tomo, Danila Scarozza, Alessandro Hinna, Gianluigi Mangia, Ernesto De Nito

Abstract. The aim of this paper is to analyze the behavioral aspects within public governance (Hinna et al., 2010; Hinna et al., 2013; Tomo et al., 2014) focusing the attention on the relationship between politicians and public managers.

According to the main assumptions of agency theory and starting from the debate developed in corporate governance literature, in fact, the primary role of boards is to monitor actions of agents to ensure their efficiency and to protect principals’ interests. Nevertheless, public organizations are predicted to be low performers, because politicians impose objectives that might help them to gain votes but might conflict with efficiency. (Buchanan, 1972; Niskanen, 1971). For public organizations, the costs of monitoring this behaviour likely offset the benefits (Cuervo, and Villalonga, 2000). Moreover, information asymmetry between board and management is likely to play an important role in determining whether boards in public organizations will be effective in carrying out their tasks.

As previous literature suggested (Finkelstein, and Hambrick, 1996; Rutherford, and Buchholtz, 2007) board composition, tenure and quality on one hand, and their system of  information-gathering on the other, are likely to impact the ability of the board to effectively carry out their tasks.

However, following the general agreement on the fact that also dynamical and interactive processes can influence board effectiveness and organizational performance, we expect that behavioral issues at the governance level may also influence the managerial.

In this frame, this paper aims to contribute to the literature in public governance by investigating if governance issues affect the operating level (managerial level); in particular, we try to understand if and how public managers perceive behavioral dimensions of public governance as relevant to fulfill their tasks.

To do this, we are conducting semi-structured interviews to 40 managers within the Italian Labour Ministry. In particular, the survey was built using the main blocks concerned board dynamics: they refer to the process dimensions that concur to explain board behavior (interactions both inside and outside the boardroom, ethics, consequences from the CEO duality and power, decision making processes, conflicts, etc.).

 

References.

Cornforth C., and Edwards C., 1999, “Board roles in the strategic management of Non-profit organizations: theory and practice”, Corporate Governance: an International Review, 7(4): 346-362.

Cornforth, C., 2003, “The Governance of Public and Non-Profit Organizations. What Do Boards Do?”, Routledge, London.

Farrell C.M., 2005, “Governance in the UK Public Sector: The involvement of the governing board”, Public Administration, 83(1), 89-110.

Finkelstein, S., and Mooney, A. C., 2003, “Not the Usual Suspects: How to Use Board Process to Make Boards Better”, Academy of Management Executive, 17(2): 101–113.

Forbes, D.P. and Milliken, F.J., 1999, “Cognition and corporate governance. Understanding boards of directors as strategic decision-making groups”, Academy of Management Review, 24(3): 489–505.

Dalton, D., and Daily, C., 1998, “The other ceiling”, Across the Board, 35: 19.

Dalton, D.R., C.R. Daily, J.L. Johnson, and A.E. Ellstrand, 1999, “Number of Directors and Financial Performance: A Meta Analysis”, Academy of Management Journal, 42 (6): 674–86.

Gabrielsson, J. and Huse, M., 2004, “Context, behaviour and evolution. Challenges in research on boards and governance”, International Studies of Management and Organization, 34(2): 11–36.

Goodstein, J., Guatam, K. and Boeker, W., 1994, “The effects of board size and diversity on strategic change”, Strategic Management Journal, 15: 241–250.

Hendry, Kevin and Kiel, Geoffrey C., 2004, “The Role of the Board in Firm Strategy: Integrating Agency and Organizational Control Perspectives”. Corporate Governance, 12 (4): 189-205.

Hillman A.J., 2000, “The resource dependence role of corporate directors: strategic adaptation of board composition in response to environmental change”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2.

Hillman A.J., Withers M.C., Collins B.J., 2009, “Resource Dependence Theory: a review”, Journal of Management, 35.

Hinna, A., Mangia, G. and E. De Nito, 2010, “Board of director within public organizations: a literature review”, International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, 5: 131-156.

Hinna A., Scarozza D., De Nito E., Mangia G., and Tomo A., 2013, “The concept of board in the public sector: the contribution of the behavioral perspective”, paper presented to 13th Euram Conference, Istanbul, 26-29 June.

Huse, M., 2007, “Boards, Governance and Value Creation”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Lawrence, B. 1997, “The black box of organizational demography”, Organization Science, 8: 1–22.

McNulty, T. and Pettigrew, A., 1999, “Strategists on the board”, Organizational Studies, 20(1): 47–74.

Milliken, F.J. and Martins, L., 1996, “Searching for common threads: understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups”, Academy of Management Review, 21(2): 402–433.

Ocasio, W., 1999, “Institutionalised Action and Corporate Governance: The Reliance on Rules of CEO Succession”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 384–416.

Pearce, J.A., II, and S.A. Zahra. 1991. “The Relative Power of CEOs and Boards of Directors: Associations with Corporate Performance”, Strategic Management Journal, 12: 135–53.

Pettigrew, A., 1992, “On Studying Managerial Elites”, Strategic Management Journal, 13: 163–182.

Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. 1978, “The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective”, New York: Harper & Row.

Stiles P., and Taylor, B. 2001, “Boards at Work: How Directors View Their Roles and Responsibilities”, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Tomo A., Scarozza D., Hinna A., Mangia G., De Nito E., 2014, Challenging governance between internal and external actors: a resource dependence approach for studying dynamics and interactions within public organizations, in press, Corporate Ownership & Control.

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A bigger piece of the pie: PSM and Leadership as factors underlying civil servants’ preference for budgetary expansion Jesse Campbell

Despite long period of political and public backlash, government expenditure has not decreased significantly in developed countries, and in many cases continues to rise. While the classical view of the budget-maximizing bureaucrat has received much criticism over the years, and moreover has not held up well under empirical tests, on the other hand, civil servants may still have a preference for budgetary expansion based on alternative factors. This paper focuses two potential underlying factors in civil servants’ preference for budgetary expansion. Firstly, civil servants’ public service motivation, which captures their commitment to the values embedded in public ideals and institutions, may provide an alternative to the self-interested bureaucrat of the Niskanen model. A second alternative may be found in transformational leaders who present an attractive vision of the organization’s mission and goals to the individual employee. This paper examines these and other potential factors underlying the preference of civil servants for departmental budgetary expansion. Using data from a nation-wide survey of local government civil servants in South Korea, we test a number of empirical hypotheses related to the above concepts. The findings of the paper suggest that both PSM and transformational leadership are associated with a preference for departmental budgetary expansion. Following a presentation of the principle findings, the implications of the study, as well as its limitations, are discussed, and directions for future study are suggested. These findings contribute to  the ongoing debate about the growth of government as well as shed additional light on several central concepts in the contemporary literature.

B108 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART1
Individualisation, accounting and performance management in the public sector - Improving the performance of the ‘makeable’ employee Henk ter Bogt Panel G 102: Performance measurement of the hybridgovernment in the age of austerityIndividualisation, accounting and performance management in the public sector - Improving the performance of the ‘makeable’ employeeAUTHOR[1]University of Groningen, the NetherlandsPaper to be submitted to the IRSPMconference, Birmingham, U.K., 30 March – 1 April 2015AbstractIn recent years the public sector in the Netherlands and many other Western countries has been confronted with considerable budget cuts. In several cases the budgets cuts led to drastic interventions in the activities, size and management of the organisations inthe governmental and other public sectors. New Public Management (NPM), whoseprecise form varies considerably among countries, generally involves theintroduction of various private sector management techniques and methods in thepublic sector. If the role of NPM-like initiatives has gradually decreased fromthe end of the 1990s or so, as suggested by several authors (see, e.g.,Osborne, 2006; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2011), the measures taken since the start of the financial and economic crisis could suggest a revival of NPM.Of course, NPM-ideas have been criticised a great deal, in practice as well as by academics(see, e.g., Kickert, 1997; Pollitt, 2000; Lapsley, 2009). However, not only the recent financial and economic crises and the related budget cuts in the publicsector have seemed to be relevant for explaining the continuing (and perhapsrecently intensified) role of NPM in the public sector in the Netherlands andother countries. NPM may also have remained important because several of the factors and developments which induced its rise since the early 1980s stillplay a role. For example, economic ideas from monetarism, public choice theory,transaction cost theory and principal-agent theory (see, e.g., Buchanan andTullock, 1974, pp. 18-36; Bozeman, 2007, pp. 3-7), whose focus on economic individualism and the market provided a theoretical basis for ‘neo-liberalism’and NPM, can be regarded as still very influential in the political decision-making.Furthermore,there may still be a role to play for the various developments in society which have probably considerably contributed to the gradual change from the ‘Old Public Administration’ (OPA) ideas to the NPM views – a change which could beregarded as being related to a shift in the ‘ideas taken for granted’ by large groups of people in society (see, e.g., Burns and Scapens, 2000; ter Bogt,2008). Apart from the serious budget problems of many Western countries in the1970s, several authors suggest that factors such as an increasing size of the middle class in the decades after World War II, individualisation, higher average income levels, and a declining belief in an active role of the state, paved the way for NPM (see, e.g., Hood and Schuppert, 1988, pp. 251-252; Hood,1991, pp. 7-8; Lynn, 2006, pp. 1, 24-26, 52-58). Without wanting to overly simplify these various developments, it seems to be justified to consider many of the factors previously mentioned as being directly related to, or helping to promote a decreasing belief in ‘the collective’ and an increasing focus on ‘individualisation’ amongst large groups in society.With respect to NPM, it is particularly important that the process of individualisation has gradually become ‘institutionalised’ (Beck and Beck-Gernsheim, 2002, pp. 8-15; see alsoSchnabel, 2004). This implies that in many respects the state and, more generally, the public sector, have started to direct their attention and their policies towards the individual (instead of, for example, towards the level of thefamily, or specific groups). The individualisation of citizens has changed from a ‘right to enjoy a freedom culture’ into the ‘duty to fend for oneself’, so to say (Beck, 2002, p. 24; see also Giddens, 1991, p. 75). In this context, it could be observed that the recent political ideas about, for example, the ‘Big Society’ in the UK and the ‘Participation society’ in the Netherlands indicate that the process of institutionalised individualisation is still very prominentat the macro level of society.In the management of government organisations in the Netherlands, such forms of institutionalised individualisation also seem to be clearly visible. The paper suggests that despite NPM’s shortcomings and the developments since the concept was introduced, NPM-like initiatives remain important in the public sector in the Netherlands. The paper does not primarily base this observation on, for example, the recent budgetary problems of government organisations, but in particular on the continuing role of some societal forces, trends and economic theories, which have played a role in the rise of NPM.The paper presents findings of recent field research in local government organisations in the Netherlands. It concludes that (institutionalised) individualisation, which has been an important factor behind the rise of NPM, is still a major force, also at the micro level of individual local government organisations. The paper sketches some recent developments in the management of a number of local government organisations (municipalities and provinces). This sketch is based on various (accounting) documents of local government organisations and 21 interviews with 26 politicians and civil servants, which were conducted in the period October 2012-March 2014. The findings from the field research indicate that the managementof the organisations researched, and particularly their performance management, focuses more than in the past on the individual civil servant and his/her ‘attitude’ and performance, suggesting a continuing process of institutionalised individualisation at the micro level too. This emphasis implies in particular that the performance evaluation and ‘behaviour and personal development’ of the individual receive much attention from the management of the organisation.The various interviewees actually showed a rather strong belief in the ‘makeability’ of the civil servants in their organisation. The initiatives taken recently, often related to Human Resources Management (HRM), have had the intention to create a different organisational culture, more in particular to change the attitude and focus of the civil servants in the public sector, i.e. making them transparent, performance-oriented, efficient and, more generally, ‘business-like’. The developments as described in this paper at the macro level of society and the micro level of organisations, may show that government is either consciously or unconsciously, and more than in the past, focussing its policies on the changing of behaviour (see also Rhys et al., 2013). This also seems to be the case with respect to the management of Dutch local government organisations.This focus has in recent years been revived with the idea that it could help organisation as a whole to improve their performance, i.e. to work more efficiently. In this way the consequences of the budget cuts should be ‘absorbed internally’, so that citizens do not have to be confronted with them. Performance evaluation and accountability for activities are certainly not only based on quantitative performance information (see also Townley, 1996; Broadbent and Laughlin, 2002;Almquist et al., 2013). However, accounting instruments do play an important facilitating role, for example, by providing information for the job appraisal or personal developments interviews between an individual civil servants and his/her superior (in which such performance and accountability issues are discussed). In relation to this, several interviewees underlined the importance of the recent improvements in the internal accounting and management information systems.So the organisations included in the empirical research, which are not necessarily representative for all local government organisations in the Netherlands, pay a lot of attention to making civil servants more accountable for their attitude and performance. All in all, it seems that the process of institutionalised individualisation at the macro level of society has also influenced the internal management of local government organisations and the individuals in it. This situation could make it likely that the role of NPM in general and that of individualisation, remain their importance in the management of the public sector. The spread of the ideas about, for example, New Public Governance could be a relevant development which plays a role in the public sectors of various countries, and could supplement the NPM-ideas (see, e.g., Osborne, 2006;Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2011, pp. 208-214; Almquist et al., 2013). However, it seems doubtful whether they will considerably reduce the role of NPM-like ideas and economic rationality in the management of Dutch local government in the years to come.LiteratureAlmquist, R., G. Grossi, G.J. van Helden, C. Reichard, 2013, Public SectorGovernance and Accountability, CriticalPerspectives on Accounting, Vol. 24, No. 7-8, pp. 479-487.Broadbent, J., R. Laughlin, 2002, Public service professionals and the NewPublic Management: control of the professions in the public services, in: K.McLaughlin, S.P. Osborne, E. Ferlie (eds.), NewPublic Management – Current trends and future prospects, London and NewYork: Routledge, pp. 95-108.Burns, J., R.W. Scapens, 2000, ConceptualisingManagement Accounting Change: An Institutionalist Framework, Management Accounting Research, Vol. 11,No. 1, pp. 3-25.Bozeman, B., 2007, Public Values andPublic Interest: Counterbalancing Economic Individualism, Washington,Georgetown University Press.Beck, U., 2002, A Life of One’s Own in a Runaway World: Individualization,Globalization and Politics, in: U. Beck, E. Beck-Gernsheim (eds.), Individualization- InstitutionalizedIndividualism and its Social and Political Consequences, London: Sage, pp.22-29.Beck, U., E. Beck-Gernsheim, 2002, Losing the Traditional:Individualization and ‘Precarious Freedoms’, in: U. Beck, E. Beck-Gernsheim(eds.), Individualization-Institutionalized Individualism and its Social and Political Consequences,London: Sage, pp. 1-21.Buchanan, J.M., G. Tullock, 1974, TheCalculus of Consent – Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy, AnnArbor: University of Michigan Press.Giddens, A., 1991, Modernity andSelf-Identity – Self and Society in Late Modern Age, Cambridge: PolityPress.Hood, C., 1991, A PublicManagement for All Seasons?, PublicAdministration, Vol. 68, Vol. 1, pp. 3-19.Hood, C., G.F. Schuppert,1988, Evaluation and Review, in: C. Hood, G.F. Schuppert (eds.), Delivering Public Services in Western Europe,London: Sage, pp. 244-260.Kickert, W.J.M., 1996, PublicManagement in the United States and Europe, in: W.J.M. Kickert (ed.), Public Management and Administrative Reformin Western Europe, Cheltenham/Northampton: Edward Elgar.Lapsley, I., 2009, New PublicManagement: The Cruellest Invention of the Human Spirit?, Abacus, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 1-21.Lynn, L.E., 2006, PublicManagement: Old and New, New York/London: Routledge.Osborne, S.P., 2006, The New Public Governance?, Public Management Review, Vol. 8, No. 3,pp. 377-387.Pollitt, C., 2000, Is the Emperor in His Underwear? –An Analysis of the Impacts of Public Management Reform, Public Management, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 181-199.Pollitt, C., G. Bouckaert, 2011, Public ManagementReform - A Comparative Analysis, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Rhys, J., J. Pykett, M. Whitehead, 2013, Changing Behaviours: On the Rise of thePsychological State, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Schnabel,P., 2004, Individualisering in Wisselend Perspectief, in: P. Schnabel (ed.), Individualisering en Sociale Integratie,The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, pp. 9-30.AUTHOR, 2008, Management Accounting Change and Newpublic Management in Local Government: A Reassessment of Ambitions and Results,Financial Accountability & Management,Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 209-241.Townley, B., 1996, Accounting in Detail: Accountingfor Individual Performance, CriticalPerspectives on Accounting, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 565-584.[1] Address for correspondence: Henk J. ter Bogt,Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700AV  Groningen, the Netherlands; e-mail: h.j.ter.bogt@rug.nl G102 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST2
What Time for management accounting systems in public networks? The case of the Women Protenction in Italy and Child Safeguard in England Mariafrancesca Sicilia, Georgios Kominis, Gaia Bassani

Due to complexity and intractability of public problems, collaborative networked arrangements have now become a  key pillar of the social infrastructure (Mandell and Keast 2008).

Scholars have already dealt with the motivations for networking in the public sector (see, for example, O'Toole (1997), amongst many). Far less attention has been paid to management accounting and control systems in inter-organizational relations involving public sector entities.Calls from  Hopwood (1996) and more recently from Klijn (2008)have accentuated the point that research needs to explore the features of controls and accounting systems in the new organizational settings that appear to transcend organizations’ legal boundaries. Although some recent research activity towards this direction is evident, this has mostly concentrated in private sector settings (see Caglio and Ditillo (2008) for a review) with a few notable exceptions (Broadbent and Guthrie, 2008). For this reason and due to the idiosyncrasies of public sector inter-organizational collaborations, Barretta and Busco (2011) and Hodges (2012) recently called for further study of inter-organization management and control systems in public sector collaborations. Indeed, this seems more relevant today, when the public sector in most western economies is operating within conditions of crisis and resource scarcity.

With the inter-organizational collaborative forms in government nowadays considered as the main institutional and organizational mantra, the understanding of the factors that facilitate the efficient running of these organisational forms is more important than ever for the effective provision of services they provide to the public. From this perspective, the role of management accounting in public network assumes a critical role.

This research aims at investigating the nature  of management accounting mechanisms and the role that they play in mediating the work of actors within networks. The study is  inductive and exploratory research in nature, and is operationalised through a comparative case study (Eisenhardt, 1989; Yin, 1994). The empirical settings of the case studies are two consolidated collaborations at the local government level, in Italy and the UK respectively. We focus our analysis on two national contexts first, on the basis of the literature suggesting that national culture may play an important role in the ways in which inter-organisational arrangements are designed and evaluated (see, for example, Hulst and Montfort, 2012) and, secondly, because they represent information-rich arenas for the purposes of our research (Stake 1994; Patton 1990).

The findings results of this study will contribute both to the literature of public management and to that of managerial accounting and controlby offering empirical evidence of the role of management accounting beyond the traditional models of hierarchies or markets in the public realm. Moreover, it will contribute to practice by offering useful insights to managers and policy-maker who seek to identify what accounting mechanism can support the effectiveness of public network partnerships.

 

 

G102 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST2
Why do public service fail? A service logic study of failure demand Martin Fransson, Per Skålén, Johan Quist

Recently scholars (Osborne et al. 2013; Radnor and Osborne 2013; Wright et al. 2012) have initiated a discourse where public management theory and practice is grounded in service logic. They argue that current public management theory is not fit for purpose because of its focus on intra-organizational processes and because it is derived from goods producing firms. It thereby ignores the fact that public sector organizations are service organizations.

 

Radnor and Osborne (2013) and Wright et al (2012) recommend empirical studies of the public sector informed by service logic, an end contributed towards here. In particular we focus on failure demand (Seddon 2003), a key issue within the public sector. Failure demand has been addressed by focusing on intra-organizational processes and based on a goods logic presupposing that value, like in a manufacturing plant, is created mainly inside the Public Sector Organizations (PSOs). Building on Osborne et al. (2013), and by the use of service logic, we study the interaction between PSOs and the users of its services, thereby contributing to theorizing and understanding the reasons for failure demand. The aim of the paper is to elaborate the understanding of failure demand in the public sector and to analyze its causes.

 

In order to achive this aim, the paper draws on a study of more than 1200 interactions in the form of phone calls and e-mails between two large PSOs and citizens. By analyzing these interactions we identify seven types of demands made by the citizens for services from the PSO's. We conclude, for instance, that failure demand constitute of 40% and 70% of the incoming calls to the two studied organizations respectively. We further identify 10 generic service logic anchored causes that drive failure demand. As an example, one such driver is that citizens often receive insufficient information about the current status of their cases. We discuss the implications of the findings from the perspective of service logic for public management theory in general and the conceptualizations of failure demand in particular. One implication concerns the fact that citizens themselves make mistakes leading to failure demand. We also present suggestions for future research and managerial implications. One such implication is the method developed in this study, which may assist public sector managers to independently investigate and address failure demand.

D107 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART4
Co-production, publicness and social exchange: Extending public service-dominant logic John Alford

The emergence of the idea of public service-dominant logic, and the consequent reshaping of the notion of co-production as an unavoidable phenomenon rather than an ‘added-on’ optional extra, hold out the promise of a more authentically public sector-oriented conceptual framework for understanding the core businesses of government (Osborne 2010; Osborne et al 2012; Radnor et al 2014). But insightful as it is, there remains room for this idea to be extended to incorporate still more of what is distinctive about public sector management. Firstly, it is thus far limited to serving individual clients, who receive private value in the services they consume. It needs to comprehend the consumption of public value by the collective citizenry – a difficult challenge because the citizenry forms and expresses ‘preferences’, and relates to services, in a different way than individual clients. Secondly, many public services entail the application of coercion – the legal authority of the state – to those with whom they deal in service-encounters. This is at odds with the notion of ‘delighting’ customers, since it means disadvantaging them for the sake of the collective citizenry.

This paper first extends the argument in support of the basic idea of co-production as a necessary feature of public services, utilising the concepts of inter-dependency and exchange. The paper then explains three areas that require extension of the theory:what co-producers actually contribute; the importance of distinguishing public value; and the use of legal compulsion. Utilising social exchange theory, it proposes concepts for comprehending and handling each in ways that retain – indeed depend on – acknowledgement of public service-dominant logic.
D107 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART4
Public services professionalism reborn: toward a service-dominant conception Stephen P Osborne, Zoe Radnor Contemporaryprofessionalism within public services delivery is suffering a crisis ofconfidence. Built upon the exercise of judgement within a framework ofprofessional skills and knowledge, such professionalism is increasinglycriticised for elitism, replacing civic and community values with those of theprofessional and for eroding its value base in the pursuit of efficiency. Anexample of such ‘broken’ professionalism is in the field of risk management inpublic services. Here the exercise of technical expertise by health and safetyprofessionals has replaced community engagement in the negotiation of risksagainst benefits by a technocratic assessment of the level of risk andstrategies for its management. Brown & Osborne (2013) have demonstrated theimpact of this upon the innovative capacity of public service organisations andthe way that it has led to the exclusion both of citizens and of service usersin judgements about appropriate levels of risk in relation to the potentialbenefits of an innovation.Ourargument is that this parlous state of affairs has occurred because we haveallowed professionalism in public services to evolve in a product- and policy-dominantenvironment that has privileged technical expertise over the governance of the process(es)of public services delivery, rooted in a proper understanding of co-production.We have articulated public services as manufactured ‘products’ that aredependent for professional ‘expertise’ for their realisation rather than thefacilitation and sustenance of on-going relationships between professionals,service users and citizens (Osborne et al 2013, Radnor and Osborne, 2013).Asan alternative to this socially exclusive technocracy, we propose a differentbasis for public service professionalism. Rather than being based in theexercise of a discrete body of professional expertise, we argue that true public service professionalism involvesunderstanding the nature of public services as ‘services’ so needing toconsider the implications for co-production. This leads to the replacementof a product-dominant view of professionalism by a service-dominant (Lusch& Vargo 2006) one that emphasises the need to engage in and govern theprocesses of public service delivery in order to maximise service userempowerment and co-production in the service delivery process as well as theengagement of citizens in the processes of service planning and engagement.  This view does and should not exclude therole and expertise of the professional but actually utilise it to secure moreeffective governance and effective delivery. Thepaper will explore briefly the development of public service professionalism.It will emphasise the product-dominant logic of this (failed) conceptualisationand its implications for the delivery of public services It then explores thebasis of an alternative conceptualisation which is based on previous servicemanagement research and which we have termed a public service-dominant logic(Osborne et al, 2013). The paper then focuses upon the implications of this‘new professionalism’ for the management of  co-production in public services delivery. Asa result it will develop a set of propositions for this public service-dominantprofessionalism and locate them within existing co-production theory. Finally, thepaper will explore what this new professionalism would mean in practice for theco-produced delivery of public services – including both the opportunities anddangers that it presents.References to be included in thefull paper D107 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART4
Citizen participation in local planning process in Nepal: Does participation contribute to strengthening local planning and accountability systems? A case study of Godamchaur and Irkhu Village Development Committees Ganesh Prasad Pandeya

Citizen participation in local government has gained a great deal of scholarly attention in order to develop an effective system of delivering local good governance and improved public service (Irvin & Stansbury, 2004). Scholars suggest that participation shows a promise in making local governance more responsive and accountable (UN, 2008; Yang & Holzer, 2006), and development management, more rational, efficient, and equitable (UN, 2008). Despite this, it remains, in many countries in many cases, rhetoric rather than practical (IAP2, 2009; UN, 2008) because participation effectiveness significantly depends on the participation contexts and capacity (Yang & Pandey, 2011). This suggests that identifying contextual factors in a specific setting is required. Government of Nepal has taken citizen participation in local government as key to promoting and sustaining local democracy and development from the grassroots. Nevertheless, it is still unclear what difference citizen participation in LGs has made in Nepal because its effects have rarely been studied empirically. The main objective of this study is to show the association between citizen participation and its outcomes in terms of improvement in local planning and accountability systems.

Research methodology

This study employs a qualitative approach of analysis by integrating data from multi-case methods. This is particularly relevant to gain a holistic view of participation as well as to answer ‘how’ questions in the particular context (Yin, 1994). Two village development committees (VDCs)—namely Godamchaur and Irkhu—were selected purposefully to ensure similarity and diversity between the cases. I applied multiple methods of data collection—focus group discussions, key informant interviews, participant observations, and study of official records and artifacts—to get the benefit of data triangulation method (Yin, 1994). I classified the data into broader categories, themes and sub-themes that emerged conducting the cases by open coding method. Once the categorization of each case was completed, these categories were compared and contrasted with each VDC and reordered to see the pre-dominance of themes, similarities and differences in the process and outcomes of participation. If some evidences did not hold true across cases or were found extreme positive or negative side, they were considered to unreliable. I merged the two cases by applying cross-case analysis method through building abstraction across cases.

Conclusion

The finding showed that participation matters for improving local planning and accountability system. In both case VDCs, citizen participation can have produced a number of positive effects, albeit some ambiguity appeared due to mainly the existence of various constraints posed by capacity, power, incentives and political representation gaps. The study indicates the importance of participation towards making participatory and democratic local decisions, increasing public deliberation on community matters, enriching local planning and budgeting system, strengthening local accountability system through improving transparency, responsiveness, legitimacy and trust, and empowering citizens by developing civic skills and virtues.

In addition, participation appeared to be an important strategy of social transformation for at least four reasons. Firstly, participation contributed towards the construction of solidarity and cooperation among community members, and shows the promise in changing the social power structure, especially in the case of Godamchaur.  Secondly, it appeared a tool of reducing gender, caste and class based parities.  Previously voiceless, excluded and powerless people in the community were found to be in a path towards voice sonant, inclusive and empowered. Thirdly, participation imparted civic knowledge, skills and competence, particularly women, poor and uneducated, to better deal with VDC officials. Finally, overall, the result indicates that broad-based institutional change and development at local level is possible when supply and demand side of governance work on equal footing underpinned by mobilization of people and thickening of social connectedness for their empowerment.

References

IAP2. (2009). Painting the landscape: A cross-cultural exploration of public-government decision making. International Association of Public Participation. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from www.Iap2.org

Irvin, R. A., & Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision making: Is it worth the effort? Public Administration Review, 64(1), 55–65.

UN. (2008). People matter civic engagement in public governance, World Public Sector Report 2008. New York: United Nations.

Yang, K., & Holzer, M. (2006). The performance trust-link: Implication for performance measurement. Public Administration Review 66(1),114-26.

Yang, K., & Pandey, S. K. (2011). Further dissecting the black box of citizen participation: When does citizen involvement lead to good outcomes? Public Administration Review, 71(6), 880–892.

Yin, R. 1994. Case Study Research: Design and Methods (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publication.

 

 

 

C101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
Understanding the role of co-production in outcome-based contracting through a public service-dominant logic Michelle Catherine Farr

This theoretical paper explores the contribution of a public-service dominant logic (Osborne et al 2013) in the area of outcome-based contracting in public services and the nature of co-production within this. This is a particularly important area of study with the increasing popularity of outcome-based contracting through different public services (Talvitie-Brown and Yearsley 2014; Disley and Rubin 2014; Culley et al 2012). Theoretically the service-dominant approach highlights how a ‘customer’ is an inherent co-producer of services, and the way in which both the provider and customer acts influences the service process and its outcomes. Within services, value is co-created through the application of skills and knowledge where providers and customers act as resource integrators within service provision (Vargo et al 2008). When clients apply their own resources through the service process, value is co-created which can then lead to service outcomes for clients (Ng et al 2009). This theoretical contribution and its implications are brought to life in its application to examples of public service outcome-based contracting (OBC). OBC can be understood as a contracting system where providers are paid according to the outcomes that they achieve for clients, such as employment attained and maintained (Lane et al 2013), reductions in reoffending (Disley and Rubin 2014) and drug and alcohol recovery (Culley et al 2012). This means that a provider’s payment for services are partially dependent upon clients’ capacities for co-producing outcomes as a result of a service process. In OBC examples research has highlighted practices of ‘creaming’ and ‘parking’ (Shutes and Taylor 2014), whereby clients are either ‘creamed’ and provided with additional support to easily achieve outcomes or ‘parked’ because the resources needed to co-produce outcomes are too high. This paper explores the implications of this for issues of equality, effectiveness and innovation in public services.

D107 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART4
30 years of studies on the transparency, accountability and corruption: Lessons learned and opportunities for future research Mauricio Vasconcellos Leao Lyrio, Rogerio Joao Lunkes, Emma Teresa Castello Taliani The study reported here is located in the discussion of transparency in the public sector aiming at reflecting upon lessons learned from researchers’ experiences in their investigations and upon their suggestions for further research. In this paper, of an exploratory nature, the qualitative dimension of the review of literature is addressed – grounded in a structured and unintentional approach inspired by previous studies (Hoque, 2013; Tasca, Ensslin, Ensslin, & Alves, 2010) and built around both qualitative and quantitave data – with a view to deepening the understanding of this specific phenomenon. As regards the research method, data are collected from articles published in consolidated data bases acknowledged by the scientific community of the area selected by means of the technique known as ‘skimming’ (Grellet, 1981; Nation, 2009); treatment is given on the basis of content analysis as a form of data interpretation and management (Denzin & Lincoln, 2006). By means of an inductive process, data are organized with a view to identifying emerging research topics, which will become analytical categories to be treated by means of textual reports (Merrian, 2002). The theoretical framework consists of a combination of concepts deriving from a discusión of the phenomenon of transparency (Cerrillo-i-Martínez, 2012; Grimmelikhuijsen, 2012; Meijer, 2013) in its relation with the issue of accountability (Romzek & Dubnick, 1987; Schedler, 1999; Sinclair, 1995) and corruption (Gonzalez, Robles, Araujo, & Delsoto, 2006; Kim, 2008; Pillay, 2004; Riley, 1998; Rossi, Murillo Fort, & Puente Karolys, 2002; Zafarullah & Siddiquee, 2001). As results, lessons learned on the research topics identified are systematized and a future research agenda is proposed on the basis of the suggestions put forward by the researchers. Relevance of the study can be claimed in terms of its contribution to the identifications of knowledge gaps to merit the attention of researchers in the area. L101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF1
The Performance Audit Movement: The Experience of Bangladesh Rizwan Khair, Asif M Shahan

The Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) through providing an independent assessment of different government programs and agencies, play an important role in enforcing accountability, reducing fiduciary risk and measuring the outcome of different programs. In the last few decades, the role and functions of the SAIs have changed significantly and whereas in the past, these institutions mainly focused on voucher-based compliance auditing, now a days, the audit institutions are concentrating more on performance-based auditing. This has happened mainly due to the introduction of New Public Management (NPM) reforms in the public sector. The NPM movement has affected not only the concept and mechanisms of service delivery, but also has introduced a new dimension of public accountability especially by emphasizing on the development of program goals and objectives. In effect, the NPM movement has significantly redefined the accountability movement and allowed the SAIs to play a new role and in some cases a redefined role.

The performance audit is now being practiced by most of the western developed democracies and the developing countries are also being encouraged to adopt this practice. Consequently, a number of SAIs of the developing world has started to play this new role. Even though much has been written about the performance auditing and the role of the audit institutions in this new "performance movement", almost all of these have focused on the audit institutions of the developed world. Given that the political and administrative structure and culture as well as history of the developing countries are significantly different than the developed ones, it can be assumed that the performance movement in these countries will go through a different pathway and the problems faced by these SAIs will also very. However, we have very little to no idea about how the SAIs of the developing countries are adapting to this new role, what type of problems they are facing and how they are dealing with these. This paper can be considered as the first step to filling up this gap in the literature.

In this paper, we have specifically looked into the experiences of the Office of the Comptroller & Auditor General (OC&AG) of Bangladesh to evaluate the role of this institution in introducing the performance-based auditing in different ministries and government programs of the country. Our main research questions are- (a) What is the process through which the O C&AG of Bangladesh is conducting performance auditing?( b) What are the problems faced by the institution and how is it dealing with these problems? (c) How effective is the OC&AG in influencing the performance of different government agencies? For this paper, in order to answer these questions, we have reviewed the recent performance audit reports of the OC&AG. In addition to that, we have also interviewed a number of audit and government officials to understand their perceptions about the process and impact of recent performance audit initiatives in the context of Bangladesh.

I101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART8
Moving forward by looking backwards: Using manager transitions to analyze the effects of management Maria Falk Mikkelsen

While most scholars of public management agree that estimates of managerial effect using a traditional OLS design with cross sectional data can be biased due to problems of selection (e.g. good managers being able to choose to work at better organizations), few papers actually succeed in minimizing selection bias (O'Toole and Meier 1999;Meier and O' Toole 2005). Thus new approaches to estimate the effect of management is warranted.

In this paper I present a semi-parametric framework by Bertrand & Schoar (Bertrand and Schoar 2003) used to estimate the effect on management in the private sector. The semi-parametric framework combines manager and organization fixed effect entailing that the effect of managers is estimated as the change in performance due to manager transitions—controlled for general trends in performance and different time-varying organizational characteristics. As the effect of managers is estimated independently of organizational time-invariant characteristics, problems of selection bias are severely reduced.

I use this framework to estimate the total effect of principals in Danish public schools on three different performance measures: student performance, discrimination of minorities and equity. The analyses are performed using a unique dataset combining register data on school and municipality characteristics with employment history of all principals and performance and socioeconomic data on students in Danish schools from 2002 to 2011. Utilizing that I can follow principal job change between schools, quality of principals is measured as the fixed effects of principals in a model with student and teacher controls as well as year and school fixed effects.

[The author of this abstract would like to join the methodological track and would also like to be considered for the award procedure]

Reference List

Bertrand, M. and A. Schoar (2003) Managing with style: The effect of managers on firm policies, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 4, 1169-208.

Meier, K. J. and L. J. J. O' Toole (2005) Managerial Networking: Issues of Measurement and Research Design, Administration & Society, 37, 5, 523-41.

O'Toole, Jr and K. J. Meier (1999) Modeling the Impact of Public Management: Implications of Structural Context, Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory (Transaction), 9, 4, 505.

B102 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART1
Leadership, motivation and span of control: A qualitative multi-level study of transformational leadership and public service motivation in organizations with different numbers of employees per leader Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Bente Bjørnholt, Louise Ladegaard Bro, Christina Holm-Petersen

Employee motivation is expected to be a primary mechanism through which leaders exert their influence (Paarlberg and Lavigna, 2010), making it very important to study how public managers can best increase their employees’ motivation. This might differ between different organisations, depending for example on the number of employees per leader (i.e. span of control). If leaders have fewer employees, they are able to spend more time in direct contact with each employee, and this might increase the effect of leadership on employee motivation. The key objective of this paper is to study the relationship between leadership and motivation in different organizations, and we have chosen to investigate similar organizations with varying span of control.

We focus on a specific type of motivation, namely public service motivation (PSM), because it has been shown to increase performance in public organizations (Brewer, 2008; Bellé 2013; Andersen, Heinesen & Pedersen, 2014). PSM refers to the motivation to serve others and improve the well-being of society at large (Perry and Wise 1990), and although it has been a major focus of research in public administration during the last quarter of a century, our understanding of what this research means for management practices is underdeveloped (Perry, 2014: 34&42). Recent research does, however, strongly indicate that transformational leadership is very relevant if leaders want to increase PSM (and ultimately performance) (Wright et al. 2011; Bellé 2014).

Transformational leadership is expected to change and transform people by appealing to the importance of collective and/or organizational outcomes (Northouse, 2010:171; Moynihan et al. 2012: 147). Transformational leaders are supposed to “develop, share and sustain a vision to elevate follower motivation to higher levels of performance” (Jung and Avolio 2000: 949). This sense of vision (and mission and purpose) among employees is expected to provide confidence and direction about the future of the organization and to encourage the employees to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the organization and its clientele. An important question in the literature is thus whether public managers succeed in making their employees look beyond self-interest and be “motivated by experiences and identities that are ‘other regarding’” (Paarlberg & Lavigna, 2010: 710). Do they, in other word, succeed in increasing their employees’ PSM?

Until now, transformational leadership has primarily been investigated in private organizations (Bass, 1985), but we agree with Wright and Pandey (2010:77) when they argue that “transformational leadership [may be] particularly useful in public and nonprofit organizations given the service and community oriented nature of their missions”. This also implies that transformational leadership is highly relevant for PSM, because PSM is related to a subset of public values that are connected to the common good and public interest (Andersen et. al. 2013).

The few existing empirical studies of transformational leadership and PSM (Park & Rainey 2008; Wright et al. 2011; Vandenabeele, 2014; Krogsgaard et al. 2014) find a positive relationship between the two concepts, but we need to know more about how and under what conditions transformational leadership has a potential to motivate employees in the public sector, before we can use this knowledge to improve public management. We argue that it cannot be assumed that leadership has the same effect in all organizations. As argued by Paarlberg and Lavigna (2010: 712), motivating employees to act on a shared vision is dependent on alignment between the employees’ values with those of the collective, and that is expected to be more difficult if the span of control is big, because more people can have more different understandings of the vision, and because leaders with more employees might be able to spend less time in direct contact with each employee. We therefore expect that the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ PSM is stronger when the span of control is smaller. The specific research question in this paper is accordingly how transformational leadership affects employee PSM, and whether span of control moderates the relationship?

Empirically, we study 16 Danish public childcare centres selected so that we have systematic variation in span of control for organizations which are as similar as possible in all other regards. We use a multilevel design with several qualitative data sources (32 semi-structured interviews with employees, 16 interviews with direct leaders and 6 interviews with the leaders of these direct leaders combined with mission statements and systematic observation). These childcare centres care for children between 0 and 6 years, and they are very well-suited to test the relationship between transformational leadership, public service motivation and span of control, because they have strong public service oriented missions, and because there is variation in the leaders’ span of control and used leadership strategy. Furthermore, although the association between transformational leadership and PSM is attracting much scientific attention right now (Vandenabeele 2014; Krogsgaard et al. 2014), we still lack in-depth, qualitive understanding of the mechanisms between the two concepts. Having interviewed leaders on two levels and their employees (and being able to link their statements), our empirical data is uniquely suited to answer the research question.

The paper can either be part of the general panel or be placed in the methodological track. Methodologically, the key contribution is the advanced qualitative multi-level design. Substantially, the paper contributes by being (to our knowledge) the first robust analysis of transformational leadership, span of control and PSM which also goes into detail with the causal mechanisms and with both employee and leader understandings of the association.

References:

Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Eskil Heinesen, and Lene Holm Pedersen (2014) How Does Public Service Motivation Among Teachers Affect Student Performance in Schools? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 24 (3): 651-671.

Andersen, L.B., Beck Jørgensen, T., Kjeldsen, A.M., Pedersen, L.H., Vrangbæk, K. (2013): "Public Service Motivation and Public Values: Conceptual and Empirical Relationships". American Review of Public Administration 36 (3): 126-136.

Bass, Bernard M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press.

Bellé, Nicola (2013). Experimental evidence on the relationship between public service motivation and job performance. Public Administration Review, 73, 143–153.

Bellé, Nicola (2014). Leading to make a difference: A field experiment on the performance effects of transformational leadership, perceived social impact, and public service motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 24, 109–136.

Brewer, Gene A. (2008). Employee and Organizational Performance. In J. L. Perry & A. Hondeghem (Eds.), Motivation in Public Management. The Call of Public Service (pp. 136-156). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jung, Dong I. & Bruce J. Avolio (2000). Opening the Black Box: An Experimental Investigation of the Mediating Effects of Trust and Value Congruence on Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior 21(8): 94964.

Krogsgaard, Julie Alsøe, Pernille Thomsen & Lotte Bøgh Andersen (2014) Only if we agree? How value conflict moderates the relationship between transformational leadership and public service motivation. International Journal of Public Administration 37 (12): 895-907.

Moynihan, Donald P., Sanjay K. Pandey, and Bradley E. Wright (2012). “Setting the Table: How Transformational Leadership Fosters Performance Information Use” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 22 (1): 143-164.

Northouse, Peter G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Paarlberg, Laurie E. and Bob Lavigna (2010). Transformational Leadership and Public Service Motivation: Driving Individual and Organizational Performance. Public Administration Review, 70: 710–718.

Park, Sung Min & Hal G. Rainey, Hal G. (2008). Leadership and public service motivation in US federal agencies International Public Management Journal 11 (1): 109-142.

Perry, James L. Perry & Lois Recascino Wise (1990). “The Motivational Bases of Public Service” Public Administration Review 50 (3): 367-373.

Perry, James L. (2014) The motivational bases of public service: foundations for a third wave of research, Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration, 36:1, 34-47.

Vandenabeele, Wouter (2014). “Explaining public service motivation: the role of leadership and basic needs satisfaction” Review of Public Personnel Administration 34 (2): 153-173.

Wright, Bradley E. & Sanjay K. Pandey (2010). “Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector: Does Structure Matter?” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 20(1): 75–89.

Wright, Bradley E., Donald P. Moynihan & Sanjay K. Pandey (2011). “Pulling the Levers: Transformational Leadership, Public Service Motivation, and Mission Valence” Public Administration Review, 72 (2): 206–215.

B102 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART1
Transparency, accountability and corruption: The state of the art in the public sector Mauricio Vasconcellos Leao Lyrio, Rogerio Joao Lunkes, Emma Teresa Castello Taliani This paper is part of ongoing research on transparency, addressing its relationship with accountability and corruption in the context of the public sector. It aims to analyse the state of the art related to the topic, in a time span from the eighties up to present days, from a structured and unintentional approach inspired by previous studies (Hoque, 2013; Tasca, Ensslin, Ensslin, & Alves, 2010) and built upon both a qualitative and a quantitative dimension. For the purposes of the present study the quantitative dimension is focused on, by means of the statistical method known as logistic regression with dichotomic independent variables (Hosmer, Lemeshow, & Sturdivant, 2000), with a view to establishing a correlation between the following aspects: reearch topic, research environment, theoretical framework, research methods, and data analysis techniques. The study is conceptually based on the discussion of the evolution of public management from a patrimonialist perspective (Bresser-Pereira, 1996), going through burocratic reform (Motta, 2013; Secchi, 2009; Staroscky, Nunes, Lyrio, & Lunkes, 2014) and the New Public Management approach (Bonsón, Torres, Royo, & Flores, 2012; Monfardini, 2010; Papenfuß & Schaefer, 2010), to the concept of public governance (Bovaird & Loffler, 2003; Mutula & Wamukoya, 2009; Pedersen, Sehested, & Sørensen, 2010). In addition, this paper aims to establish the interrelations existing between this new form of conceiving public management and the concepts of accountability (Romzek & Dubnick, 1987; Schedler, 1999; Sinclair, 1995) and transparency (Cerrillo-i-Martínez, 2012; Grimmelikhuijsen, 2012; Meijer, 2013). The results to be reported will present the state of the art as regards the correlation between these three aspects looked at. Relevance of the study can be claimed in terms of its contribution to a panoramic view of how research in the area is carried out and how researchers have approached their topics. G108 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST1
Effects of PB on organizational and managerial practices in LGs in Estonia: the case of Tartu Jelizaveta Krenjova, Kristina Reinsalu

Participatory Budgeting (PB) has by now been widely applied all over the world numbering at least 1500 cases. It has often been celebrated as the triumph of participatory democracy enabling the empowerment of citizens through their engagement in the decision-making process.

There is a growing body of research describing the implemented PB practices and their results. However, focusing on the input and output legitimacy, the existing literature often neglects “the other side of the coin”, i.e. the managerial and structural reforms that the local government might be going through when implementing PB. There is a clear lack of analysis that would look both at the dynamics of direct participation and if and how this re-shapes the organizational culture and management practices of local governments.

The current paper aims at investigating how the experience of PB influences organizational and managerial practices of local government by examining the case of Tartu, Estonia. The city of Tartu was the first city in Estonia to experiment with PB last autumn and continued to implement this participation practice this year as well. While not neglecting the possible effect of PB on input and output legitimacy of LG, we focus in the analysis on the additional perspective on if and how local government is able to respond to external pressure (such as newly implemented participation practice) and rethink its practices. The methodology of the research relies on triangulation of methods (documentation review, observation of procedures, focus groups, in-depth interviews, questionnaires). The theoretical framework aims at synthesizing literature on democratic deficits in representative democracy, responsiveness of government and organizational learning process.

C101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
Incidence of social accountability in local governance: the case of the Network for Fair, Democratic and Sustainable Cities and Territories in Latin American cities Paula Chies Schommer, Andres Hernandez Quinones, Armindo dos Santos de Sousa Teodósio, Pamela Del Valle Cáceres

One of the highlighted innovations of the last decade in Latin America, in terms of access to information, accountability and local government, is the emergence of the Latin American Network for Fair, Democratic and Sustainable Cities and Territories (RLCTJDS). The network gathers over 60 citizen initiatives in 10 countries in Latin America, which develop indicators to monitor and obtain the citizen perception of quality of life, in order to evaluate local government, influence public policies and promote citizen engagement in local government.  It is considered a new form of social accountability at local level that has spread to some of the most important cities in Latin America and to numerous other medium cities. Despite the importance of these initiatives, there is little evaluation on their incidence regarding accountability, participation and governance. This paper is guided by the following research question: “What is the nature of these initiatives that form the Latin American Network for Fair, Democratic and Sustainable Cities and Territories and what type of incidence have they reached in accountability, participation and local governance?” With this question in mind, this paper approaches: i) presentation of repertories of initiatives actions; ii) analysis of their incidence on transparency and accountability, citizen participation, public policies and on the forms of local governance; iii) reflection on the notion of sustainable cities that guide the action in each initiative and their incidence in this field, both local and transnational. The research was conducted between 2012 and 2014, considering research on incidence of all the initiatives that are part of the network and case studies in Brazil, Colombia and Argentina, using interviews, participant observation and document analysis.

 

References

Cáceres, P. (2010). La “construcción” de la ciudad como bien público. Tendencias y alternativas. Congreso “El Bicentenario desde una mirada interdisciplinaria: legados, conflictos y desafíos”, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, 27, 28 y 29 de mayo de 2010. ISBN 978-950-33-0785

 

Olvera, A.; Isunza Vera, E. (2004); “Rendición de cuentas”: los fundamentos teóricos de una práctica de la ciudadanía. In: Ziccardi, Alicia (comp) Participación Ciudadana y Políticas Sociales en el ámbito local, ISS-UNAM, INDECOL, COMECSO, México, pp 335-358.

 

Fiabane, D.; Alves, M. A.; Brelàz, G. (2014).  Social accountability as an innovative frame in civic action: the case of Rede Nossa São Paulo. Voluntas, 25 (3), pp. 818-838.

Fox, J. (2006). Sociedad civil y políticas de rendición de cuentas. University of California Santa Cruz: Center for Global, International and Regional Studies.

 

Gaventa, J. (2002). Towards participatory local governance: six propositions for discussion. Institute of Development Studies.

 

Goetz, A. M.; Jenkins, R. (2001) Hybrid forms of accountability: citizen engagement in institutions of public-sector oversight in India. Public Management Review, v.3, n.3, p. 363-83.

 

Hernandez Quiñones, A. (2011). Análisis y Estudio de Experiencias de Accountability Social en América Latina. Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Sobre el Desarrollo. Bogotá, CIDER.

 

Isunza, E.; Lavalle, G. A. (2010). Precisiones conceptuales para el debate contemporáneo sobre la innovación democrática. Participación, controles sociales y representación. In: Isunza, E; Lavalle, G. A. (coord). La innovación democrática en América Latina. Tramas y nudos de la representación, la participación y el control social, México, Universidad Veracruciana, CIESAS.

 

Moncrieffe, J. (2011). Relational accountability: complexities of structural injustice. London: Zed Books.

 

O’Donnell, G. (1998). Accountability horizontal e novas poliarquias. Revista Lua Nova. São Paulo: n. 44: 27-54.

 

Oxhorn, P. (2003) Cuando la democracia no es tan democrática. La exclusión social y los límites de la esfera pública en América Latina. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, Enero- Abril, Año/Vol. 46, Nº 187, Universidad Autónoma de México, pp 131-176.

 

Peruzzotti, E. (2006). La política de accountability social en América Latina. In: Isunza, E.; Olvera, A. (eds). Rendición de Cuentas, Sociedad Civil y Democracia en

América Latina, México, Manuel Porrúa Editores, pp. 245-264.

 

Romanutti, V. (2012). Instrumentos de Rendición de Cuentas y Participación Ciudadana, aprendizajes en América Latina, Red Ciudadana Nuestra Córdoba, Fundación AVINA, Red Latinoamericana por Ciudades y Territorios Justos, Democráticos y Sustentables, Córdoba, Argentina.

 

Selsky, J.W., & Parker, B. (2005). Cross-Sector Partnerships to Address Social Issues: Challenges to Theory and Practice. Journal of Management, 849-873.


C101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART5
Changing the performance conversation; Similarities and differences in discussion about the performance of different professional organizations Scott Douglas, Mirko Noordegraaf

The conversation about the performance of professional organizations has always been characterized by different voices demanding different things; professionals want discretion, client want tailored service, politicians want accountability, taxpayers want cheap services, etc. As shrinking budgets amplify this dissonance, the performance conservation can turn into a true cacophony of clashing demands, resulting in more changes of strategy for the management and more pressure on the professionals.

The question here is whether the quality of the performance conversation differs across different professional domains and what drives these differences. Are some professional organizations better in orchestrating the debate? Or is there simply more agreement between parties on the goals of certain professional service to begin with? We address these question through a comparison of four different professional domains in the Netherlands; the judiciary, health care, youth care and higher education sector.

We signal two important similarities. Firstly, all the professional organizations reviewed here have to contend with performance expectations which are perennially ambiguous and contradictory. As these performance expectations rest on a constellation of different values, they can never be fully reconciled into one set goal. Secondly, for all the professional organizations, the value of efficiency was increasingly integrated into the performance demands. As citizens and clients push for more value for money, cost management has become integral to good professional service. On the whole, the performance conversation around professional organization therefore remained heated and contented.

However, there are two important differences in the way professional organizations respond to the dynamics of the performance debate. Firstly, some organizations focus the debate by differentiating between professional domains. For example, the judiciary branch focused on specific parts of the process when optimizing efficiency, while insulating others parts of the service for overzealous process optimization. In this way, the value of efficiency is reigned in for the domains where it is less relevant, while boosted for the subdomains where it should be leading. Secondly, professional organizations differ in the way they position different actors in the performance conversation. Effective organizations, for example, give a larger role to the professionals in setting the standards for performance, creating more support for regulatory measures in the steering process later on.

Our findings demonstrate that professional organizations will have to continue dealing with a tumultuous performance conversation. The similarities between the different organizations suggest that this contention is not unique and is unlikely to go away. What can change, however, is the way the performance conversation is organized. The discussion can be structured by differentiating between professional subdomains and selecting the relevant value. The quality of the conversation can be improved by strengthening the role of the professionals in determining what performance means and how it can be organized.

B104 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART3
The challenge of clinical engagement in the healthcare organizations: significance and perceptions between clinicians in Italian NHS Anna Prenestini, Roberto Grilli, Federico Lega

The topic of this paper is interesting for the discussion in the panel B104 “The future of public professional: redefinition, re-invention or revolution?”, in particular for the theme 3: Reconfiguring public professionalism. In fact, currently there is an evolution of the role of clinicians and their contribution to the governance of healthcare organizations: we want to analyze this phenomenon to understand what the literature says but also what the professionals think about this involvement.

A growing part of managerial literature is analyzing the novel roles of clinicians and how they can contribute to improve the performance of their healthcare organizations. Some authors find a positive association between the participation of doctors on boards and outcomes such as financial performance and quality ratings (Godall, 2011; Jiang et al., 2009; Veronesi et al., 2013a; Veronesi et al., 2013b). Other studies suggest that clinical engagement in strategic decision-making can help the involvement with quality improvement initiatives (Goldstein & Ward, 2004; Prybil, 2006). Due to these positive results on organizational performances, in many countries attempts have been made to involve clinical leaders more in the governance of healthcare organizations.

The aim of the study is to analyze the modalities, dimensions, and tools to promote and activate the clinical engagement in the governance of the healthcare organizations confronting the differences between the literature and the perceptions of doctors.

The methodology is divided in two different phases: first, we have conducted a scoping review of the literature on clinical engagement in order to analyze the dimensions and tools of doctors involvement in the governance of healthcare organizations; second, we have developed a questionnaire to understand the perceptions about clinical engagement between the Italian doctors. The questionnaire is administered to a sample of doctors that work in healthcare organizations situated in one of the most relevant Italian regional healthcare service: Regione Emilia Romagna (RER). RER has been pioneer in the diffusion of policies and regulations about involvement of clinical leaders in the governance of healthcare organizations.

The study want to give an important contribute to the academic and policy debate on doctors involvement, analyzing the gap between the theories and the perceptions of doctors on the significance, the relevance and the modalities of clinical engagement.

B104 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART3
Dual Roles of Social Entrepreneurship in China's Social Transition: A Case Study in New Countryside Construction Yuanfeng ZHANG, Lijiang ZHAO, Jiali ZHANG While there is a growing body of research on social entrepreneurship in the US and the UK, relatively little is known about the emerging and developing economies’ entrepreneurs (Sundaramurthy, et al., 2013). In the China, although the growth of social entrepreneurship has been seen since the reform and opening-up started in 1978, systematic research is scarce (Shu, 2010). As such, the aim of this paper is to address this concern, focusing on a case study of a Chinese social entrepreneur and the social enterprise- Beijing Green Cross (BGC)-he created. Drawing on theories related to social entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs including social capital theory, social innovation theory, personality traits theory, and competence theory, this paper argues that the social entrepreneurs in transition society of China play dual roles, as social innovators and institutional reformers. This is in marked contrast to their counterparts in developed countries, who operate in relatively stable institutional contexts and are primarily social innovators which indentify social problems and resolve the problems creatively. (Venugopal and Abhi, 2013) As institutional reformers, Chinese social entrepreneurs are also tasked with building favorable institutional environments to support change by forging public private partnerships in a hierarchical system. (Zhang, 2006) The paper argues that specific competencies are required of social entrepreneurs to play this dual role. These competencies may emerge from social entrepreneurs' personality traits, but also their professional and career experiences. Resources for playing the dual role are from social entrepreneurs' social network, social capital in villages, supportive local government, and trust between partners. Though it is still at the beginning stage, Chinese social entrepreneurs not only create social value by resolving the social problems, but also facilitate the reform of public administration in China. D106 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Nuffield Building NUF1
Hybrid adult social care provision in England: the role and use of management accounting systems Enrico Bracci, Danny Chow

Adult social care in England has been severely hit by the austerity measures of the government in the last three years. The overall cut in public spending between 2011 and 2013 was around £3 billion, with further savings envisaged in 2014 and in the next parliament from 2015 onwards. Such large reductions in funding have led to local authorities innovating their service provision to deal with the cuts.  One such innovation is the introduction personal budgets in adult social care, which shifts the responsibility for managing adult social care from local authorities to the individual care recipients.  Individuals, rather than the local authority, are entrusted with the responsibility for managing a budget to ensure that their own care needs are met (Bracci, 2014). In 2013 some 56% of eligible clients between 18-65 years of age were recipients of self-managed adult social care services, in contrast with a national target of 70%. Personal Budgets is becoming an increasingly important policy for the Department of Health in managing the performance of adult social care through the Adult Social Care Outcomes Framework 2013/14 (DH, 2012).

There is a growing literature focusing on the role of accounting and its interaction with the field of social work (Bracci & Llewellyn, 2012; Jönsson & Solli, 1993; Llewellyn, 1994), the impact of personal budgets on governance and accountability (Bracci, 2014), the impact of managerialism on professionals (Purcell & Chow, 2011), and the ‘accounting-isation’ of inter-organisational relations in home care services (Kraus, 2012). However, scant attention is devoted to the role of management accounting and performance measures within the institutional contexts of adult social care. This paper bridges this research gap by addressing the following research questions.  We seek to understand the impact of the austerity regime on changing rationales in the provision of social care through the case of the introduction of Personal Budgets at a local authority in England.  In particular, we are interested in understanding how management accounting tools and performance measures are being deployed to facilitate such changes?

Our case study was based at a local authority that is a front-runner in the introduction of personal budgets in adult social care  as a way to deal with severe budget cuts over the past three years (for example, in 2013, 85% of the authority’s eligible clients opted for self directed support). Secondly, the authors were granted full access to meet key actors and collect internal documents, allowing an in-depth analysis. We first visited the local authority during its inception of Personal Budgets in 2010 and interviewed professionals, care managers and politicians.  We followed this up with additional interviews in 2014 to observe developments/changes in their use of Personal Budgets.

Our preliminary findings suggest that management accounting activities has been devolved down the managerial hierarchy to extend beyond the organisational boundaries. The social care professionals we interviewed tended to agree on the “theoretical” benefits of personal budgets, but they struggled with the pressure to meet the strict performance targets and manage reduced budgets. It appears that the local authority had to resort to innovation by using additional management accounting tools within adult social care in order to achieve their financial and non-financial targets. Besides, within the new institutional context of personalisation some hybrid arrangements were implemented. In particular, the devolution of responsibility to the clients and their personal assistant(s) was premised on the assumption that budgets will be managed better as clients will take a greater interest in their own care and become more discerning in how their care budget is being spent. This creates additional pressures for social care professionals, as the hybridising ethos of costing into caring work begin to erode their professional authority to make decisions on care issues on behalf of their client. Ironically, the work of social care professionals is also being transformed into quasi-gatekeepers and budgetary managers as they are being empowered to co-manage and plan the personal budgets of the clients.

 

Bracci, E. (2014). Accountability and governance in social care: the impact of personalisation. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 11(2), 111–128.

Bracci, E., & Llewellyn, S. (2012). Accounting and accountability in an Italian social care provider: Contrasting people-changing with people-processing approaches. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 25(5), 806–834. doi:10.1108/09513571211234268

Department of Health, (2012), The Adult Social Care Outcomes Framework 2013/14,  Department of Health, London.

Jönsson, S., & Solli, R. (1993). “Accounting talk” in caring setting. Management Accounting Research, 4(3), 301–320.

Kraus, K. (2012). Heterogeneous accountingisation. Accounting and inter-organisational cooperation in home care services. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 25(7), 1080–1112.

Llewellyn, S. (1994). Managing the Boundary: How Accounting Is Implicated in Maintaining the Organization. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 7(4), 4–23. doi:10.1108/09513579410069821

Purcell, C., & Chow, D. S. L. (2011). The reorganization of children’s social services in England. Public Money & Management, 31(6), 403–410. doi:10.1080/09540962.2011.618764

 

 

 

G102 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Aston Webb AST2
Professional capacity - Positive coping by professionals in public domains Mirko Noordegraaf, Nina Van Loon, Madelon Heerema, Marit Weggemans Professional capacity Positive coping by professionals in public domains Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf Nina Marie van Loon, MSc Madelon Heerema, MSc Marit Weggemans, BSc

(Utrecht School of Governance, Utrecht University)

Contact Information:

m.m.heerema@uu.nl

INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE 2015 (IRSPM).

Panel B104: The future of public professionals: redefinition, reinvention or revolution?

Chaired by: dr. Scott Douglas (Utrecht University)

dr. Federico Lega (Bocconi University)

prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf (Utrecht University),

prof. dr. Bram Steijn (Erasmus University)

prof. dr. Justin Waring (Nottingham University Business School),

Abstract

For a long time, the debate on public professionals was dominated by the perspective of ‘professionals under pressure'. Red tape, rules, regulations and control, coming from governments, policy-makers, inspectorates, executives managers constrain professional work and autonomies, whereas all of these actors stress the importance of autonomy. This can be described as the ’discomfort of autonomy’. Autonomy has become paradoxical. In order to enlarge freedoms and leeway in professional practices, and reduce strict top-down governance, the focus on governing by targets and outputs has grown so large, that it has started to reduce professional freedom and leeway. This has led to many insights on either demotivated professionals who are dissatisfied, or on manipulative professionals who game the system. In this paper, we shift focus. Despite pressures and burdens, we see capable professionals in daily practice; instead of underscoring the fact that professionals are defenseless victims or active manipulators, we focus on how professionals cope in more positive ways. We focus on professional capacity.

We define professional capacity as: “the ability to cope with complex contexts, in such a way that professional are able to render high-quality services, in committed and viable ways”. In order to act, certain resources are necessary, which are either already available, or can be created. We assume, based on Self-Determination Theory and the Job Demands- Resources model that autonomy, experience and networks will activate a motivational process, which leads to more professional capacity. Additionally, the right capabilities, i.e. proper commitment, attitude, and motivation will enable professionals to contribute in a meaningful matter and strengthen their professional capacity.

We take active attitudes and behaviors of professionals into account, using insights from positive coping literature. We focus on pro-active behavior, in which professionals take action over their situation. Research coming from positive organizational psychology, although understudied, shows that active employee outcomes improve conditions for both workers and organizations. By using survey and interview data, we show the nature of professional capacity in (Dutch) primary education and we sketch implications for research and practice.

B104 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART3
Meeting arising challenges in higher education: collaborative leadership and value co-creation Melinda Szocs This paper focuses on leadership in higher education as mediation of conflicting sets of requirements from students and staff in higher education. The theory of collaborative leadership (Benis, 1989; Heifetz, 1994; Astin& Astin, 2000) will be employed as it is said to reduce conflicts and facilitate value creation. Higher education institutions increasingly recognize that they operate in a service industry, and are placing greater emphasis on meeting the expectations and needs of the students (DeShields et al. 2005) than ever before. With the high number of number of universities competing (Kotler and Fox, 1995), and significant increases in higher education  tuition costs (UK Government, 2012), universities are forced to strive in an environment where student needs and satisfaction are central to their survival. Indeed as Beatie et al. (2014) put it education is facing the “'perfect storm' of challenges ranging from growing expectations and demand, demographic change and financial constraint”.According to Vargo and Lusch (2004, 2008) consequential work on a service-dominant logic based on collaboration, creation of value “has the meaning derived and assigned within the group participating in the creation of the product or service”. Thus, as noted by many other academics in the last decade following a service dominant logic there is a strong potential for the service providers and receivers to work together.  In context of higher education provision, this has been mentioned in terms of teaching quality (Diaz-Mendez, 2011), learning communities (Southern, 2001), e-learning systems (Uden, 2011), and in discussions of classroom responses and technologies (Bowden and D’Alessandro, 2011).Using empirical data from The National Student Survey (NSS) results combined with in-depth focus groups with students and staff, this research will be based on student and staff needs evaluated though in-depth focus groups in two universities in England and Scotland.  The findings of this study have the potential to offer a more comprehensive understanding of service provision in higher education. This will be matched with recommendations on effective leadership and the creation of value for participating stakeholders involved in high education service delivery. B112 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART9
Public–private partnerships as a governance mode for sustainability Katharina Spraul, Julia Thaler

Since 1987 members of the UN have strived for improving sustainability to fulfill the vision of sustainable development (Brundtland, 1987). Blurring boundaries between the public, private nonprofit and private forprofit sector have led to an intense debate about the social, ecological and economic responsibilities of public and private actors (Albareda et al., 2008; Kelman, Hong, & Turbit, 2013; Mendoza & Vernis, 2008). Applied sustainability mechanisms encompass public actor-dominated regulation (Christmann, 2004; Eberlein & Matten, 2009), governments showing “exemplary behavior” (Klijn & Koppenjan, 2000: 152), and industry self-regulations (Barnett & King, 2008; Grabowsky, 2013; Hart, 2010). Here the question on governance for sustainability arises.

The current discussion on governance for sustainability seeks to identify governance modes (from hierarchy over collaborations to market) that will be able to realize sustainability in its complex nature (Berardo, Heikkila, & Gerlak 2014; Farrell et al., 2005; Jordan, 2008). Specifically when institutionalized collaborations such as public–private partnerships (PPP) come into play, it has to be taken into account that these governance modes are characterized by collaborative elements such as trust and relational contracts – going beyond agency and transaction cost theory (Bovaird 2004; Emerson et al., 2013; Teicher et al., 2006).

Regarding governance modes for sustainability, PPP as particular form of collaboration are of utmost interest: In PPP, partners have to find “the right balance between the investors’ willingness to invest […] and long-term sustainability objectives” (Koppenjan, & Enserink, 2009: 293). This is particularly true, as in PPP the focus on short-term cost reductions might be at odds with long-term sustainability objectives (Gestel et al., 2008; Koppenjan & Enserink, 2009). However, PPP might contribute to society at large (Kivleniece, & Quelin, 2012).

Against this background, this study tries to answer the research question: What combination of mechanisms for sustainability and collaborative elements are necessary to qualify PPP as a governance mode for sustainability (see Figure 1)?

This qualitative study uses a complex case study to analyse the exploratory research question. We build our analysis on interviews with members of the municipal council, mayors, heads of municipal main office and municipal services, and private partner-experts as well as documentary analysis in the pre-contract (2011) and the operating phase (2013). Results reveal an interplay between sustainability regulation and procedural arrangements on the one hand and the private partner’s basically economic interest in voluntarily going beyond regulation regarding ecological and social aspect on the other hand. Mutual understanding, trust and shared commitment are necessary collaborative elements.

 

Figure 1: Conceptual framework of PPP as governance mode for sustainability

 

References

Albareda, L., Lozano, J. M., Tencati, A., Midttun, A., & Perrini, F. 2008. The changing role of governments in corporate social responsibility: Drivers and responses. Business Ethics: A European Review, 17(4): 347--363.

Barnett, M. L., & King, A. A. 2008. Good fences make good neighbors: A longitudinal analysis of an industry self-regulatory institution. Academy of Management Journal, 51(6): 1150--1170.

Berardo, R., Heikkila, T., & Gerlak, A. K. 2014. Interorganizational engagement in collaborative environmental management: Evidence from the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, online first, doi: 10.1093/jopart/muu003.

Bovaird, T. 2004. Public-Private Partnerships: From Contested Concepts to Prevalent Practice. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 70(2): 199--215.

Brundtland, G. H. 1987. Our common future. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Christmann, P. 2004. Multinational companies and the natural environment: Determinants of global environmental policy standardization. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5): 747--760.

Eberlein, B., & Matten, D. 2009. Business responses to climate change regulation in Canada and Germany: Lessons for MNCs from emerging economies. Journal of Business Ethics, 86: 241--255.

Emerson, K., Nabatchi, T., & Balogh, S. 2011. An integrative framework for collaborative governance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22: 1--29.

Gestel, N. v., Koppenjan, J., Schrijver, I., Ven, A. v. d., & Veeneman, W. 2008. Managing public values in public-private networks: A comparative study of innovative public infrastructure projects. Public Money and Management, 28(3): 139--145.

Grabowsky, P. 2013. Beyond Responsive Regulation: The expanding role of non-state actors in the regulatory process. Regulation & Governance, 7: 114-123.

Hart, S. M. 2010. Self-regulation, corporate social responsibility, and the business case: Do they work in achieving workplace equality and safety? Journal of Business Ethics, 92(4): 585--600.

Kelman, S. Hong, S., & Turbit, I. 2013. Are there managerial practices associated with the outcomes of an interagency service delivery collaboration? Evidence from British crime and disorder reduction partnerships. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 23: 609-630.

Kivleniece, I., & Quelin, B. V. 2012. Creating and capturing value in public-private ties: A private actor's perspective. Academy of Management Review, 37(2): 272—299.

Klijn, E., & Koppenjan, J. F. M. 2000. Public management and policy networks: Foundations of a network approach to governance. Public Management, 2(2): 135--158.

Koppenjan, J. F. M., & Enserink, B. 2009. Public–private partnerships in urban infrastructures: Reconciling private sector participation and sustainability. Public Administration Review, 69(2): 284--296.

Mendoza, X., & Vernis, A. 2008. The changing role of governments and the emergence of the relational state. Corporate Governance, 8(4): 389--396.

Teicher, J., Alam, Q., van Gramberg, B. (2006). Managing trust and relationships in PPPs: some Australian Experiences. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 72: 85--100.

E104 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART6
Conflicting directives for sustainable rural development? Lisa Hansson

Is it possible to promote sustainable rural development in EU, given the current EU directives? The paper departure in what the European Union call “smart growth”, which covers 44, 6 % of the EU budget (2014). Within “smart growth” lie directives to promote competitiveness as well as cohesion for growth and employment (ec.europa.eu 2014). In order to promote sustainable rural development, these directives need to meet. When conflicts of policy objectives occur, in attempting to achieve one objective, another objective may be sacrificed. Alternatively, multiple-logics co-exist and are combined within an institutional setting, may create hybrid policies (Lodge, Wegrich 2012). This paper provides an analyze of central EU directives that are commonly applied in rural areas, namely universal directives of competitive tendering (e.g. dir.2004/17;2004/18) and specific directives of rural development (e.g. no.1303/2013). The paper shows that there are conflicting logics behind the directives. Competitive tendering directives are based on a neo-classical economic rational of specialization (Bovis 2007). While rural development directives have shifted over decades and are now based on a post-productive rational of a multi-functional firm structure (Marsden 2003; Losch 2004; Wilson 2007). Using Swedish data of procurement and rural market structure, the paper also discusses what effects the conflicting logics may have, when both are implemented on the same area. The paper relates to studies of regionalization of EU policies/directives (Scharpf 1996; Benz, Eberlein 1999;) and brings new findings regarding interlocking and conflicting policy outcomes in relation to sustainable rural areas (Woods 2011).

E104 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART6
Water affordability - Is this an issue for regulators in developed countries? Rita Martins, Luis Cruz, Eduardo Barata

Regulation of water services is increasingly important worldwide. Consumer protection and in particular the promotion of affordable prices is one of the main duties of water regulators, regardless the type of the regulatory regime. However, affordability problems are frequently seen as already solved in developed countries. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, contribute to the debate on how much water must be affordable for all by discussing complementary approaches on the affordability concept. Second, using the Portuguese case as an example, and empirically weighting whether residential water charges are affordable for the most vulnerable groups, it intends to assess if water affordability concerns should be reinforced/reoriented.

To address the question of the quantities that might be relevant when discussing water affordability, we start by estimating ex-ante macro affordability ratios for Portuguese mainland municipalities. This analysis is supplemented with the empirical assessment of micro affordability, with household level disaggregated data. Primary data was collected from a household sample of residential users in mainland Portugal (2440 valid questionnaires, from 13 water utilities/municipalities, located in the 5 Portuguese hydrographical regions).

The water affordability analysis at the macro (potential) level shows that, on average, it does not seem to be an important issue in Portugal. On the contrary, at the micro (observed) level it seems to be a problem for significant shares of the households’ sample. Further, regarding low income households, there are affordability problems in 66 Portuguese municipalities, even when considering low water consumption levels.

The proposed integrated analysis, complementing macro and micro approaches, helps to identify who is at risk, revealing that water services’ affordability for poor households should be a focus of concern, also in developed countries. Accordingly, the accomplishment of the social sustainability goal requires water services regulation to review and improve current approaches on affordability issues.

E104 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART6
Integrating Climate Policy into Forestry Policy: A Study of Policy Making within Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia Yogi Suwarno

As a cross cutting issue, climate change has been influencing policy making, particularly in forestry sector in Indonesia. This is mostly because Indonesia has been placed as one of the major carbon emitters in the world due to its deforestation.

Indonesia has acknowledged climate issue in its national and local policy making processes. Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) is a key issue in climate-related forest policy making. However policy architecture on climate-related forest is not well-integrated and properly working together, due to many and different initiatives run behind the program.

Currently there are at least four institutions in ministerial level that directly configure climate-related forest governance and policy in Indonesia. This includes Ministry of Forestry (MoF), National Climate Change Council (DNPI), REDD+ Agency, National Planning Agency (Bappenas), and Ministry of Environment (MoE).  These institutions work on the similar REDD+ programs but driven by different initiatives and agenda. Furthermore the list of involved institutions is inevitably extended when it comes to the governance and policy in local levels.

Therefore the study is to understand the impact of climate policy--as a cross-cutting issue on national forest policy making in Indonesia and the policy and organisational responses from sectoral ministry on climate change agenda.

E104 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART6
Regional Synchrony in Sustainable Development: Harmonising Regulatory Policies in Environmental Conservation in South Asia Habib Zafarullah, Ahmed Shafiqul Huque

With climate change and environmental degradation becoming major issues in the world today, it is imperative for governments within a regional setting to collaborate on initiatives, harmonise their policies, and develop strategies to counter these threats. The environmental regulatory regime in each country will need to be redesigned to create a common framework for action in implementing synchronised policies. However, there are both political and technical deterrents in the way of accommodating the idiosyncrasies, priorities, and interests of collaborating states. Mistrust among the countries at the political level and differences among environmentalists and specialists at the bureaucratic often hinder initiatives. Thus, for the shared wellbeing of the region, harmonisation can serve beneficial purposes. This paper will assess existing policies and strategies in each country in South Asia, find parallels and variations in adopted strategies there, and propose integrated plans of action through collaborative partnerships, such as the South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme and regional initiatives under the United Nations Environmental Programme.  It will focus on climate change solutions, disaster preparedness programs, industrial waste management, and natural resource conservation. 

As environmental issues transcends national boundaries, this paper using a comparative approach will provide pointers to resolving shared problems through collaboration and harmonisation within the gamut of regional environmental governance. It will focus on a group of neighbouring developing countries that have been facing a range of problems relating to the environment and considering the need for redesigning their regulatory structures and policy approaches for ecological wellbeing. Of the eight countries in South Asia, five immediate neighbours sharing common boundaries and experiencing shared problems will be covered. These include: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on both primary and secondary sources, including official records, legislation, inter-state and regional agreements, evaluation reports, impact studies (social, economic and ecological), and commentaries, the paper will establish several processes geared to creating standards and enhancing the use of policy instruments for monitoring environmental problems in the region, resolving inter-country disputes and regulating and administering laws and methods to counter threats. It will attempt to identify solutions to offset regulatory and institutional barriers in achieving preferred results.

I101 March 31, 2015 11:00 12:30 Arts Building ART8
Does co-creation lead to smaller governments? Veiko Lember, Rainer Kattel, Piret Tõnurist

When crowdsourcing and funding are increasingly seen as answers to wide arrange of problems and financing needs, and when it does not take much in terms of skills and investment to create apps and even various social labs, it does not come as a great surprise that various co-creation practices (that is citizens being engaged as co-initiators, co-designers or co-implementers of public services) mostly in the public sector are enjoying a considerably attention from both academics and practitioners. In other words, co-creation practices are symptoms of larger technological and social changes. The literature on co-creation mostly assumes that co-creation and co-production are socially valuable and tries to identify mechanisms that make it work or hamper it. However, we aim to demonstrate that, contrary to emerging popular co-creation treatments, there are some fundamental (natural) mechanisms at work that actually make the whole concept and potential of co-creation less universally applicable than anticipated in the literature so far. One of the key challenges found in both social innovation and public sector innovation practices in general is the issue of diffusion: how to scale up working practices? In what follows we show that through understanding the challenge of diffusion we can in fact gain a much deeper understanding of co-creation practices in social innovations and this in turn enables us to understand social innovation itself better as well. We argue that co-creation represents a fundamental shift away from common service standards and other similar tools of learning and communication that aimed satisfying as many citizens as possible towards a ‘personalized’ or fragmented approach to small groups and almost individual cases. Such successful cases can in fact increase legitimacy of the public sector; however it almost assumes that public sector moves away from rule of law approach towards rule of appropriateness. The question that becomes perhaps most interesting is whether governments can do that and who and how defines what is appropriate?

 

Based on 14 case studies from 7 countries, the article first shows that there are fundamentally different types of co-creation practices; further we show that following the logic of public sector, social innovations follow a very different trajectory of diffusion than private sector innovations. In order to show this we create a novel social innovation specific diffusion curve; third, we show that such a framework (typology and diffusion curve) enables us to explain how co-creation practices emerge and why challenges of diffusion arise and how to overcome them.
J108 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART5
Beyond the optimal scale: the social production of scale in public services Jeroen Postma

As the title of the conference panel illustrates, current thinking about scale and performance in social science literature focusses on finding the “the optimal scale” (e.g. Frech III and Ginsburg 1974; Kuemmerle 1998). However, this approach has important limitations. The first limitation is that it obscures the multiple and conflicting values that are at stake in the public sector, including quality of services, accessibility, innovation, equity and affordability (Oldenhof et al. 2014; Van Egmond and Bal 2010). As some of these values are intrinsically conflicting (Bozeman 2007; Van der Wal et al. 2011), so are definitions of the optimal scale: a scale that might be optimal in terms of efficiency or affordability might be sub-optimal in terms of quality or accessibility. The second limitation is that there is no place for how people experience organizations. Due to the way they are organized, some large-scale organizations may function and be perceived as small-scale and the other way around.

It is therefore necessary to develop a new approach on scale in the public sector. Building on insights from scholars in human geography (e.g. Delaney and Leitner 1997; Marston 2000) and sociology (Lefebvre 1991), I define scale as a ‘social production’. The word ‘social’ indicates that scale is not ‘given’ but the result of human action and meaning making (Hacking 1999). The social production approach calls for micro-level, in-depth studies of:

  • the work that actors perform to produce scale,
  • the underlying values,
  • the influence of developments in the social and political environment on scale,
  • the (subjective) perceptions of ‘small-’, ‘medium-’ and ‘large-scale’ of clients, and
  • the consequences of socially produced scales for public service delivery.

This approach evades the dichotomy between ‘bigger is better’ and ‘small is beautiful’ and the question what the optimal scale is. Instead it proposes a research agenda that focusses on the possibility of a variety of ‘good scales’, both large and small, depending on what is needed in a given situation.

References

  • Bozeman, B. 2007. Public Values and Public Interest: Counterbalancing Economic Individualism. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
  • Delaney, D. and Leitner, H. 1997. The Political Construction of Scale. Political Geography, 16(2): 93-97.
  • Frech III, H.E. and Ginsburg, P.B. 1974. Optimal Scale in Medical Practice: A Survivor Analysis. The Journal of Business, 47(1), 23-36.
  • Hacking, I. 1999. The Social Construction of What?, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Kuemmerle, W. 1998. Optimal Scale for Research and Development in Foreign Environment. Research Policy, 27, 111-126.
  • Lefebvre, H. 1991. The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Marston, S.A. 2000. The Social Construction of Scale. Progress in Human Geography, 24(2): 219-242.
  • Oldenhof, L., Postma, J. and Putters, K. 2014. On Justification Work: How Public Managers Deal with Conflicting Values. Public Administration Review, 74(1), 52-63.
  • Van der Wal, Z., De Graaf, G. and Lawton, A. 2011. Editorial: Competing Values in Public Management: An Introduction to the Symposium Issue. Public Management Review, 13(3): 331-341.
  • Van Egmond, S. and Bal, R. 2010. Boundary Configurations in Science Policy: Modeling Practices in Health Care. Science, Technology and Human Values, 36(1): 108-130.
J108 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART5
Local Government Strategy and Racial Inequality Lauren Hamilton Edwards

The following study is proposed for Panel C102: Diversity in Local Government. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cities in the United States are addressing racial diversity and structural inequality that exists in local governments through long-term strategy development and planning

Recent headlines in the U.S. media have highlighted issues of racial inequality. Most recently, the spotlight has been directed at the city of Ferguson, Missouri, where a police officer shot a young black man, resulting in massive protests. At the local level, racial discrimination goes beyond policing to include other areas such as housing (see de Suza Briggs 2005), environmental justice (see Bellows 2014), and even the distribution of parks (see Vaughn et al. 2013). Local governments are essentially the front line of interactions between citizens and the government and, therefore, are in a position to be either part of institutionalized racism or a player in seeking potential solutions.

Local governments that complete long-term planning have an opportunity to strategize for how they will deal with racial inequality. Most strategic planning processes include an analysis to determine the internal and external issues that organizations face, which typically includes demographic analysis (Bryson 2011). For cities, this could uncover racial fractionalization (the breakdown of racial groups in the city), which should then be acknowledged and addressed in the subsequent strategic plan.

This study combines demographic analysis with a content analysis of strategic plans from cities in the state of Texas. The demographic analysis will help uncover the amount of racial fractionalization in the cities. The content analysis of the plans will determine whether or not cities include strategies that address race in their plans and what type of strategies are used. The main question of this study is: Do cities with greater racial fractionalization use strategies in their plans that concern race to a larger extent than cities with less fractionalization? Preliminary analysis demonstrates that cities often mention the word diversity in their strategic plans but do not specifically address race. Furthermore, cities with significant racial fractionalization are no more likely than those with less fractionalization to include diversity in their plans.

Bellows, Anne. (2014). Holding Local Governments Accountable for Environmental Discrimination: The Promise of California Code 65008. Ecology Law Quarterly 41: 1-35.

Bryson, John M. (2011).  Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

de Suza Briggs, Xavier. (2005). The Geography of Opportunity: Race and Housing Choice in Metropolitan America. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Vaughan, Katherine B., Andrew T. Kaczynski, Sonja A. Willhelm, Gina M. Besenyi, Ryan Bergstrom, and Katie M. Heinrich. (2013). Exploring the Distribution of Park Availability, Features, and Quality Across Kansas City by Income and Race/Ethnicity: An Environmental Justice Investigation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine S1: S28-S38.

C102 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART10
Workforce ageing: Can local government lead the way? Bligh Grant

In many polities across the globe local governments are uniquely positioned to advance the interests of groups of people who have experienced structural inequality as the overriding characteristic of their lives. This inequality is more often than not grounded in particular characteristics of these people, whether it be gender, ethnicity, aboriginality and/ or First Nations status, age, religious belief or a combination of these factors. Further, due to its place-based nature, local governments are also in a position to foster the uniqueness of their areas through particular employment practices.

Many of these same polities are confronted by the challenge of ageing populations, and Australia is no exception. In this contribution to the Panel Session focusing on ‘Diversity in Local Government: Where are where up to?’ Several tasks are undertaken. First, a survey of the problematisation of ageing populations in contemporary developed economies is selectively undertaken. Second, the case study of Australia is examined in more detail, principally from a macro-economic perspective, by focusing on the findings of the four intergenerational reports (IGR) that are now legislatively mandated by the Charter of Budget Honesty Act 1998. The paper then undertakes an analysis of the Australian Local Government Workforce and Employment Census 2013 Report focusing on the age-profile by occupation of the sample. We then consider the putative effectiveness of the ‘National Workforce Strategy 2013-2020’ as an instrument of public policy in addressing the challenge. Implications for comparable polities are then discussed.

C102 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART10
A case study of the Total Place initiative in Scotland: Accounting for risk Paula Sonja Karlsson

Total Place was a policy initiative that was launched by the Labour government in 2009, with 13 pilot programmes across England looking at how public money is spent in a local area and how this could be done more efficiently. Under this initiative local services are delivered based on a geographic place as opposed to the traditional service provision or functional basis. Thus, local budgets can be pooled together to avoid service duplication. This paper discusses the approach taken by one Scottish council in the use of total place based mechanisms. The paper focuses on the background and the rationale of the total place approach. Documentary analysis and interviews have been used to describe the total place approach. Focusing on the challenges that have been identified in the total place initiative related to governance, accountability and leadership issues, the research analyses the council’s approach to risk governance.

The rationale of the case study council to undertake their total place pilots was the realisation that it was spending a lot of money on vulnerable people without actually improving their quality of life; instead the council was often adding further problems, leading to increased social risk. The key risk to these vulnerable individuals was not related to a lack of resources but due to lack of coordination of the existing resources. Thus, by delivering these same services in partnership and by taking a total place approach to the service delivery, the social risks to individuals and communities could be reduced, and the cost of delivering services could be mitigated.

While the total place initiative started as a pilot, the challenge in the future will be how to mainstream this approach. If the council chooses this route for their future service delivery, the risk implications should be sufficiently considered and dealt with in an appropriate manner at an early stage. The case study analysis based on: strategic and operational documents of the total place initiative in the Scottish council; and interviews with council representatives revealed that risk is not sufficiently reflected in the decision making process. Therefore, these findings suggest that there may be systematic deficiencies in the way that place based approaches are implemented with more research needing done in this area.

A101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART2
Is Small Beautiful? Delivering Social Care through Micro-Enterprises Catherine Needham, Kerry Allen, Kelly Hall

Access to good quality, affordable care for people with disabilities and older people is a challenging issue, particularly as demographic changes are increasing the numbers of people who need care. Within England, stories abound of care which is rushed, poor quality and even outright abusive. Policy-makers struggle with the conundrum of how to ensure that the standard of care gets better without overly burdening the public purse.

Part of the solution may lie in micro-enterprises: very small organisations (with five staff or fewer) which provide care and support. The Department of Health has been keen to encourage these organisations, arguing that they can provide individualised and innovative support. This article discusses the findings of a two-year research project that evaluates the contribution that these micro enterprises make, testing if they outperform larger care providers in delivering services to users that are valued; innovative; personalised and cost-effective. The project findings draw on interviews with 108 people who use services and carers, and with 20 people who run care organisations, spanning micro, small, medium and large scales.

Findings indicate that most of the micro enterprises are highly valued by their users and carers, and compare favourably against larger care organisations. The micros offer good value for money due to low overheads. The services that they offer are highly personalised. They are also innovative, in some cases offering support in a completely different way to conventional care services (a what innovation), whilst in others providing traditional support in a more flexible and adaptive way (a how innovation).

However there are also some limitations with the micro-enterprise approach. These include:

- Barriers to entry: micro enterprises often encounter hurdles to market entry, making it difficult to gain market share.

- Boundaries: close relationships between micro staff and service users can create fears of over-dependence

- Conflicts of interest: micros that have spun out of local authorities may be in competition with the statutory sector raising fears about the poaching of clients

- Intensity of support: micros may not be able to provide adequate cover for emergencies or for people needing 24 hour care, suggesting that they may be better suited to preventative work or to supporting people at lower levels of need.

The paper concludes by arguing that the benefits of micro enterprise are considerable, and that there are steps that can be taken to mitigate the limitations. However the feasibility of delivering social care services through a patchwork of micro enterprises, each supporting say 6-8 people, remains uncertain, with risks that such a model is too fragmented to ensure sufficient provision.

J108 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART5
Small is beautiful, yet fragile? Building capabilities in grassroots voluntary and community organisations Rob Macmillan

Civil society often becomes a focus of multiple and contested hopes in challenging times - both for radical projects designed to offer alternatives to mainstream social provision and political action, but also for public managers and commentators seeking cheaper public services beyond the state. In this light, small, grassroots voluntary and community organisations are often feted by policy makers for their closeness to communities and would-be service users, positioned against the ‘dead hand’ of remote and large-scale bureaucracy. But this is often accompanied by a seemingly teleological view that small organisations are rather vulnerable, lack capacity, and need support to develop on a journey to scale and sustainability. The kinds of capacity building support available, and the systems in place to access it are, however, more suited to larger and more formal voluntary and community organisations: capacity building typically requires some pre-existing capacity.

Based on a recent review of literature on capacity building in the voluntary and community sector, and ongoing analysis of the changing field of capacity building and infrastructure in the voluntary sector in the UK, this paper explores the fortunes of small, grassroots voluntary and community organisations in an emerging market for support services. The paper explores what kinds of support small organisations need and want, for what purposes, and the challenges of negotiating a complex, jargon-laden world of capacity building. The paper argues that the pursuit of a transactional market for support services, which appears simultaneously to privilege and seeks to create more formalised organisations, is not well suited to the concerns and priorities of small voluntary and community organisations.
J108 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART5
A study of corporative forms and their performance in local governments in Denmark: The case of technical service departments Andrej Christian Lindholst

This paper presents a study of corporative forms and their performance in in technical administrations in local governments in Denmark. The paper provides a short history of the political agenda and institutional framework for marketization, contracting out and corporatization as well as the paper investigates the degree of corporatization of technical service departments and the comparative performance of corporative forms vis-à-vis other organizational forms (i.e. contracting out).

The study relies on survey data from 2014 distributed to middle managers in the technical administrations in all local governments in Denmark. The degree of corporatization is operationalized by multiple items on the implementation of corporate steering mechanisms as well as the degree in which principal-agent relations are implemented for managing the internal production of technical maintenance services. Performance is operationalized by multiple items on economic, managerial and service outcomes.

The paper contributes to the literature on public management and organization in several ways. Firstly, the paper evaluates the extent of organizational innovations based on long-standing new public management doctrines (corporatization and marketization) in a specific public sector. Secondly, the paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the comparative performance of corporatization of technical service departments in local governments. In perspective, the paper adds to our general empirical knowledge on the organizational and performative outcomes from the efforts in the last 30 years to reform the public sector by implementing managerial and organizational principles from the private sector.

H103 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART7
The impact of contract characteristics on performance of Public Private Partnerships; Erik Hans Klijn, Joop Koppenjan H101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF2
Local Authorities as Social Enterprise Incubators Nina Boeger

Paper Abstract for submission to Panel H103

Local authorities that experiment with different modes of contracting out, public-private partnerships, publicly-owned enterprises and that use companies as vehicles to collaborate with one another have contributed significantly to the emergence of diverse new corporate forms. Of particular significance is their nurturing of social enterprises – for profit businesses that are often member-owned and are driven by particular social and/or environmental purposes – which, without that patronage, would have struggled to gain a foothold in market systems that are so geared to a dominant corporate model.

While local authorities are keen to work with social enterprises to maximise the social value of their public management strategies, a positive side effect of this has been to shelter the social enterprises with which they collaborate from the market system, giving them space to build capacity, to gain critical mass and ultimately to (re-)enter that market and, in turn, bring about its transformation. In this way transformations in public management lead directly to transformations in capitalism.

The paper will consider the legal framework – specifically the UK and EU procurement rules, practices and processes, including the UK Public Services (Social Value) Act 2012 and the EU Procurement Directives of 2014 – in which this takes place, asking to what extent it facilitates and to what extent it hinders experimentation and this nurturing role. It will also consider the impact of the financial crisis and its austerity aftermath on these trends.

H103 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART7
The productivity of Portuguese local water utilities: The effects of different management reforms Francisco Silva Pinto, Rui Cunha Marques

The Portuguese water supply industry has faced paramount institutional changes in the past 20 years. In order to evolve from a vertically integrated unsustainable management and to answer to increasing complex challenges, relevant reforms have been taking place with important goals. Those reforms continuously reshaped the water market structure, clearly separating the wholesale (bulk) from the retail (end-user) activities in water and wastewater services, which are now fashioned respectively into regional and municipal systems. Furthermore, upon the creation of a sector specific regulator, the municipalities were able to resort to several management models (from public corporatized and public-private partnerships, to private concessions). The regulatory activity developed included not only quality of service but also economic regulation: Nonetheless, the later has a different scope depending on the model and the nature of the provider. Therefore, the merits and perverse effects of those reforms (i.e. the regulatory methods used and the management models promoted) in the performance of water supply utilities can be assessed, and when significant, compared. By means of a productivity analysis we investigate the influence of those reforms in the Portuguese water supply industry using an unbalanced panel data for the period 1994-2013. Different non-parametric techniques as the Törnqvist Productivity Index, the Malmquist Productivity Index and the Hicks-Moorsteen Productivity Index were selected to estimate the productivity change. This paper evaluates how successful those reforms have been, and provides answers to some crucial questions.

H103 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART7
Waste management through public, private and hybrid arrangements in Italian metropolitan cities: an analysis of the public value created Lucio Spiridione Dicorato, Filippo Giordano

Especially in times of austerity and cutback policies, local governments, which are in the first line in public service delivery, are supposed to make difficult choices. The public value theory can provide a useful approach to guide their decision-making processes, more pragmatic and valid than the previous New Public Management (NPM) theory. It represents a way of thinking which is both post-bureaucratic and post-competitive and goes beyond the narrow market-versus-government failure approaches, so dominant in the NPM era (O’Flynn 2007, Hefetz and Warner 2004).

The concept of public value has evolved in the last two decades (Moore 1995, Kelly, Mulgan and Muers, 2002, Horner and Hazel, 2005, Bozeman 2007, Bennington 2009). Public value is created by governments through services, laws regulation and other actions and is determined by citizens’ preferences that affect public choices.

The way in which public services are provided in a territory or in a community and political decisions adopted in different fields (e.g. education, health, environment), are affected by the values and preferences of communities. The value and the political relevance that such services represent for citizens affect public decision-making.

The paper aims to advance public value theory by providing an empirical analysis of urban waste management in Italy.

The country produces 528 kg per inhabitant of urban waste, slightly more than the European average of 502 kg. The 2006 reform obliges public administrations – i.e. optimal geographic areas (ATO) in at the nearest installation to waste production and collection – to achieve self-sufficiency in waste disposal. The aim of the reform was to improve efficiency and quality in the sector through the introduction of principles such as competitiveness, liberalization and privatization in public service provision and at the same time to guarantee public values in water service such as reduction of production, waste recycle, cooperation, environmental safe, users satisfaction.

Waste cycle management is provided in Italy through totally public-owned companies, mixed companies or full outsourcing through public tender. We compare the different institutional arrangements adopted by Italian metropolitan cities against both financial performance and ability to safeguard public values.

H103 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART7
Getting crisis lessons implemented: The Dutch Food and Consumer Safety Authority’s response to veterinary crises evaluations Wout Broekema

Although the concept of organizational learning is discussed extensively in the literature (cf. Easterby-Smith 1997; Crossan et al. 1999), not much attention has been paid to how organizations learn from crises (Deverell 2010; Smith and Elliot 2007). More specifically, empirical studies on the topic are scarce and the antecedents of crisis-induced learning are not well understood (Stern 1997). Generally crises are followed up by extensive evaluations in which lessons are drawn and recommendations are made, offering great opportunity to learn. However, crisis evaluation reports are often criticized by scholars for often not leading to ‘real’ learning (Birkland 2009; Resodihardjo et al. 2006), e.g. due to mere political interests, raising the question: To what extent do crisis evaluation reports (actually) contribute to organizational learning? And maybe more important, which characteristics of the evaluation reports further these contributions. Whereas it is accepted that organizational learning consists both of a cognitive part (i.e. knowledge and insights are acquired), and an action part (i.e. translation into improved performance) (Fiol and Lyles 1985), studies on the latter process have remained limited. This is striking as the complexities of the implementation process could form a major barrier for learning (e.g. Lipsky 1980). Therefore this study explicitly addressed also the action part of learning. Our study focused on the Dutch Food and Consumer Product safety authority, as this organization provides us with the opportunity to research similar (veterinary) crises with different reports within the same organization. We analyzed three major veterinary crises: the foot and mouth disease (2001), the avian influenza (2003), and the Q-fever (2007). This research is based on a content analysis of both external and internal evaluation reports and additional policy documents (cognitive learning). Furthermore, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with managers, policy advisors, crises team employees, team leaders, and veterinary inspectors to gain a better understanding with regard to the action part of organizational learning; tracing adaptation of behavior back to characteristics of the evaluations (reports and process).

A101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART2
How to make the Living Lab “live”? – a case study from Northern France Marta Caccamo

MIT architect and academic William J. Mitchell developed the concept of Living Lab in relation to urban planning and city design. Living Labs (LL) were especially used to deliver commercial products and service innovations. However so, they proved to be as effective at bringing together collectives as vaguely correlated to tangible outputs (Veeckmann, et al., 2013). Thanks to their stress on community participation, LL received large consensus within the European Union (Santoro, & Conte, 2009) and they were proposed as instruments to raise competitiveness and achieve territorial cohesion (Mulvenna et al., 2010). This paper enquires into the rationale for setting up Living Labs to foster social innovation within the local milieau through an empirical case study.

Born out of a public policy intuition embraced and fostered by private and university partners, the planned neighborhood of Humanicite’ in Nord-Pas-De-Calais region represents a unique example of triple helix partnership (Ranga and Etzkowitz, 2013) aimed at creating the conditions for social innovation. Lille Catholic University, which was already present in the area with its university hospital, took a major role in the project. Humanicite’ was conceived as a Living Lab where to evaluate and test solutions to improve community life, and where to answer the daily challenges of patients, disabled and non-autonomous. “The Ateliers”, collaborative spaces on site, are an instrument to accompany this ambitious project through the involvement of community stakeholders in theme-based co-creation sessions. Nevertheless the initial good premises were not enough to avoid the emergence of several criticalities throughout the project development. Particularly, institutional parties failed to infuse the level of trust needed by the system to entice community participation.

The paper’s contributions are threefold: (1) advance the existing literature on living labs and local development by providing empirical evidence on the fundamental role of trust; (2) make recommendations on the inclusion of LL in policy making agendas; (3) lay the groundwork for future study on group dynamics at Humanicite’ in the years to follow.

Cited References

Mulvenna, M., Bergvall-Kareborn, B, Wallace, J., Galbraith, B., & Martin, S. (2010). Living labs as engagement models for innovation. In eChallenges, 1–11. IEEE, 2010.

Ranga, M., &, Etzkowitz, H. (2013). Triple helix systems: an Analytical framework for innovation policy and practice in the knowledge society. Industry and Higher Education, 27 (4), 237-262, Special Issue, Innovation policy as a concept for developing economies: renewed perspectives on the Triple Helix system

Santoro, R., &, Conte, M.  (2009). Living Labs in Open Innovation Functional Regions. In 15th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising. Leiden, NL,

Veeckmann, C., Schuurman, D., Leminen, s., &, Westerlund, M. (2013, December). Linking living lab characteristics and their outcomes: Towards a conceptual framework. Technology and Innovation Review, 3, 6-15

 

A101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART2
SERVANT LEADERSHIP IN THE 21ST CENTURY: LESSONS FROM PICASSO Yvon Dufour, Peter Steane

Cubism springs from the art of Pablo Picasso. It was a new revolutionary paradigm in the art world that overthrew classic principles of representation; dispensing with the idea of a single fixed viewpoint that had dominated art for more than six centuries. The idea of one single best way of resolving any public management problem has dominated public management education, research, and practice for nearly a century. The significance and distinctiveness of this paper is to outline the potentialities of Cubism as a source of insight in the search for new ways of practicing public management. Managers and artists are often presumed to be ‘polar-opposites’. However in the wake of the crisis of increasing and more complex public management problems, there are several imperatives to build bridges between these opposites and learn from the insights of cubism.

We use Picasso’s drawings and paintings as a metaphor for how public managers can understand public policy problems in a different light. One of the most distinguishing features of Cubism is the use of multiple perspectives of the same subject captured together on the same canvas. For instance, whereas the face of a person may be irregular and painted with one eye much bigger than the other and the nose pointing in a different direction; all these features show the same subject from different points of view in space and time. This is known as the first (of five) of cubism’s principles – the simultaneity of multiple views - that invites greater scrutiny in re-evaluating the future of a public managers’ job. It is not simply one dimensional management, but the ability to see and hold multiple perspectives, assumptions, and approaches at the same time that suggests a superior level of public management leadership. We outline all five principles of cubism and apply them to public management. This is the value of cubism. Just as cubism challenged new approaches to art in redefining innovation and art leadership in a new century, so cubism provides a powerful metaphor for reconceptualising leadership, innovation and capabilities for public managers.

L101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Aston Webb AST1
A Policy-Capturing Investigation of the Possible Effects of Public Service Motivation on Decisions to Work for Chinese Governments Bangcheng Liu, Jing Sheng B108 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART1
Smartness Dimensions of Public Governance: the Case Study of Government Priorities as a Tool for Engaging Strategic Leadership Egle Gaule, Jurgita Siugzdiniene

Aim and scope. The rise of wicked issues in the fast changing environment increases expectations for government performance. This establishes new requirements for the public governance system. A key challenge for the government is to find new ways of operation and collaboration in order to achieve sustainable growth effectively and efficiently ensuring public sector integrity and building trust in government. Meeting these challenges requires smart mode of governance; because traditional system has failed or there are serious doubts regarding it’s adequacy for solving today’s problems. A mode of governance is considered ‘smart’ when it is conducive to timely and effective collective problem-solving under conditions of high problem complexity and contextual uncertainty and volatility. Consequently, the interest in desired characteristics of the exercise of public authority and management processes has increased considerably. The concept ‘public governance’ is promising to change the traditional forms of government and to help overcome the drawbacks of New Public Management reforms (Pollit and Bouckaert, 2004; Christensen and Lagreid, 2007; Bouckaert et al, 2010). Politicians and senior public managers, scientists and international organizations (the World Bank, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United Nations (UN), and the European Union (EU)) draw countries’ development policies and define the qualities of public governance necessary to implement them. The aim of this article is to ground theoretically the smartness dimensions of public governance and provide its’ analysis methodology. This article is especially focused on government priorities as a tool for engaging leadership i.e. the one of the public governance smartness dimensions manifestation as an example of the use of part of the methodology proposed. Thus this paper is aiming to review the approach of Lithuanian Government to government-wide performance management reforms, emphasizing the strategic leadership component, as a case study. Seeking to identify the main advantages and further development possibilities of the Government priority mechanism, other important components of the mechanism are also going to be analyzed and discussed in the paper. Specifically, the extent of its incorporation into the other performance management systems, the role in the annual budget negotiations process and the use of evidence-based information at the central level will be also discussed in the paper.

Preliminary results of the research

The smartness of public governance is achieved through stakeholder participation and networking based activity when based on timely and integrated information and adequate to the conditions rational decisions are taken and an appropriate its implementation structures and processes, techniques and tools are chosen, capacities and resources are mobilized and developed seeking for sustainable public value creation. The smartness in public governance is built into the system and flows from a shared ethos or culture, as well as from structures and processes. The smartness in public governance manifest through the new means of government activity, policy-making, and service delivery achieved by: empowered citizenship; collaborative interaction; strategic leadership; horizontal management.

Results of the case study:

  • Contextual information and features of Government priority system in Lithuania. At the time of the 2009 global economic and financial crises, the new Government came into power and faced with significant ongoing fiscal challenges. The main concern was how to boost economic growth and at the same time to restore public trust, to ensure the same quality public service provision with the dramatically shrunken resources. To ensure the public administration is capable of providing the necessary leadership, the Government has emphasized the Government priorities as the focal point for reshaping strategic management system.

The need to resolve complex problems, to design and implement significant structural reforms with limited resources and timeframe available, required to enhance political leadership and strengthen linkages between strategic management system and political agenda. The Government priority system was streamlined at the beginning of 2010 and the “top-down” strategic planning approach in essential public policy areas was introduced. The Government establishes a set of strategic priorities to focus attention on critical policy challenges, guide the revision of ministry strategic plans, and influence the budget process. Strategic planning at the Government level serves as the planning vehicle through which ministries according to Governments priorities establish ministry priorities and link the related policy goals to the annual budget process.

  • Initial insights and possible conclusions.

Government priorities features are consistent with prevailing public management theories. Government priorities by its nature tackle complex problems and requires close inter-ministerial cooperation, as well as strong policy coordination at the Government level. Government priority mechanism creates the platform for discussion of crosscutting problems and introduces a legal basis for inter-ministerial planning and coordination. This Government priorities hallmark is in accord with the “wicked problem” concept (Sorensen, Torfing, 2012), which  gains mounting attention in academic literature and stresses the importance of strong collaboration and new leadership roles (such as transformational leadership). Also the Government priority system could increase the awareness of “joined-up” government agenda. Eventually, the priority setting and implementation processes directly enhance evidence-based policy making. All these aspects are vital elements of New Public Governance movement.

Government priorities are considered as a suitable tool to focus Government attention to most challenging strategic issues.

Effective Government priority system functioning relies on proactive coordination and robust performance information.  Coordinating, monitoring the performance and reporting on established Government priorities requires strong analytical capacities. Quarterly performance reports focuses on results achieved and problems to be solved. The need for rigorous performance assessment challenges the capabilities of the Office of the Government and the ministries to demonstrate robust causal knowledge and provide performance-based insights.

The article is funded by Research Council of Lithuania grant No VP1-5.1-FM-01-V-02-001 from European Social Fund received for the project 'Development of Smart Social Systems' under 'The Human Resources Development Action' programme.

L101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Aston Webb AST1
What "Develops" in Public-Service Leader Development? Using Transformative Action Learning to Reframe Leader Education at the National University of Public Service Robert Kramer, Agnes Jenei

Currently, one of the most important initiatives of the Hungarian government is to create a public administration that is citizen-centered. Called the "Magyary Programme," after the great 20th century scholar, Zoltán Magyary, this initiative is intended to bring public administration closer to the ideal of the "Good State." In Hungary, faculty at the National University of Public Service is responsible for developing the leadership capacity of senior managers and executives at all levels of the Hungarian government to meet the complex requirements of the Magyary Programme. In their new book, entitled "Training for Leadership" (Editions juridiques Bruylant, 2013), Geert Bouckaert and Michel de Vries write that, in today's world of permanent crisis, leading in the public sector "is about handling uncertainty, ambiguity, complexity beyond imagination, and significant disagreement about what is going on, why and what should happen." As demonstrated by the financial crisis, Bouckaert and de Vries conclude that most administrative leaders have been unable to handle the cognitive and emotional demands of complexity. They are "in over their heads," in the words of Harvard professor Robert Kegan. If this is the case, then we must ask, what should "develop" in leader development? What, exactly, should a university program focus on? This paper argues that conventional leadership training programs that focus merely on adding new skills and competencies are not enough. What needs to develop in leader development is a bigger mind: increased capacity for mindfulness and for continual learning and unlearning. Integrating “mindfulness,” “learning how to unlearn” and the “transformative learning” model of Robert Kegan with the action learning process of Reg Revans, we offer a new approach for public service leader development that is called "transformative action learning."




L101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Aston Webb AST1
Leadership And Leadership Development In Post-Conflict Contexts And Cultures John Benington, Loua Khalil

Much public leadership research has taken the cultural context for granted, or has focused on, and generalised from, Western democratic contexts.  This paper examines leadership and leadership development in the very different political economic, social and cultural context of post conflict societies in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and Northern Ireland.

 

The paper begins by analysing and conceptualising some of the distinctive challenges for public leadership in post-conflict societies - including problematizing the notion of “post-conflict” as a stage or step change rather than as a slow and erratic process; the need to move from military to civilian patterns of governance and leadership, to restore law and order and basic infrastructure and services; to move from the politics of opposition to the politics of proposition; and from representation of factional interests towards representation of the whole population.

 

The paper then proceeds to explore the dimensions of leadership development in peacebuilding programmes, initially from the programme providers’ perspective, and how they are shaped by the wider context of peacebuilding in conflicted societies.

Leadership development theories and literature which focus both on the individual leader and on the collective leadership in peacebuilding programmes are reviewed. The paper then draws on the findings from field research and qualitative data collected from semi-structured interviews with developers experienced in designing and running peacebuilding programmes in Northern Ireland, the Middle East and Africa.

 

The findings indicated that leadership development is an essential part of peacebuilding programmes. The focus on the development of individual leaders and their intrapersonal competencies aims to support the programmes participants to differentiate from their faction in the conflict; while the development of leadership groups and their interpersonal competences aims to help them to integrate with others from other factions in peacebuilding endeavours.

The paper concludes that leadership and leadership development for peacebuilding are extremely sensitive to the specific cultural context, and that this dimension needs to be taken much more fully into account in theorising and researching public leadership and leadership development.

References :

Day, D. V., Fleenor, J. W., Atwater, L. E., Sturm, R. E. & McKee, R. A. (2014). Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 63-82.

Lederach, J. P. (1997). Building peace. Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies, 1.

L101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Aston Webb AST1
What’s in it for others? The relationship between pro-social motivation and commitment to change among health care professionals Joris van der Voet, Bram Steijn, Ben Stanley Kuipers

Because of their desire to contribute to society and help others, pro-socially motivated employees are generally expected to support organizational change initiatives (e.g. Wright et al., 2013; Naff & Crum, 1999). However, many contemporary changes in the public sector are about cost-cutting rather than improving service delivery, and organizational changes often clash with the norms and beliefs of employees (Tummers, 2013). We draw on person-environment fit theory to propose that the relationship between pro-social motivation and commitment to change is conditional on employees’ perceived meaningfulness of the change for society (Steijn, 2008).

We argue that a meaningful change will fit the pro-social motivation of public sector employees, and will function as a vehicle for meeting their need for pro-social motivation. Such conditions may thus facilitate pro-social motivation to be a driver of commitment to change. In turn, we propose that an organizational change that is meaningless (i.e. counter-beneficial for society) will cause pro-social motivation to become an inhibitor rather than a driver of commitment to change. Our research question is: To what extent is the relationship between pro-social motivation and commitment to change moderated by public sector employees´ perceived meaningfulness of change?

In order to answer our research question, the decentralization of youth healthcare in The Netherlands is studied. This change aims to organize health care closer to care recipients, but also attempts to cut back on expenses by making care recipients more dependent on their personal network. The perceived meaningfulness of this change for society is thus likely to vary among public sector employees. Our analysis is based on a survey among healthcare employees in the regions of Amsterdam and Rotterdam in The Netherlands.

 

References:

Naff, K. C., & Crum, J. (1999). Working for America does public service motivation make a difference?. Review of Public Personnel Administration,19(4), 5-16.

Steijn, B. (2008). Person-environment fit and public service motivation. International Public Management Journal11(1), 13-27.

Tummers, L. (2013). Policy alienation and the power of professionals: Confronting new policies. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Wright, B.E., Christensen, R.K. & Isett, K.R. (2013). Motivated to adapt? The role of public service motivation as employees face organizational change. Public Administration Review, 73(5), 738-747.

B108 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART1
The Relevance of Person-Environment Fit for the Relationship between Work Motives and Job-Related Attitudes David J Houston

It has long been hypothesized that individuals characterized by high levels of public service motivation are more likely to be satisfied, committed, and effective workers, in contrast to those who rank lower on public service motivation.  Recently, a more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between public service motivation and job-related attitudes has begun to emerge.  Merely wanting to serve the public likely is not enough to ensure that a government worker is satisfied and willing to exert effort on the job.  Instead, an organization must provide employees with opportunities to fulfill their public service needs or the result may be a frustrated and disillusioned worker.  Thus, the relationship between public service motivation and job-related attitudes is likely to be mediated by the extent to which an organization satisfies these motivational needs of individuals.  For this reason, the research questions addressed by this paper are:  Does person-environment fit mediate the relationship between public service motivation and work-related attitudes?  Are workers characterized by public service motivation more likely than others to be satisfied with their job, more committed to their organization, and less likely to leave if their need to serve the public is unmet?

 

The data used in the analysis come from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2005 "Work Orientations III" module that contains data from surveys administered across more than 30 countries.  Job satisfaction, willingness to expend effort for their organization, and turnover intention are work-related attitudes that will serve as the dependent variables in the estimated models.  In terms of independent factors, variables will be created from items that ask respondents about the importance that the assign to work that allows them to help others, to be useful to society, job security, high income, and interesting work, in addition to how well their job satisfies these motives.  Interactive terms also will be created from these survey responses to examine the mediating effect that satisfying work motives has on the relationship between public service motivation and job-related attitudes.

 

Along with other individual-level variables, several nation-level variables will be included in the estimated models to control from the influence of national context on work-related attitudes.  Multilevel logistic regression analysis will be employed to statistically analyze the data.

B108 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART1
Accountability and sustainability for the governance of the “in house service providing” Pierluigi Catalfo, Marco Romano, Elita Schillaci

The long process highlighting the complexity and the richness of the relation between private and public entities has stimulated the transformation of governance relation and the offered product perception logics in those who are involved in public sector management. The component of the private-public entities and thereof the “product/service” composition referred to specific item or level of quality offered, has evolved towards new logics combination in the governance architecture itself and towards a better compliance with the new behavioural characteristics and perceptions of the society. In this sense, one has to take into account the continuously mutating perception systems. As a consequence, the private-public relations have progressively and slightly changed their governance dimension conceiving a new conscious resources management aiming at a perdurable fruition of resources and capabilities. The new governance conception gives those entities the opportunity of articulating their “formulas” employing so many different tangible and intangible assets to increase exponentially the exploitations of their effectiveness.

In general, public–private organizations present different natures and structures of ownership (i.e. other than the conventional firm owned by investors). The literature on ownership and on the type of ownership itself, focuses on investor-owned, worker-owned, consumer-owned, producer-owned, no-profit, and governmental entities. Owners are those individuals who share two formal rights: the right to control the firm and the right to acquire the firm profits. The essence of what we term ‘‘control’’ is precisely the authority to determine those aspects of firm policy that, because of high transaction costs or imperfect foresight, cannot be specified ex-ante in a contract but rather must be left to the discretion of those to whom the authority is granted. Consequently, the two needs of control and accountability proceed aside and overlap regarding the management problem as propulsive element, even with respect to investments feeding and to stakeholders.

One of the main characteristics of such a concern is therefore, the specific composition of the information system and the functional relation between social acceptance and accountability. That means that the accounting system in itself is a kind of functional link that marks time, resources, processes and results activity in order to give effectiveness to a governance model.

This paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of how corporate governance affects organizational processes and outcomes in not-for-profit organizations in the case of “in house service providing”. Furthermore, it looks at the relation between social acceptance and accountability as a tool to structure complex governance to rule the decision process. The contribution claims that cooperation is not only a good proposition held by the variety of actors relevant to corporate governance of non-for-profit organizations, but it also determines the wealth maximization of stakeholders’ organization. Theoretical results, according to the common agency framework, are driven by the paradigmatic case study of “SoStare” public utility.
D102 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW3
Collective Action, Democratic Governance and Social Accountability in the construction of Sustainable Cities: a multiple case study in three Brazilian cities. Jeferson Dahmer

In the last two decades, Latin America witnessed the emergence of civil society initiatives aimed at qualifying citizen participation, the production and systematization of information, the development of citizen perception surveys and in monitoring public administration. Leading this phenomenon are networks Red de Ciudades Cómo Vamos, Red Latino-americana por Ciudades y Territorios Justos, Democráticos y Sustentables and its related Brazilian network. A common feature of these networks is their political goal of building fairer, democratic and sustainable cities.

This work is the result of a master thesis that aimed to understand the extent of the experiences of three Brazilian cities - Florianópolis, Ilhabela and Ilheus, comprising the Brazilian and Latin American network, understood as collective action and expressing and influencing democratic governance and social accountability, generating incidence in political institutions and in other areas. The research is a qualitative and interpretive study. Data was collected in loco, in the participation of meetings and workshops that occurred through experiences, as well as conducting 25 interviews with leaders and participating groups, including local government.

The analysis model was constructed from the analytical category of contencious politics, of Tarrow (2009), and the theory of collective action of political mobilization, linking them to references about democratic governance and prospects for associated accountability such as social, hybrid, diagonal and relational accountability.

The results show the mutual influence between democratic governance and accountability, generated by these initiatives. While they represent new actors in governance, they show strategies for strengthening existing governance channels, demonstrating new possibilities and forms of accountability, such as social, in the construction of what they perceive as sustainable cities. Incidence is observed in areas such as: local agenda, city governance, political institutions, political and electoral debate, public policy, partner organizations and people.

 

Short Biography


I have a Degree in Public Administration and Master in Public Administration from UDESC/ESAG. In the professional field, I worked in the advisory of the Internal Control Secretariat and Ombudsman of the City of Florianopolis. I was Executive Coordinator of the Social Observatory of Florianópolis, a civil society organization dedicated to the social control of public spending. The field research resulting in this paper was carried out between 2013 and 2014 and part of the project “Governança Democrática em Cidades Latino-americanas: Estudo Comparado de experiências de accountability social e incidência em cidades argentinas, brasileiras, colombianas e uruguais”, which involves different research groups from universities in these countries. Professor Charles Conth of Brock University, Canada, is recommended as paper discussant.

 

REFERENCES

 

BEVIR, M. (2011). Governança Democrática: uma genealogia. Revista de Sociologia Política. Curitiba: v. 19, n. 39, p 103-114.

 

CÁCERES, P. (2014). Planes de Metas como innovaciones en los processos de rendición de cuentas en el nível local. Experiencias en el marco de la Red Latino Americana por Ciudades Justas, Democráticas y Sustentables. Cordoba: 2014.

 

CÁCERES, P. (2010). La construction de la ciudad como bien publico. In: Congresso el Bicentenario desde una Mirada Interdisciplinaria: legados, conflitos y desafios. Universidade Nacional de Córdoba.

 

CARLOS E. (2011). Contribuições da Análise de Redes Sociais às Teorias dos Movimentos Sociais. Revista de Sociologia Política. Curitiba. v. 19, n. 39. p. 153-166.

 

CASTELLS, M. (2006). A questão urbana. Tradução: Arlene Caetano. 3a ed. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 2006.

 

CEFAÏ, D. (2007). Introduction générale. In: Porquoi se mobilise-t-on? Les théories de l’action collective. Paris: Éditions La Découverte, 2007, pp. 7-32.

 

COHEN, Jean L. (2003). Sociedade Civil e Globalização: Repensando Categorias. Revista de Ciências Sociais. Rio de Janeiro: v. 43, n. 3.

 

COHEN, J. L.; ARATO, A. (1992). Civil Society and Political Theory. Cambridge: MIT Press,

 

DAGNINO, E. (2002) Sociedade Civil e Espaços Públicos no Brasil. São Paulo: Paz e Terra.

 

DENHARDT, J. V.; & DENHARDT, R. B. (2007). The New Public Service: serving, not steering. Expanded edition. Nova York: M. E. Sharp, Inc., 2007.

 

DENHARDT, B. (2012) Teorias da Administração Pública. Tradução: Francisco Gabriel Heidemann. São Paulo: Cenage Learning.

 

FIABANE, D.; ALVES, M. A.; BRELÀZ, G. de. (2014). Social accountability as an innovative frame in civic action: the case of Rede Nossa São Paulo. Voluntas.

 

GÓMEZ, J. M.; DELGADO, A. C. (2011). Accountability Social e o problema da corrupção na Indía, Brasil e África do Sul. Núcleo de Análises de Economia e Política dos Países BRICS. Centro de Estudos e Pesquisa BRICS,

 

GOETZ, A. M., & JENKINS, R. (2001) Hybrid forms of accountability: citizen engagement in institutions of public-sector oversight in India. Public Management Review, v.3, n.3, p. 363-83.

 

GOETZ, A. M. (2003). Reinventing Accountability: a new twist on a key concept in democratic theory. Community of Practice on Social Accountability Launch.

 

GOHN, M. da G. (2011) Sociologia dos Movimentos Sociais: um balanço das teorias clássicas e contemporâneas. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribean Studies. V. 36, n. 72, p. 199-227.

 

GOHN, M. da G. (2010) Teoria dos Movimentos Sociais: Paradigmas Clássicos e Contemporâneos. 8a ed. São Paulo: Loyola.

 

HERNANDEZ QUINÕNES, A. DEVILCHEZ, D. (2014). Iniciativas de transparência y accountability en America Latina: naturaliza, tipologia e incidência en la democracia y el desarrollo. Abril: 2014.

 

HERNANDEZ QUINÕNES, A. (2011). Análisis y Estudio de Experiencias de Accountability Social en América Latina. CIDER – Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Sobre el Desarrollo. (Informe final de investigación – Convenio de cooperación entre Fundación Corona y Universidad de Los Andes, apoyo Fundación Corona y Fundación Avina – Red Latinoamericana por Ciudades Justas y Sustentables). Bogotá, CIDER.

 

ISUNZA, E.; LAVALLE, G. A. (2010) Precisiones conceptuales para el debate contemporáneo sobre la innovación democrática. Participación, controles sociales y representación. In: ISUNZA, Ernesto; LAVALLE, Gurza Adrian. (coordinadores). La innovación democrática en América Latina. Tramas y nudos de la representación, la participación y el control social. México, Universidad Veracruciana, CIES.

 

JIMÉNEZ, M. C. (2012). La Importancia Del Accountability Social Para La Consolidación De La Democracia En América Latina. Revista de Relaciones Internacionales, Estrategia y Seguridad, v. 7, n. 2, julio-diciembre, pp. 97- 130. Universidad Militar Nueva Granada Bogotá, Colombia.

 

McADAM, D.; TARROW, S.; TILLY, C. (2009). Para mapear o confronto político. Revista Lua Nova. São Paulo, v. 76, p. 11-48.

 

MONCRIEFFE, John. (2011) Relational Accountability: Complexities of Structural Injustice. Zed Books. London.

 

O’DONNELL, G. (1998). Accountability horizontal e novas poliarquias. Revista Lua Nova. São Paulo: n. 44: 27-54.

 

PERUZZOTTI, E. (2012) La política del accountability social en América Latina. Documento de trabajo.

 

PERUZZOTTI, E; SMULOVITZ, C. (2002) Accountability Social: la outra cara del control. Controlando la Política: Ciudadanos y Medios en las Democracias Latinoamericanas. Buenos Aires: Grupo Editorial Temas.

 

TARROW, S. (2009). O poder em movimento: movimentos sociais e confronto político. Tradução: Ana Maria Sallum. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes.

 

WORLD BANK (2014). Social Accountability: what does it means for the worl Bank. In: Social Accountability Sourcebook.

 

WORLD BANK (2013). Theory for Change. In: Rethinking Social Accountability in Africa: Lessons from the Lwanachi Programme. Lwanachi Programme.

 

UNITED NATIONS (2010). Fostering Social Accountability: From principle to practice. Guindance Note. Democratic Governance.

A101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Arts Building ART2
The end of the public paradigm? Towards a hybrid reality. Lode De Waele, Liselore Berghman, Paul Matthyssens

Managing the public sector is a continuously evolving process. Starting from the traditional view, which strongly values centralization, management by rules and a hierarchical structure (Gregory, 2007; Wilson, 1887), methods from the private sector eventually entered public management. These recipes, such as marketization, corporization, devolution and accountability envision an increase in public performance (Dunleavy, 1994; Hood, 1995). However, these characteristics, together referred to as the New Public Management, provoked skepticism among many scholars (Maor, 1999; Van de Walle, 2011).  Later on, partially as a counter reaction, managers within the public sector started to rely on new methods. This approach, which we will further refer to as public value governance, consists of features such as cross sectoral collaboration and networked governance (Denhardt, 2000; Stoker, 2006).

Former research mainly concentrated on the separate study, tensions and implications of these management views. Moreover, the little research that has been done to compare these views only partially succeeded to propose a clear model that discusses the main fault lines between these theories (Denhardt, 2000; Kelly, 2002; Stoker, 2006). Additionally, literature often refers to these views as being paradigms, although collected works thus far did not succeed to put forward a consensus (Gow, 2000; Haywood, 1993; Rainey, 1994). Furthermore, in practice, numerous public administrations combined characteristics of the traditional view with NPM and features of public value governance simultaneously (Christensen, 2006; Zafra-Gomez, Bolivar, & Munoz, 2013). Consequently, as an alternative, we propose a more holistic view, which translates into the concept of a hybrid public organization (Kickert, 2001; Pache, 2011). Hereby, we argue that public organizations through mechanisms such as selective coupling (Pache & Santos, 2013) combine characteristics of competing institutional logics simultaneously.

First, we conducted a thorough literature study and argue if these management views can be understood as paradigms. Second, we conclude by arguing that these theories essentially differ on the base of three dimensions, which we call beliefs, design and performance. Third, by linking these dimensions with the results of our literature review, we were able to develop a clear understanding of the concept of a hybrid public organization, the level of hybridity within a public organization and we were able to distinct hybrid constellations which can be used in a further stage of exploratory research. Fourth, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms that explain why public organizations behave as being hybrid.

Key words: Traditional view – NPM – Public value governance – Hybrid public organization

 

References

 

Christensen, T. 2006. Introduction - Theoretical Approach and Research Questions. In T. Christensen (Ed.), Transcending New Public Management: The Transformation of Public Sector Reforms: 1-16. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Denhardt, J. V. D., Robert B. 2000. The New Public Service: Serving rather than steering. Public Administration Review, 60(6): 549-559.

Dunleavy, P. 1994. From old public administration to New Public Management. Public Money and Management, 14(3): 9-16.

Gow, I. J. D., caroline. 2000. Is the New Public Management a paradigm? Does it matter? International Review of Administrative sciences, 66: 573-587.

Gregory, R. 2007. New public management and the ghost of Maw Weber: Exorcised or still haunting? In P. L. T. Christensen (Ed.), Transcending new public management: The transformation of public sector reforms: 221-243. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Haywood, S. R., Jeff. 1993. A new paradigm for public management?, Second international conference of Administrative Sciences. Toluca: Office for public management.

Hood, C. 1995. The 'New Public Management' in the 1980's: variations on a theme. Accounting, organizations and society, 20(2): 93-109.

Kelly, G. M., G.; Muers, S. 2002. Creating public value: An analytical framework for public service reform. In C. o. s. unit (Ed.). United Kingdom.

Kickert, J. M. W. 2001. Public management of hybrid organizations: governance of quasi-autonomous executive agencies. International Public Management Journal, 4: 135-150.

Maor, M. 1999. The paradox of managerialism. Public Administration Review, 59(1): 5-18.

Pache, A. C., & Santos, F. 2013. Inside the Hybrid Organization: Selective Coupling as a Response to Competing Institutional Logics. Academy of Management Journal, 56(4): 972-1001.

Pache, A. C., Santos, F. 2011. Inside the hybrid organization: An organizational level view of responses to conflicting institutional demands: ESSEC Research Center.

Rainey, H. G. 1994. On paradigms, progress and prospects for public management. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 4(1): 41-48.

Stoker, G. 2006. Public value management: A new narrative for networked governance? American Review of Public Administration, 36(1): 41-57.

Van de Walle, S. H., G. 2011. The Impact of the New Public Management: Challenges for Coordination and Cohesion in European Public Sectors. Halduskultuur - Administrative Culture, 12(2): 190-209.

Wilson, W. 1887. The study of administration. Political Science Quarterly, 2: 1887.

Zafra-Gomez, J. L., Bolivar, M. P. R., & Munoz, L. A. 2013. Contrasting New Public Management (NPM) Versus Post-NPM Through Financial Performance: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Spanish Local Governments. Administration & Society, 45(6): 710-747.

 

D102 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW3
Governance, organizational arrangements and performance of inter-municipal cooperation: lessons from a case study Andrea Garlatti, Maurizio Massaro, Paolo Fedele, Diego Pajero

Abstract

Enhanced coordination and cooperation between public authorities at the local level is an evergreen in public management studies.

Many authors have stressed the benefits of stronger inter-municipal coordination: attracting investors through enhanced services (Downs, 1994; Felbinger, 1984; Nunn & Rosentraub, 1997; Orfield, 1997); increasing professionalism and rationality of local bureaucrats (Barlow, 1991; Lind, 1997); reducing costs of services through economies of scale and reducing concomitantly taxes (Bunch & Strauss, 1992; Dolan, 1990); increasing planning capacity and reducing zero-sum competition for economic development (Fleischmann & Green, 1991).

Nonetheless, although many contributors agree on the fact that inter-municipal cooperation can be beneficial, more empirical analysis of its outcomes and their determinants is still needed.

The present paper, elaborating on the literature on the topic, develops a framework to describe and analyse: a) the main features of the different forms of inter-agency cooperation; b) the governance arrangements of inter-agency cooperation; c) the performance of inter-agency cooperation. The framework is then used to analyse one specific experience of intermunicipal cooperation, i.e, the local government system of the Italian region Friuli Venezia Giulia. The case is significant and rich of information since in Friuli Venezia Giulia approximately 150 municipalities experienced some form of cooperation during the time frame 2003-2013 (Garlatti, 2013).

Results of the analysis show that, in order to successfully implement inter-municipal cooperation, designing governance arrangements is not enough. In fact, the latters need to be complemented and supported by the internal administrative and organizational capacity of the individual authorities. Otherwise, inter-municipal cooperation might also backfire and leads to worsened performance.

Finally, the paper, beside producing locally valid explanations, attempts to extend findings’ validity beyond the research site to the overall phenomenon of inter-agency cooperation.

 

References

Bunch, B. S., & Strauss, R. P. (1992). Municipal consolidation: An analysis of the financial benefits for fiscally distressed small municipalities. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 27, 615–629.

Barlow, I. M. (1991). Metropolitan governance. London: Routlegde.

Dolan, D. A. (1990). Local government fragmentation: Does it drive up the cost of government. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 26, 28–45.

Downs, A. (1994). New visions for metropolitan America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution

Fleischmann, A., & Green, G. (1991). Organizing local agencies to promote economic development. American Review of Public Administration, 21, 55–67.

Felbinger, C. L. (1984). Economic development or economic disaster. In R. D. Bingham & J. P. Blair (Eds.).Urban economic development (pp. 223–244). Beverly Hills: Sage.

Garlatti, A., Lombrano, A. Zanin, L. (2013) Relazioni interaziendali nel governo locale, Forum Editrice, Udine

Lind, M. (1997). A horde of Lilliputian governments. New Leader, 80, 6–7

Nunn, S., & Rosentraub, M. S. (1997). Dimensions of jurisdictional cooperation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 63, 205–219.

Orfield, M. (1997). Metropolitics: A regional agenda for community and stability. Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press and Cambridge: Lincoln Institute for Land Policy

 

D102 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW3
Analysing and Comparing Governance Presumptions of Alternative Organizational Forms in Public Services Pekka Valkama, Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko, Darinka Asenova, Stephen J. Bailey

Economic growth of national and regional economies does not occur simply by scaling-up existing organisational activities and structures, since it needs also productivity improvements through innovation-based endogenous and creative evolution processes resulting in fundamental changes in the ways organisations are structured and formed. The dynamic advancement of public service systems depends on how public service organisations are able to adapt technological developments and adjust to the changing needs of citizens and communities.

A public service organisation is typically a state government agency or municipal office which operates on the basis of the traditional Weberian-style bureaucracy with hierarchical structures, formalized service procedures and role-oriented civil servants. New organizational forms have been introduced through the change of an organizational form (i.e. the change of legal status) or through contracting out of public services (i.e. via quasi—market transactions) resulting that para-public, para-private and fully private organizations step into the system of public services. In this study we demonstrate how the public service bureaus are transformed into new organizational forms through agentification, corporatization, outsourcing, mutualisation, etc. measures.

 

The aim of the study is to analyse governance implications of organizational innovations in public services by comparing alternative organizational forms and evaluating how they changes external accountability settings. An organizational form refers to the features of an organisation making it a distinct entity and at the same time identifying it as typical of a group of similar types of organisations. A classic organizational form of public service is a public bureau, which will be compared with such organizational variants as a joint public authority, a publicly-owned limited company, public law foundations and public service co-operatives.

Governance refers to different structural arrangements and administrative instruments which are used for policy coordination and supervision of the public service organizations. The study will analyse how new organizational organisations forms frame governance possibilities and bring forward new needs for regulatory reforms. The special focus of the study is on external governance of financial accountability and risks of the new organizational forms. These analyses will be done in the theoretical framework of the principal-agency theory by focusing to considerations how blurring organisational boundaries and expanding cross-sectoral contractual relationships renew the accountability settings of service organizations. In the study, external governance refers to steering activities by public authorities such as regulatory bodies, funding bodies and legislature.

 

The study includes both the theoretical and empirical parts. The theoretical analyses are based on conceptual abstractions and considerations by utilizing legal materials regulating different types of organizations especially in the context of municipal services. The empirical part of the study is a case study of Finland and Scotland, how the organisational innovations have emerged, and evolved in municipal services and possibly perturbed public governance efforts in the system of local public services.

D102 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW3
The burdensome implementation of PPP contracts in the healthcare sector: lessons from Italy Veronica Vecchi, Mark Hellowell

In an era of tight fiscal constraints, many public hospital/healthcare organisations across the world are engaging with private finance to meet their investment needs.

However, due to assessment and negotiation failure during the tender process, market concentration, PPP contracts’ features and standards (among them incompleteness and rigidity) PPP transactions may create a substantial revenue burden over the multi-decade life of the contract and in some cases a clinical risk, which may cause further expenses for the authorities to neutralized it.

In Italy, in the last 12 years 5 billion euro of new investments has been developed through PPP contracts, many of them concentrated in few geographical areas. Some of them are now in their implementation phase and some lessons learnt can be addressed.

Based on an unique analysis[1] of three of the main investments, the paper will assess and discuss the difficulties encountered in the management of PPP contracts, especially in the operation phase, rarely analysed by scholars due to the lack of accessible information, with the aim of drawing some lessons learnt that could be relevant for policy makers to reshape the PPP policy and healthcare managers to better design, negotiate and monitor contracts.

These three cases are emblematic for the following reasons:

1) one case is the first one to be under a deep renegotiation and it involves the European Investment Bank as main financer of the contract’s senior debt, which is sustaining the authority in the renegotiation process as it has been unveiled that the contract’s underlying interest rate is about 18% and the cost of non clinical services is double the market benchmark;

2) another case concerns a unique contract through which four hospitals, belonging to four different healthcare authorities, have been realized; due to coordination matters during the construction phase, now the SPV is forcing the Regional authority to deliver a further grant to finalize the last hospital still under construction;

3) the last case is about a new hospital substituting two old ones localized in two different communities; now the contract is under management and due to limitations and transaction difficulties it could cause severe clinical risk. Furthermore, the overall authority management team is now changed and a full accountability is the goal of the new general director.

 

The paper will be structured as follows. After a brief introduction and literary review regarding PPP contracts for healthcare investments with a focus on the implementation phase (section 1 and 2), the paper will present the main features of privately financed healthcare investments in Italy – based on a review of the entire number of contracts (section 3). Section 4 presents the methodology of analysis and section 5 the three cases analysed. Section 6 draws some conclusions based on the cases analysed and informed by the relevant literature.

 


[1] One of the author serves as advisor to the healthcare authorities and therefore has access to the whole information of the contracts.

H101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF2
PPP equity sales – extending financialization Stewart Smyth, Dexter Whitfield

There is an extensive, although not exhaustive, literature that analyses accounting issues related to the use of private finance in delivering public infrastructure assets. Variously known in the UK as PFI, PPP and PF2, these projects have been assessed and critiqued for a lack of transparency; poor value for money for the taxpayer; inappropriate and/or limited risk transfer; a reduction in public accountability, and excessive gain-making on debt refinancing.

To this point very little attention has been focused on the developing secondary market in equity transactions in PPP projects. In the past decade, there has been an increased amount of activity in this market with infrastructure investment funds now playing a leading role. Further there is evidence of excessive profit-making on these transactions.

The development of this secondary market raises questions about the nature of PPPs and how our existing theorizations of public sector reforms have captured these processes.

This paper builds on the earlier work of the European Services Strategy Unit (ESSU) and uses data from a freely available database, collated by the ESSU, on PPP equity transactions between 1998 and 2012. However, the focus of the paper is on what the market in PPP equity transactions can tell us about our theoretical understanding of the neoliberal age, specifically financialization.

The relevance of this paper is twofold. First, it reports on real transactions and activities of PPP private sector partners for projects that are approaching their middle-age. In the process, it moves beyond the traditionally narrow focus on expected rates of return and refinancing gains, to address actual reported accounting profits. Second, the paper also makes a theoretical contribution by adopting a financialization perspective, which deepens our understanding of the nature of PPP equity transactions and also the nature and reach of financialization.
H101 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Nuffield Building NUF2
Leadership and Organisational Performances in Decentralised Local Governments—A Case Analysis from the Philippines Risako Ishii

Decentralisation is a widespread reform that has taken place across various developing countries, supported both by NPM advocates and those advocating democratic local governance. To date, however, the reported results of the reform have been largely pessimistic. In particular, local elites, or ‘bosses’, have a bad reputation for exercising their devolved authorities for their personal benefit rather than for enhancing the public good of local government constituencies.

Nevertheless, it is also recognised that decentralisation reform does make a difference in local governments where local chief executives, such as mayors, radiate strong leadership even in developing countries, as is argued in some recent studies (e.g. Capuno, 2009; Luebke, 2011). It has, however, not been clarified how leadership emerges and functions in the organisational settings of local governments, partly because of the limited number of empirical case observations. Given this situation, this paper aims to address the organisational performance of decentralised local governments in relation to leadership and other organisational factors associated with leadership while referring to organisational management theories. In addition to the top leadership of local chief executives, the distributed leadership of other staff, such as department heads, is also considered.

The analysis will be based on empirical case observations from six local government offices in the Philippines. The findings of the paper will lead to the proposal of new perspectives of organisational management that can be introduced into an analytical framework of reforms in the context of development.

CAPUNO, J. J. 2011. Incumbents and Innovations under Decentralization: An Empirical Exploration of Selected Local Governments in the Philippines. Asian Journal of Political Science, 19, 48-73.
VON LÜBKE, C. 2011. Controlled Multimethod Policy Analyses (COMPAS): A Comparative Study of Democratic Governance in Contemporary Indonesia. Occasional Paper Series. Southeast Asian Studies at the University of Freiburg.


I103 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW2
Community management: the limits of institutional design and collective action Eleanor Chowns

Community management: the limits of institutional design and collective action

 

Is community management an effective way to ensure sustainable provision of public services in low-income countries?  I test this hypothesis with a mixed methods study of 338 water points in four districts of Malawi.

 

Community management is the dominant management model in rural water supply.  With roots in both NPM and participatory theory, community management rests on two sets of claims: instrumental (efficiency & effectiveness), and intrinsic (equity & empowerment).

 

Responsibility for ongoing service provision rests with voluntary community managers – village water point committee (WPC) members – and the role of the state is to coordinate capital investment, recruit and train community managers, and provide backstopping support.

 

In theory, community managers are best placed to ensure sustainable rural water supply through conducting regular preventive maintenance, making rapid and high-quality repairs in case of breakdown, and collecting and saving funds to pay for repairs as needed.  In practice, however, this study found that preventive maintenance is almost never done, repairs are often slow and sub-standard, and committees are unable to collect and save funds.

 

Also in theory, community management is both equitable and empowering, based on a democratic, egalitarian institutional form (the WPC) that challenges inequality, builds social capital, and empowers individuals.  But in practice, we find that existing unequal village power relations are reinforced, community management breeds conflict instead of building social capital, and individuals feel disempowered.

 

Put simply, community management fails in two key respects: it does not ensure availability of technical skills, and it generates conflict over money.  I show that this ‘civil society failure’ (Mansuri and Rao 2013) is in fact a product of state and donor failure, in which the process of institutional bricolage (Cleaver 2012) results in a hybrid arrangement with unintended consequences, including the consolidation of clientelism and the erosion of the social contract.

 

The paper thus questions whether key actors have sufficient commitment or capacity to understand and engage with local institutions.  It also addresses current debates regarding the optimal balance between collective action and principal-agent approaches to development problems (Booth 2012), and suggests that renewed attention to the latter may be warranted.

 

References

Booth, D. (2012). Development as a collective action problem: addressing the real challenges of African governance, Africa Power and Politics Programme. Synthesis Report of the Africa Power and Politics Programme: 132.

Cleaver, F. (2012). Development Through Bricolage: Rethinking Institutions for Natural Resource Management. London, Routledge.

Mansuri, G. and V. Rao (2013). Localizing Development: Does Participation Work? World Bank Policy Research Report. Washington, D.C., The World Bank.

 

I103 March 31, 2015 13:45 15:15 Law Building LAW2
'Practical hybridity': a new approach to more effective provision of public services? Richard Charles Crook

 

Recent research by the Africa Power and Politics research programme has shown that the most effective forms of local public service provision in contemporary Africa are based on the use of institutional arrangements which we have called ‘practical hybrids’. The most successful cases were associated with governance systems which had managed to minimize three key problems:

 

  • policy incoherence (e.g. conflicting policies and organizational structures, populism);

 

  • lack of upwards accountability and top-down performance discipline;

 

  • lack of engagement with local institutions and values which were ‘problem-solving’ in the specific local context—originally described as failing to ‘work with the grain’ of African social and political realities.

 

These cases were conceptualized as ‘practical hybrids’ because they provided solutions to the last two problems. That is, they featured state agencies which could provide some form of performance discipline or professional standards, while at the same time working with local institutions and values based on existing ‘cultural repertoires’.  It should be noted that it was not necessary to find a ‘Weberian’ bureaucracy; performance discipline could come from either the organizational or professional culture of a specific agency, or from an otherwise ‘patrimonial’ political regime. In some instances, they worked with local (non-state) forms of collective action which, because they were constructed on the basis of trusted and well-understood notions of social obligation or solidarity, had overcome the lack of trust and ‘free rider’ problems which constantly bedevil public services in contemporary Africa; importantly, they were not necessarily so-called ‘traditional’ institutions. In other cases, the state agencies themselves showed an ability to work informally and with sensitivity to local values without such co-production partnerships, as in the cases of local justice provision in Ghana and forestry in Senegal/ Niger.

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